Skip to main content

Full text of "The BrickBuilder (1913)"

See other formats

•- V 




\ . y^% 

. 1 




>^v '-■-'■ 
















State Library 

Call Xo. J^ 't ^JS, g "ftg- 

'^nfi^m ^-j^J^mm. 




Index — Volume Twenty- two 





Index to Plate Illustrations. 


Plates numbered 1-16 in the January issue ; February 17-32 ; March 33-48 ; April 49-64 ; May 65-80 ; June 81-96 ; 
July 97-112; August 113-128 ; September 129-144 ; October 145-160 ; November 161-176 ; December 177-192. 



Plate No. 

Title and Location. 

Ipswich, Mass., Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul 181-183 

West Hudson Trust Co., Harrison, N. J., Crow, Lewis & 

Wickenhoefer 49-51 


St. Joseph News Press, St. Joseph, Mo., Eckel & Aldrich.169, 170 

Albany, N. Y., Marcus T. Reynolds 122, 123 

GARAGE (Public) 

Brooklyn, N. Y., William A. Boring 93 


Maryland School for the Blind, Baltimore, Md., 

Jos. Evans Sperry 184-186 

Perkins Institute, Watertown, Mass., R. Clipston Sturgis. 97-105 

Ruptured and Crippled, New York City, York & Sawyer. 21-23 

Building, St. Louis, Mo., Mauran, Russell & Crowell 171 


Plate No. 

Title and Location. 


Dental Building, Bridgeport, Conn., Skinner & Walker--143, 144 

Garden City, L. I., Ford, Butler & Oliver 149-151 

Philadelphia, Pa., Mellor & Meigs 79 


Piano Show Room, Boston, Mass., Richardson, Barott & 
Richardson 10, 11 


Amusement Building, Providence, R. I., John Hutchins 

Cady 62, 63 

Liberty Theatre, Pittsburgh, Pa., Edward B. Lee 106-108 

Theater and Office Building, Columbus, Ohio, Richards, 
McCarty & Bulford 47 


Braintree, Mass., Ingraham & Hopkins 147, 148 

Nahant, Mass., Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul 15, 16 


Railway Station, Rochester, N. Y., Claude Bragdon 177-180 


Title and Location. 



Plate No. 

Plate No. 

Church of the Ascension, New York City, Ludlow & 
Peabody 65-68 

Euclid Avenue Temple, Cleveland, Ohio, Lehman & 
Schmitt 129-132 

First of Christ, Scientist, Washington, D. C, Marsh & 
Peter 26, 27 


Title and Location. Architect. 

CHURCHES — Co7itimied 

St. Barbara's, Brooklyn, N. Y., Helmle & Huberty 
St. Patrick's, Philadelphia, Pa., LaFarge & Morris 

Y. M. C. A. AND Y. W. C. A. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Hubbell & Benes 116, 117 

Lawrence, Mass., Brainerd & Leeds and O. A. Thayer- ,35, 36 
St. Louis, Mo. (Y. W. C. A.), Mariner & LaBeaume 145, 146 



Plate No. 

Title and Location. 


Auditorium, University of Illinois, Champaign, 111., 

C. H. Blackalj 133, 134 

Auditorium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 

Albert Kahn and Ernest Wilby 113-115 

Auditorium, Vassar, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., McKim, Mead 

& White 161-164 


Day Missions, New Haven, Conn., Delano & Aldrich 167, 168 

Plate No. 

Title and Location. Architect. 

LIBRARIES — Contimced 

Easthampton, L. I., Aymar Embury, II .28, 29 

Haddington Branch, Philadelphia, i'a., Albert Kelsey 165, 166 

Plainfield, N. J., Wilder & White 85,86 


Cleveland, The, Newark, N. J., E. F. Guilbert.--- -52-54 

Oilman Country, Baltimore, Md., Parker, Thomas & Rice. 1-4 

Ridge, The, Newark, N. J., E. F. Guilbert 135-137 

Ridgefield, N. J., Wm. W. Rasmu.ssen & Ernest Sibley.. 89-90 



Plate Nn 

Title and Location. 


Canterbury Hall, Baltimore, Md., E. H. Glidden 188 

Chandler, Chicago, 111., Schmidt, Garden & Martin 187 

Latrobe, The, Baltimore, Md., E. H. Glidden &C. N. Friz-152, 153 

Title and Location. A: 

APARTMENTS — Continued 

Chicago, 111., Schmidt, Garden & Martin 
Chicago, 111., Pond & Pond 

Plate No. 



Index to Volume XXII., Jan.— Dec, 1913. 

The Brickbuilder. 

Title and Location. Architect. Plate No. 

Atlanta, Ga., Edward Kmmett Dougherty.. -VI, V^ 

Buffalo, N. v., Charles A. Piatt .. 58,59 

Cleveland, Ohio, Abram Garfield 61 

Cleveland, Ohio, Frank B. Meade and James Hamilton ..80 

Kansas City, Mo., Wilder &- Wight --96 

New Haven, Conn., Murphy &• Uana ..109, 110 

Xew York City, Donn Barber . ...14 

New York Citv, John Russell Pope .81-84 

Washington, L). C, Wood, Donn & Darning 32 

University, The, Washington, D. C, George Oakley 
Totten'. 77, 78 


Baltimore, Md., Lawrence Hall Fowler __. 125-128 

Bernardsville, X. J., Delano & Aldrieh 41-43 

Chestnut Hill, Mass., Page & Frothingham 48 

Chestnut Hill, Mass., F. Manton Wakefield 111 

Cleveland, Ohio, Fountain & Moratz 138 

Cold Spring Harbor, L. I., Grosvenor Alterbury . ..69-71 

Columbus, Ohio, Richards, McCarty & Bulford.. -. 139 

Evanston, 111., Sheplev, Rutan & Coolidge 1.59, 160 

Great Neck, L. 1., Wm. Adams 191, 192 

Hartford, Conn., LaFarge & Morris 140-142 

Kenilworth, 111., Nimmons & Fellows 174, 175 

Lake Forest, 111., Howard Shaw 154-156 

Title and Location. Architect. Plate No. 


Lake Forest, 111., Howard Shaw 189, 190 

Lincoln, Mass., Frank Chouteau Brown 76 

Long Island, N. Y., LaFarge & Morris ._ 17-19 

Matinecoek, L. I., Carrere & Ha.stings 5-9 

Milton, Mass., James S. Lee ...24, 25 

Milton, Mass., Bigelow & W'adsvvorth . - 55-57 

New Haven, Conn., Murphy & Dana 30, 31 

Orange, N. J., Mann & MacNeille 13 

Orange, N. J., Mann & MacNeille -- 64 

Roland Park, Md., Edward L. Palmer, Jr -.94, 95 

Rowley, Mass., Frank Chouteau Brown ..45, 46 

St. Louis, Mo., Howard Shaw 157 

St. Martins, Pa., Duhring, Okie & Ziegler 12 

St. Marlins, Pa., Edmund B. Gilchrist ..112 

Sliaker Heights, Cleveland, Ohio, Walker & Weeks 158 

Short Hills, N. J., Alfred Busselle 87, 88 

Southampton, L. I., N. Y., Grosvenor Atterbury 172, 173 

Wilmington, Del., Charles Barton Keen 176 

Stable, Long Island, N. Y., LaFarge & Morris.. 20 


Inn, Goshen, N. Y., Walker &• Gillette 118-121 

Ritz-Carleton, Montreal, Can., Warren & Wetmore 33, 34 

Ritz-Carleton, Philadelphia, Pa., Horace Trumbauer and 
Warren & Wetmore 72-75 

Subject Index to Illustrations in Letter Press. 

Pages numbered 1-26 in the January issue; February, 27-48; March, 49-72; April, 73-98; May, 99-122; June, 
123-146: lulv, 147-168; Autfust, 169-190; September, 191-214; October, 215-238; November, 239-262; 

December, 263-288. 




Title and Location. 


McKinley National Memorial, H. Van Buren Magonigle-101, 102 
Municipal Building, New York City, McKim, Mead & 

White -- .. 148,151 


Chittenden County Trust Building, Burlington, Vt., 

W. R. B. Willcox 287 

Guaranty Trust Company Building, New York City, 

York & Sawyer _. ...152, 153 

Union Trust Building, The, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 

John D. Atchison & Co... 258-260 

Commercial Building, Baltimore, Md. 

J. Harry and F. J. Thuman 287 

Commercial Building, Chicago, 111., Perkins, 

Fellows & Hamilton 144 

Wellner Building, Philadelphia, Pa., Henry L. Reinhold-287 

Baltimore Court House, Baltimore, Md., Wyatt & Nolting.6 
Cook County Court House, Chicago, Ill.,Holahird<S:Roche-5 
New York Court House, Accepted Design for the, 

Guy Lowell.. . 97 

Shelby County Court House, Memphis, Tenn., Herbert 

D. Hale and James Gamble Rogers .3 

Westche>;tcr County Court House, Lord & Hewlett 4 

Boston City, Burnliam Memorial Ward, Maginnis& Walsh. 126 
Free Hospital for Women, Brookline,, Nurses' 

Dormitory, Coolidge & Carlson 161 

Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary, Nurses' 

Home, Boston, Mass., Page & Frothingham 126 

Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, West Department, 

Kendall, Taylor & Co 125 

Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the 

Blind, Watertown, Mass., R. Clipston Sturgis-_ 154-158 



Title and Location. 

Architects' Building, New York City, Ewing & Chappell 

and LaFarge & Morris 179 

Croisic Building, New York City, Browne & Almiroty 115-118 

North American Building, Chicago, 111., 

Holabird & Roche__ 21-24 

Ofiicc of Henry Bacon .251 

Office of Donn Barber ...197-200 

Office of Ewing & Chappell 181 

Office of Ford, Butler & Oliver... 252 

Office of LaFarge & Morris . . . ...180 

Office of Ludlow & Peabody 252 

Office of H. Van Buren Magonigle. 252,253 

Office of McKim, Mead & White. ._ .267-270 

Office of Kenneth Murchison 254 

United States Post Office, Johnstown, Pa., 

James Kno.x Taylor 174, 

United States Post Office and Court House, Providence, 

R. I., Clark &,Howe 4 

United States Post Office, Shelby ville, Tenn., 

Oscar Wenderoth 176 

Chicago, 111., Chatten & Hammond. 142 

Chicago, 111., Chatten &• Hammond. 142 

New York City, Restaurant, Walter D. Blair 104 

Philadelphia, Pa., Charles Barton Keene 104 

Sjiring Lake, .\. J., Brazer &• Robb 142 

Washington, D. C, Marsh & Peter 142 

Moving Picture Theater, A, The Orpheus, Chicago, 111., 

Aroner & Somers .. . . 233-236 



Title and Location. Architect. Page. 

Hoosac School, Hoosac N. Y., Cram, Goodhue & 

Ferguson _ 40 

Hotchkiss School 40 

Morristown School. Morristown, N. J., Boring & Tilton_39 
St. George's School, Newport, R. I. 40 

Andover Theological Seminary, Cambridge, Mass., 

Allen & Collens.. '.. 14 

George Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn., Ludlow & 

Peabody 12 

Piedmont College, Demorest, Ga., Beverly S. King 11 

Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla., Whitfield & King 11 

University of Illinois, Auditorium, C. H. Blackall .139-141 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., 

Cass Gilbert . . .. 12 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Cope & 

Stewardson 14 

Western University of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

Palmer & Hornbostel 13 




Title and Location. 

Yale University, Sage Pierson Development, 

Charles C. Haight 


Bay Ridge High, Brooklyn, N. Y., C. B. J. Snyder 178 

Normal, Newark, N. J., E. F. Guilbert 162-165 

Public School No. 172, Brooklyn, N. Y., C. B. J. Snyder.177 

State Normal, Troy, Ala., Charles W. Leavitt 41 

Alabama Girls' Technical Institute, Montevallo, Ala., 

Charles W. Leavitt 40 

Jewish Protectory and Aid Society, Hawthorne, N. Y., 

Harry Allen Jacobs and Ma.\ G. Heidelberg 41 

Loomis Institute, Windsor, Conn., 

Competitive Plan, Chas. C. Haight & A. F. Githens...41 

Successful Competitive Plan, Murphy & Dana 41 

Wm. M. Rice Institute, Houston, Texas, Cram, 

Goodhue & Ferguson 13 

Tome Institute, Port Deposit, Md., Boring & Tilton and 

Chas. W. Leavitt, Jr. - 39 

The Brickbuilder. 

Index to Volume XXII., Jan. — Dec, 1913. 





Title and Location. 

S. R. Hitt, Washington, D. C, John Russell Pope 27-32 


Masonic Temple, Camden, N. J., Heacock & Hokanson 205-207 

The Thaw, Sewickle}-, Pa., George S. Orth & Bros 7-10 


Title and Locatiun. Architect. 


Chateau de la Moriniere, France 35-138 

"The Vyne" ^..5-88 

Grill Room, McAlpin Hotel, New York City, F. M. 
Andrews & Co 63 

Index to Plate and Page Illustrations. 


Architect. Home Address. 

Adams, William, New York City 

Allen & CoUens, Boston, Mass. 

Andrews, F. M. , & Co. , New York City 
Andrews, Jaques &Rantoul, Boston, 


Aroner & Somers, Chicago, 111. 

Atterbury, Grosvenor, New York City 

Barber, Donn, New York City 

Bigelow & Wadsworth, Boston, Mass. 

Blackall, C. H., Boston, Mass 

Blair, Walter, New York City 

Boring, Wm. A., New York City 

Bragdon, Claude, Rochester, N. Y... 
Brainerd & Leeds, Boston, Mass. _._ 

Brazer & Robb, New York City 

Brown, Frank Chouteau, Boston, 


Browne & Almiroty, New York City. 

Brunner, Arnold W 

Buchman & Fox 

Busselle, Alfred, New York City 

Cady, John H., Providence, R. I..__ 
Carrere & Hastings, New York City. 
Chatten & Hammond, Chicago, 111.. 

Clark & Howe, Providence, R. I. 

Coolidge & Carlson, Boston, Mass... 
Cope & Stewardson, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Boston 

and New York 

Crow, Lewis & Wickenhoefer, New 

York City 

Delano & Aldrich, New York City.__ 
Dougherty, Edward Emmett, At- 
lanta, Ga. 

Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Philadel- 
phia, Pa 

Eckel & Aldrich, St. Joseph, Mo. ___ 
Embury, II, Aymar, New York City 
Ewing &• Chappell, New York City_- 
Ford, Butler & Oliver, New York City 
Fountain & Moratz, Cleveland, Ohio 
Fowler, Laurence Hall, Baltimore, 


Garfield, Abram, Cleveland, Ohio___ 

Gilbert, Cass, New York City 

Gilchrist, Edmund B., Philadelphia, 


Glidden, E. H., & Friz, C. N., Balti- 
more, Md 

Guilbert, E. F., Newark, N. J 

Haight, Chas. C, New York City..- 
Heacock & Hokanson, Philadelphia, 


Heidelberg, Max G., New York City 
Helmle & Huberty, Brooklyn, N. Y". 

Holabird & Roche, Chicago, 111 

Hubbell & Banes, Cleveland, Ohio^. 
Ingraham & Hopkins, Boston, Mass. 
Jacobs, Harry Allen, New York City 

Kahn, Albert, Detroit, Mich. , 

Keen, Charles Barton, Philadelphia, 


Kelsey, Albert, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Kendall, Taylor & Co., Boston, Mass. 
Kilham & Hopkins, Boston, Mass. _. 
LaFarge & Morris, New York City.- 
Lee, Edward B., Pittsburgh, Pa.. .. 

Lee, James S., Boston, 

Lehman & Schmitt, Cleveland, Ohio 



191, 192 


15, 16, 181- 



69-71, 172, 





202, 203 






35, 36 


45, 46, 176 


87, 88 

62, 63 




41-43, 167, U 

91, 92 


169, 170 

28, 29 




152, 153, 188 
52-54, 135-137 


116, 117 

147, 148 


165, 166 

17-20, 37-40, 140- 
24, 25 



13, 40 

179, 181 




5, 22-24 




-142 180 

-Vrchitect Home Address. 

Leland, Joseph, Boston, Mass 

Lord & Hewlett, New York City 

Lowell, Guy, Boston, Mass 

Ludlow & Peabody, New York City. 
Maginnis & Walsh, Boston, Mass. .. 
Magonigle, H.Van Buren, New York 


Mann & MacNeille, New York City., 
Mariner & LaBeaume, St. Louis, Mo. 
Marsh & Peter, Washington, D. C... 
Mauran, Russell & Crowell, St. Louis, 

Mo .. 

McKim, Mead & White, New York 


Meade & Hamilton, Cleveland, Ohio 
Mellor & Meigs, Philadelphia, Pa. ._ 

Murphy & Dana, New York City 

Nimmons & Fellows, Chicago, 111. __ 

Norris, F. E., Boston, Mass 

Orth, Geo. S. & Bros. , Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Page & Frothingham, Boston, Mass. 
Palmer, Edward L., Baltimore, Md._ 
Palmer & Hoi nbostel, New York City 
Parker, Thomas& Rice, Boston, Mass. 
Perkins, Fellows & Hamilton, Chi- 
cago, 111 

Piatt, Charles A., New York City ... 

Pond & Pond, Chicago, 111 _' 

Pope, John Russell, New York City. 
Rasmussen, Wm. W., New York City 
Reinhold, Henry L., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reynolds, Marcus T., Alliany, N. Y. 
Richards, McCarty & Bulford, Colum- 
bus, Ohio ... 

Richardson, Barott & Richardson, 

Boston, Mass 

Rogers, James Gamble, New York 


Schmidt, Garden & Martin, Chicago, 


Shaw, Howard, Chicago, 111. 

Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Chicago, 


Skinner & Walker, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Snyder, C. B. J., New York City 

Sperry, Jos. Evans, Baltimore, Md. 
Sturgis, R. Clipston, Boston, Mass.. 
Taylor, James Knox, Washington, 

D. C. 

Thuman, J. Harry and F. J., Balti- 
more, Md 

Totten; George Oaklev, Washington, 

D. C. '. 

Trumbauer, Horace, Philadelphia, 


Wakefield, F. Manton, Boston, Mass. 
Walker & Gillette, New York Citv -- 
Walker & Weeks, Cleveland, Ohio .. 
Warren & Wetmore, New York City 
Wenderoth, Oscar, Washington, D. C. 
Whitfield & King, New York City . . . 

Wilbv, Ernest, Detroit. Mich. 

Wilder & White, New York City 

Wilder & Wight, Kansas Citv, Mo._ 
Willcox, W. R. B., Burlington, Vt... 
Wood, Donn & Deming, Washington, 

D. C. 

Wyatt & Nolting, Baltimore, Md 

York & Sawyer, New York City.. .. 



13, 64 
145, 146 
26, 27 





30, 31, 109, 110 

174, 175 

147, 148 

94, 95 


58, 59 

89, 90 

122, 123 

47, 139 

10, 11 

44, 187 

154-156, 157, 189, 

143, 144 


77, 78 





33, 34, 72-75 

85, 86 








101, 102 








177, 178 
42, 154-158 
174, 175 






152, 153 

Frontispieces — Full Page Illustrations. 


Title. .Month. 

Church of Panhagia Paregoritissa, Arta, Epirus, Greece.January 

Church of Kato Panhagia, Arta, Epirus, Greece .February 

Church of St. Theodore, Athens, Greece March 

Church of Hagios Vasilios, Arta, Epirus, Greece ..April 

Church of Porta Panhagia, Thessaly, Greece May 

Church of the Holy Apostles, Athens, Greece June 

Title. Month. 

Church of St. Theodore, Mistra, Laconia, Greece -July 

Church of Ilagia Theodora, Arta, Epirus, Greece August 

Church of Panhagia Paregoritissa, Arta, Epirus, Greece. .September 

Church at Merbaka, Argolis, Greece ._ October 

Cliurch of the Kapnikarea, Athens, Greece November 

Monastery of St. Luke of Stiris, Phocis, Greece December 


Index to Volume XXII.. Ian.— Dec, 1913. 

The Brickbuilder. 

Index to Articles. 

Pages numbered 1-26 in the January issue; February, 27-48; March, 49-72; April, 73-98; May, 99-122; June, 

123-146; July, 147-168; August, 169-190; September, 191-214; October, 215-238; 

November, 239-262 ; December, 263-288. 


.D. Everett Waid. 


Part II. 
Part III. 
Part IV. 
Part V. 
Part VI. 




Acoustic Desijjn in the Hill Memorial Auditorium, University of Michigan, Illustrated ....Hugh Tallant J 

Architect's Fee, An - --^- ^"P'-'"" bturgis 

Form of Agreement between Architect and Owner. 
Architect'.s Office, The Business Side of an 

Part I. Office of Messrs. LaFarge & Morris and Ewing & Chappell . _ 

Part II. Office of Mr. Donn Barber _ -;-■-,: yv:"^"J 

Part III. Offices of Messrs. Henry Bacon ; Ford, Butler & Oliver ; Ludlow & Peabody ; 

H. Van Buren Magonigle and Kenneth Murchison -- - 

Part IV. Office of Messrs. McKim, Mead & White ,t "" V.,;'iV" V 

Architectural Acoustics — - Hugh Tallant 

The Effect of a Sneaker's Voice in Different Directions. 
Architectural Juri.sprudence - — - William L. Bowman, C.E 

Part I. An Architect's Compensation and Liabilities .-. --.- -- • °° 

An Architect's Compensation and Liabilities 

The Architect's Extra Work 

The Architect as Arbitrator _ 

The Architect in Municipal Work 

The Architect in Court . . . - _ 

Bank, Union Trust Building, Winnipeg, Manitoba, John D. Atchison &Co., Architects .Editorial. ..---. ^3» 

Brick Manor Houses of France Sidney Fiske Kimball 135 

Part II. The Chateau of La Moriniere. 

Cottages, Competition for Two Semi-Detached --- Report of the Jury of Award 182 

Court Planning -- Judge Henry D. Harlan 1 

Croisic Building, The, New York City, Browne & Almiroty, Architects — - Editorial . 115 

Editorial Notes knd Comments...... 25, 47, 71, 97, 122. 143. 168, 190, 212, 261 

English House, An Old, "The Vyne" - --. - R- Randal Phillips 85 

Gidea Park, The Newest English Garden Suburb - R- Randal Philhps 229 

Grill Room, A Terra Cotta, F. M. Andrews & Co., Architects 

Group Plans, Recent American 

Part IV. Colleges and Universities 

Part V. Preparatory Schools and Institutions 

Hospital Construction, A Comparison between German and American .... 
Hospital Planning and Equipment, Practical Details in . 

Part I. (ieneral Considerations 

Part II. General Considerations (continued) 

House of Unusual Architectural Merit, A. 

The Thaw House, George Orth & Bros., Architects ... 

The Hiti Residence, Washington, D. C, John Russell Pope, Architect 

Houses, Two Groups of, Boston, Mass., Kilham & Hopkins, Architects 

Land.scape Design, Architectural 

Lattice — Its Use as an Architectural Embellishment.- 

Parti. General Discussion, Illustrated 

Part II. Detached Arbor Structures, Illustrated 

Lighting of Public and Semi-Public Buildings, The .. 

Four Parts, Illustrated 

Masonic Temple, The, Camden, N. J., Heacock & Hokanson, Architects -. 
Measured Drawings — Italian Series 

Doors from Bologna. Selected Profiles 

House in Via San Vitale and Palazzo Tacconi, Bologna, Italy . 

Cornices — Verona, Brescia and Siena _ 

Brick and Chapel of Plazzo Del Diavolo at Siena 

Alfred Morton Githens 

Dr. John N. E. Brown.. 
M. E. McCalmont, R.N. 

Benno Janssen 

Waddy B. Wood 


Ellsworth Stoddard V^. 

George S. Chappell 







L. B. Marks. 


Editorial 205 

.Will S. Aid rich, Del. 

15, 16 

37, 38 


91, 92 

Apse — S. M. Delle Grazie and Campanile of San Gottardo, Milan _■ 113, 114 

Montefiore Home, New York City, Arnold W. Brunner and Buchman & Fox, Architects... Editorial - 284 

Mouldings, The Design and Purpose of Aymar Embury, II. 239 

Nantucket Pilgrimage, A, Second Part Hubert G. Ripley 17 

North American Building, Chicago, 111., Holabird & Roche, Architects Editorial 21 

Perkins Institution and Mas.sachusetts School for the Blind, Boston, Mass., R. Clipston Sturgis, 

Architect ._. _ , Editorial 154 

Post, George B., Appreciation of .Montgomery Schuyler 289 

Quantity Surveyor, The Leslie H. Allen 281 

Quantity System, An Appeal to the Architect for the Adoption of Sullivan W. Jones 215 

General Discussion . _ 255 

Rochester Railway .Station, Roche.ster, N. Y., Claude Bragdon, Architect ' "'.."Editorial 263 

School, The Nonnal, Newark, N. J., E. F. Guilbert, Architect Editorial 162 

Sounding-Boards in an Auditorium, The Use of . F.R.Watson .. 139 

St. Patrick's Church, Philadelphia, Pa ..... Alfred Hoyt Granger. ".^„ ...... 69 

Theater, A Moving Picture, The Orpheus, Chicago, III., Aroner & Somers, Architects Editorial 233 

Tile Floors . _ ..Addison Le Boutillier 43 

Unit Power Plant for Isolated Buildings and Small Groups ..Charles L. Hubbard. 

Parti. Preliminary Considerations with Tables 33 

Part II. Types of Ajiparatus and Plant Design... " "' '_ 59 

Part 111. Details of Design "." ' '"" " " gi 

Part IV. W^ater Supply bv Mechanical Means "' " 109 

Working Drawings, Some Suggestions as to the Making of.. l"lll[" H.' Van Buren Magonigle. 

Three Parts, illustrated 99 147 174 

Young Men's Christian Ai;.sociation Building, Plamimg o( a \"'.[l[^[l[[[lll'.~Vi^'.]^"'. Louis' Allen Abramson." ' 

Parti. The Theory of the Plan * 49 

Part II. The Theory of the Plan (continued) .. _ .'".".'"." '"' 77 

Part III. Physical Department _. " 127 











1203 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 





Manufactured by 

The Cincinnati Roofing Tile 


Terra Cotta Company 

Main Office and Factory 

Agencies in Principal Cities. 

Write for Addresses 

Established 1856 

Henrv M< 

lenry iviaurer 

Manufacturers of 




Fireproofing Materials 


Flat and Segment Arches 
Partitions, Furring, Etc. 

Hollow Wall Blocks for Buildings 


420 East 23d Street - New York 

Philadelphia Office, Penna Building 
Works Maurer, New Jersey 


M. E. GREGORY, Proprietor 

Manufacturers of 



In all Standard Finishes 

New York Office - - 1123 Broadway 

E. H. Thomas 
Agencies in all the Principal Citiet 


The Real Standard in Enameled Brick 

The supreme test of any line of enameled 
brick is its white brick. 

Hy-namel White has not the sHahtest trace of cream 
color or the bluish cast of super-white. True white, it is 

absolutely uniform and will always remain so under all conditions. The 
enamel retains its color because it is opaque and consequently will not show- 
any discoloration which may take place inside the brick. 


Brick will not craze, scale or discolor when 
exposed to ANY climatic conditions. We 
positively guarantee that it will not. 

Submit our enamels to any test — freezing and thawing, repeated many 
times, or other extreme conditions they will never meet in actual ser\ ice. 
We are willing to stand on the result of such tests. 

But better still, see Hy-namels in any of the many buildings in which 
they have been exposed to the elements for years. That's the true test — 
the test to which any enameled brick you use will be put. 

Our enameled bricks have set a standard of durability 
unapproached by a?iy foreign or domestic manufacturer. 

Made in eight colors: White, Green, Cream, Brown, Blue, Transparent 
No. 501 (a light speckled buff). Speckled "B" (a light speckled gray), and 
Transparent No. 509 (a rich, dark, speckled brown). 

There's a Hy-tex Face Brick in 
Every Tint and Texture 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Branch Offices: 

Baltimore, Maryland, 1 1 East Ix-xinirton New ^Ork City, KrcdenburK& [.ounsbury, m 4th Ave. 

Chicago, Illinois, Chamber of Commerce Huildme; Omaha, Nebraska, Woodmen of the World liuiidmu 

Cleveland, Ohio, Schorteld Buildintr IHiiladelphia, Pennsylvania, Real Kstate Trust lUiiidint; 
Indianapolis, Indiana, Board oKI rade Buddin, ^^,^. ^ ,^^^_|^,._^^^ 

Kansas City, Missouri, Rialto Building ,., , • ,. ,. ,- i i i> i r 

Minneapolis, Minnesota, Security Bank Building Washington, I). C, Colorado Bu.ldmg 



Cram. Cloodhue & Ferguson, Architects 

Showing use of Giiastavino Tile \'aulting 
in the ceilinjr 



THE RRI C K lUM L 1) i: R 


New York City's Terra Cotta Line 

There is no clearer indication of the trend of modern 
construction than the fact that more than half of the 
buildinjr material visible in the illustration is Atlantic 
Terra Cotta. 

The ^Voolworth Huildinjr, the highest in the world, 
is entirely of Atlantic Terra Cotta from third story to 
roof; almost as ^reat a i)roi)ortion of the Hudson Ter- 
minal liuildings is Atlantic 'rerra Cotta. and many 
smaller factors go to make up the total. 

And the total does not include the Atlantic Faience 
in the concourse of the Hudson Terminal and in the 
United States Express Huilding, nor the beautifully 
modeled arch over Chambers Street in the new Muni- 
cipal Huilding. 

lioohlct OH rc(/ii(:sf 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Company 

1170 Broadway, New ^^)l•k 



Gold Medals 
Paris 1900 

Gold Medal 

St. Petersburg 


Highest Award 
Buffalo, 1901 

Highest Award 
Turin, 1904 

Grand Prize 

St. Louis 


Church of the Blessed Sacrament, Providence, R. I. 
LK FARGK & MORRIS, Architects 

The tile pavement, walls, arches and vaulted ceiling here shown, illustrate to 
some extent the Faience and tile work executed by us from the architects' 
designs. The designs and colors symbolize and recall the virtues of the House 
of God. We invite you to see this church and believe you will agree with us 
that it is reminiscent of the best of the old work. We will execute your designs, 
or our designers, who have been educated to produce the best results in clay, 
are yours for the asking. 



THE BRI C K HUI L 1) i: R . 

Columns extending 
through five stories 
in main facade of new 
Filene Department 
Store Building, Boston 

D. H. Burnham & Co. 


Executed in Variegated 

Green Matt Glaze Terra 


Note the perfect align- 
r5s ment of all the work, 
although made in com- 
paratively small pieces 


Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company 

Manufacturers oi 

Architectural Terra Cotta in all the Standard Colors and Finishes 

New York Office 
1133 Broadway 

Main Office 


Boston Office 
45 Batterymarch Street 




Holabird & Roche, Architects 

Elevator, hall and entrance vestibules complete, tvalls, ceilings and floors in Rookwood 

THE engraving shows one of many suecessful applieations 
of Rookwood in reeent important buildings. We are 
prepared to eo-operate \\ ith architects in the production of the 
best effects in design, color and texture. A cordial in\itation 
is extended to all to investigate our products and our facilities. 

The Rookwood Pottery Company 


THE m^ I CK RT I L I) i: R 


J. STEWART BARNEY ^^^. ^^,, 

THE EMMET BUILDING, 29th Street. Madison Avenue, New York City 




Arrl|ttprtural ®?rra (Eutta 

Manufactured by 

jfetieral Cerra Cotta Co. 




THE 1? R I C K B IT I L D E R . 





Dl^> PARTING from the usual custom of showing details of executed work, we 
have thought it wise to present in this first issue of The Brickbuilder in its new 
form a series of illustrations which are, after all, but glimpses of our Terra Cotta 
plant at Crum Lynne. This factory is modern, up-to-date and in all respects 
equipped to turn out the \ ery best class of work. Being of fireproof construction 
throughout there is no likelihood of delay in the execution of work on account 
of fire. These are points well worth considering by the architect and contractor. 
We have furnished Architectural 1 erni Cot.. -ry many of the hest of modern buildings. 


New York Office: 

Baltimore Office : 

Washington Office : 




Manufacturers of 

High grade Terra Gotta 
in Polychrome Glazes 
and all standard finishes 

By recent additions and improve- 
ments to our factory at Perth 
Amboy, N. J., we have greatly 
increased our capacity and have 
now one of the most modern and 
completely equipped Terra Cotta 
plants in the East. 

We make first class material 
and guarantee quick deliveries. 

Estimates furnished o?i request 

Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 


li. IS Wi-st tGtli StiTfl, New York 

Kiitirc fiiMit niiitt kIji/c 

liiu'^'ard, Krskinc \ Blanden, Artliitccls 

'lliomas I. Sti-iiiCo., Builders 

Fiske & Co., Inc., Boston, Mass. Allan Ross Raff, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Detroit Brick Sales Co., Detroit, Mich. Charlotte Brick C"..., Charlotte, N.C. 

Krskine W. I'isher, New Orleans, I -a. 


T HE B R I C K B r I L 1) E R 

Nfw f nrk Arrl|ttwt«ral ©rrra-QIntta (Enntpang 

401 VKRNON AVENUE Borough of Queens NEW YORK CITY 


W'c lu-licNcd in per- 
sonal supervision of 
production, quality, ship- 
ments, and all details of 
business. Chanfjes in 
transportation facilities 
enabled us to unite at 
factory office every de- 
partment of our business, 
and so fjive such super- 

VVe believed, and shall 
always believe, in per- 
sonal supervision by the 
.Architect of Architec- 
tural Terra-Cotta in the 
making. His concep- 
tions are being modeled 
— his i il e a s must be 
moulded into the plastic 

Our plant is the plant 
|)ar excellence for your 
convenience in this 


One factory one management for twenty-seven years 

The only Terra-Cotta Works in 
New York City 

and how to 
get there. 


The red car im 
42d Street, pass- 
ing Orand Cen- 
tral Terminal, 
and marked 
''Long Island 
City," stops at 
the Vernon Ave- 
nue Tower of the 
Queens Borough 
Bridge structure. 
Passenger eleva- 
tors are in opera- 
tion in this tower 
— across the 
street from our 
factory and office. 

Address all communications 

Nan f 0rk Arrljttatural ®^rra-Ql0tta (!l0mpang 

401 Vernon Avenue 

Borough of Queens 

New York City 

T II E P> RICK H r I L 1) K R 






Terra Cotta Details of 

Normal School, Newark, New Jersey 

E K. GUILBF.RT. Archiirci 

Particular attention is called to the high (trade o( 
Modeling and Mechanical Execution of this work 


^hr g>intlb Amlunj iltxra (Cnlta (£n. 


Fine Architectural Terra Cotta 

Tplrphonc Connection 

Works: Soulh AmJioy. N J 





Architectural Terra Cotta 

in Mat Glaze, Polychrome and all colors 

E. V. ESKE5EN . President 
M. S. NEAL . Vice-president 
P. C. OL5EN . . . Director 

HARRY M. GERN5. Manager 

Manchester Avenue and 1 9th Street 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Tliis liuildiiif;. for which the architectural terra cotta 
was furnished by 

The Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., Chicago. 1 1 

is illustrated in dutail on pages -21-24. 








The American Terra Cotta and Ceramic Company 

Manufacturers of 


Polychrome and all Standard Finishes 


People's Gas Building 



Terra ('oil a 

Detail for St. James R. C. Church, St. Joseph, Mo. 

Eckel & Al.lrich, Ariliileils 

We show on this page three patterns of roofing tiles which commonly are 

called stock shapes. 

We invite special attention to the Spanish pattern as this tile is one 
that has grown very much in favor with architects, and has sup- 
planted to a large extent the interlocking Spanish. This Spanish, 
called Imperial Spanish or Royal, is intended to resemhle more 
nearly the Old Mission type than any other pattern of tile. The 
Interlocking Shingle tile is the successful result of years of endeavor 

to manufacture a tile with interlock- 
ing features w hich will give the flat 
effect of tiie shingle tile without its 
inherent had features. This tile has a 
' " reveal, and unlike the Hat shingle 


The interlockingso-called 

Continental shape has 

proved a very popular 

tile for almost any design. 

It has been used on every 

class of building from 

the factory to the court 

house, and as a serviceable 

holds its place unchallenged. 

All these tiles are high grade shale, burned to \itri- 

faction, and can be furnished in the glazes. 



is mechanicallv true. 



I'uniiihal lipfiii 



'1' II E H R 1 C K B U I L D K R 

[/^//^VVV/VV<<VV/<< W<^<<<j^^^^<j^ <<'{<<->>>>>>>^^> W^V^^ 










H. B. Smith Co xxviii 

Brick, Enamel 

Hydraulic-Press Brick i'n i 

I'iffany Knanu-i Britk c*\: I'iU- Co. . 2d Cover 

Brick, Face 

liradford Pressed Brick Co xvii 

Claycraft Brick Co xxii 

Columbus Brick & 'I'erra Cotta Co. . xviii 

Fiske & Company, Inc xv 

Hockinsr X'alley IVoducts Co. . . . xvii 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Co i 

Iroiiclay Brick Co xviii 

Jewettville Brick Co xvi 

Kittaniiinsr Brick &: Fire Clay Co. . . xxi 

Kreischer Brick Miff. Co ' xviii 

Ohio Mining & Manufacturinij Co. . xvi 

Pearl Clay Products Co xix 

Sayre & Fisher Co x\ i 

Western Brick Co xviii 

Clay Products, Agencies 

Carter, Black &; Ayers 
Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Co. 




Otis Flevator Co. 

Faience, Architectural 

(jruehy Faience & 'File Co. 
Rookwood Pottery Co. 


Henry Maurer & Son . 
National FireproofinK Co. 


National Lead Co. . 

2d Cover 
4th Cover 

Plumbing Fixtures 

'iVenton Potteries Co xxv 

Publishers, Architectural 

Roirers and Manson Co ^d Cover 

John Wiley & Sons <d Cover 

Frank Lloyd Wright id Cover 

Roofing Tile 

Cincinnati Rooting 'I'ile Co. . . 2d Cover 
Fudou ici-Celadon Co xiii 

Terra Cotta, Architectural 

American Ferra Cotta & Ceramic Co. xiii 

Atlantic Terra Cotta Co iii 

Brick, Ferra Cotta & Tile Co. . . 2d Cover 

Conkling-Armstronn Terra Cotta Co. \ 

Federal Terra Cotta Co vii 

Indianapolis Terra Cotta Co. ... xii 

Kansas City 'Ferra Cotta Co. ... xii 

O. W. Ketcham 'Ferra Cotta Works . viii 

New Jersey Terra Cotta Co. ... ix 

New York Terra Cotta Co x 

Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. ... xii 

South Amhoy Ferra Cotta Co. ... xi 

Tile, Domes, Ceilings, etc. 

R. (iuasta\in() Co ii 

Tin Plate 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
N. & G. 'Favlor Co 




Fdw. Smith & Co xxix 

Vaulting, Tile 

R. (luastavino Co ii 


Samuel Cabot, inc xxix 

Hvdrex Felt & Fngineerin"; Co. . . xxix 











I 111. Pl.Kl.Ol.A — \i:\\ "i OKK Ol IK i; 

On the top floor of the Arena Building, No. 40 West 32nd Street, New York City, 
is the new home of " Tapestry " Brick. 

Here, in five large rooms (three with skylights), has been installed the most com- 
prehensive and artistic exhibition of brickwork in existence. 

Each room is finished in brickwork of a different color, in order that each may tell 
its own story without the confusion of the ordinary multicolored " brick shop." 

All standard and many special bonds and a great variety of mortar joints are here 
exemplified, while there is a wealth of decorative pattemwork, tiling for the ter- 
race and interior floor, and a whole room devoted to the use of brick and tile in 
fireplace construction. 

One of the rooms contains the Pergola illustrated above. 

Architects and their clients are cordially invited to visit this unique exhibition. 


Sole Manufacturers of " Tapestry " BricK 
25 Arch St. Boston Arena Bldg,, New YorK 




i II II II |l i|tii 1 1 11 


I II II II I ^rEl^^" 

MiiiMi I 


■^"^ Ttm jTn^ - 

lull I! I I '111 

liUlll I I 

I n 

Seneca Building. Buffalo. New York 
McKenzie. Voorhees & Gmelin. Architects 
235.000 our Porcelain White Brick used 

Our Porcelain White Brick also used in the following 
. buildings : 

City Investing Building, Broadway. Cortland and Church Streets. 650.000. 
Francis H. Kimball. Architect. Continental Insurance Building. 80 Maiden 
Lane. 730.000. D. H. Burnham Company. Architects. Western Union Tele- 
graph Building. Broadway. Deyand Fulton Streets (now in course of erection). 
700.000. Wm. Wells Bosworth. Architect. Adams Express Company 
Building. 57-59-61 Broadway (now in course of erection). 1,000.000. Francis 
H. Kimball, Architect. Rockfall Apartments, N. E. Cor. Broadway and 
I 1 Ith Street. 100.000. Geo. and Edw. Blum, Architects. German- American 
Insurance Building, Maiden L«ne and Liberty Street, 250,000. Hill «! Stout. 
Architects. Broadway and Astor Place. 100.000. Francis H. Kimball. 

Sayre & Fisher Company 

Manufacturers of 

Fine Pressed Front Brick 


Plain and moulded, white, ochre, light and dark buff, red, 

gray pompeiian (mottled), and old gold; also Pure White 

Brick with Dull Porcelain Finish, and our New " Persian " 

Face Brick 


Re-pressed and Harvard Red Brick Hard Building Brick 

We manufacture •.hrough the famous " stiff mud process " 
which produces a brick unexcelled in density and hardness 

Office, 261 Broadway, New York City, N. Y. 

Howard L. Beck. Architect 




Makers of 

Impervious Red Front Bricks 


Shawnee Face Brick 





General ( Xrices 

96 Wall Street 

\\ Ork.s and Sales 

Shawnee, Ohio 

Made onlv bv 

The Ohio Mining & Manufacturing Co. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 


Bradford Reds + The Brickbuilder 
= The Satisfied Architect 

WITH this issue, "THE BRICKBUILDER" comes to you in a new 
form and its policy of limiting PUBLICITY to only such firms as it can 
honestly recommend must carry conviction with its advertising copy 

WE cannot be " ALL THINGS to ALL MEN," but we can con- 
tinue to furnish our "BRADFORD REDS" and "BRADFORD 
RUFFS " and guarantee satisfaction when they are used. Write us 

Bradford Pressed Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. 




Distinctly DiiTerent Artistic Beautiful Indestructible 

In varied shades of brown permeated with purple and other tints from the minerals in the tlay 
brought out in burning. All producing in a wall MOST BEAUTIFl^L RUG EFFECTS 


Best Equipped Plant in the World (;i:ni;rai. oriK-i's 

At Greendalk, Ohio Harrison Hldg.. COLUMBrS, OHIO 



Astrakhan Brick 

This superb rough texture 
brick is produced in Buff, 
Onyx, Gray, Granite, Red 
and Brown, and is easily 
the superior of all others in 
shape, size, color and quality. 

Samples and full informa- 
tion can be secured from us 
direct or from our agents 
located in more than forty 

Send for List 



Established IS86 

Established 1845 


Kreischer Brick Mfg. Co. 

Manufacturers of the Very Highest Grade of 



In Gray, White, Pompeiian and White Speckled 


Fire Brick of all Sizes and Shapes 

131-133 EAST 23d STREET, NEW YORK 

Works: Kreischerville, S.l. Tel. 5360-5361 Gramercy 

-■- factured in seven different colors 
ranging from an old ivory to a deep 
bronze and represents the highest 
grade of Flashed Brick made. 

For composition, richness of color 
and durability, the Ironclay Brick is 
without a peer. 

Standards, Romans, Normans and 
ornamentals carried in stock at all 

The Ironclay Brick Company 


Western Brick Company 







Two Entirely New Lines for 1913 

Write for Catalogue 





The accompanying 
engravings and letters 
tell the story of two 
successful buildings 
and two firms of architects satisfied with 
Craftsman Brick. Let us send you sam- 
ples and full information. 


The Army and Navy Club, Washington, D.C. 
Hornblower & Marshall, Architects 

The Woodward Building. Washington, D. C. 
Harding & Upman. Architects 

Hornblower &. Marsha 

May 20, 1912 


It gives us pleasure to otate that the 
tricka furniehed by you for the nev/ Array ana 
Havy Clut tullding have proven very sat Isfaotory. 
eepecially as to uniformity of color The 
moulded shapes, arches, etc. also correspond very 
closely with the general wall color. 

The deliveries v/ere proript, and trtere was 
practically no de'lay on the building at any time 
owing to the lack of your material 

,^^Air>f^- Tj^^O'/in/.tJ^ 




Hay 20, 1512. 

Pearl Clay Products Co., 


Replylnt to your Inquiry of lliu letli, as to 
Khether the services rendereJ by your Company In the 
matter of nhadlng and dallvery of brick for the Hood- 
w-ird BullJlh(> «cre oitlijfactory, will eay that they 
were entirely so 

We also wlah lo eitpniue our apprecliitlon of 
your liiterijnt .inJ palnotjking efforts In faithfully 
carrying out the color blondlng upon which we deter- 
mined; tin: success cf rMch depended, to a lar^e ex- 
lent, upon yOijf co-opcratlcn 

Very truly yours. 

'^> *y>:\ 


Pearl Clay Products Company 







Kittanning Brick 


Fire Clay Company 

Works, Kittanning, Pa. 
Main Offices, Pittsburgh 

Manufacturers of 






New York: Pfotenhauer-Nesbit Co. 

Philadelphia : O. W. Ketcham 

Chicago: Thomas Moulding Co. 

Buffalo : John H. Black 

Boston: Waldo Bro*. 

Cleveland : Queisser-Bliss Co. 
Cincinnati: Moore«-Coney Co. 
Atlanta: B. Mifflin Hood 







Enameled Brick, Roofin^r 
Tiles, Paving Clinkers, Etc. 

Genuine -KITTANNING" llllijf 
Genuine "HARVARD llll^k 


A hollow tile with hrick f;Kc. N'arious colors and finishi ■• 

FRONT nnir^L'c: hakvard 


(il\l IM ll\R\ ARI) l?RI(KS, .\K(III> ANDSpICIAI.S 

CAR ti:k, black and aykrs 

11H2 BROADWAY. N. V. rhnne. 7f,I.V 7f,14 Mad. Sq. 

XXI 1 


Oi'inooR KxHiBir on Tmird Strhkt, Oppositr Stati; Capitol Biii.ijinc; 

Coi.iMiu's, Ohio 

IN the above exhibit are displayed twenty- 
two distinct examples of shade mingling 
and blending. Special blends are carefully 
assembled to meet requirements of Architects 
who specialise upon artistic brick treatments 

"Velour Nap" 

" Corduroy Nap 

Claycraft "A'^elour" and " Corduroy" Bricks run 
in Gun Metals, Brow ns and Rich Red Colors 






HOUSE, MATINECOCK, L.I Carrhe & //astiiiMS 

HOUSE, ST. MARTINS, PA Duliriiio, Okie & /Jester 

HOUSE, ORANGE, N. J Matin & Mac Seilte 

SCHOOL, OILMAN COUNTRY, BALTIMORE, MD Parker. 1 Iwwas <1-^ h'ke 

SHOW ROOM, PIANO, BOSTON, MASS. Richardson. Barolt & Richardson 

TOWN HALL, NAHAXT, MASS. Andre:cs. Jacques &Ranloiil 



lUu.strations from completed plans. 

The Thaw Country House, Sewickley Heights, Pa. 

Colleges and Universities. 

Doors from Bologna, Selected Profiles. 

Illustrations from water-color and pen and ink sketches by the author. 

Illustrations from full page drawings and photographs hdiloiial 








10, 11 

15, 16 







DAI RH ijhimhouij RV SS E L L F WH IT tH E AD 

ARTHVH D. aOCERS ^,^,,„^l^^T^.'o^lVuu'i»>^^'"'»'^ „,..,..v.n»«.n.c,«c.o.,oi. 



B O J T O N 


c- ^u I \^\t^A Staii«« its insular possessions and Cuba, J5.1J*J per ye"'' 
For C^J^Zi'^^X'^ "ol Fore..^n Countries .n the Po.ta. Union. S6.00 per year 

All copies mailed Hat 
Trade supplied by (he American New. Company and it. branches 


End of thirteenth century. Typical of the last 
flowering of Byzantine art. All the patterns 
are fonnt'd of simple combinations of common 
brick, squared stone, and colored tile. 



JANUARY, 1913 


Court House Plannino:. 



THE court house is primarily the Temple of Justice, 
the place where the power and majesty of the law are 
vindicated, where wrong- is righted, where life, liberty, and 
property are protected, where g-reed and oppression are 
rebuked, and where virtue, truth, and righteousness must 
have their habitation, or our boasted civilization and repub- 
lican institutions are vain and unsubstantial shadows. 
More and more we are coming to recognize that our public 
biiildingfs should be dig-nified and imposing structures, that 
in their architecture they should typify their uses and pur- 
poses, and that they should teach those who look upon 
them that there is no incongruity between beauty and util- 
ity. There are sound practical reasons as well as real 
economy in making the public buildings of a city contrib- 
ute markedly to the beauty of the city, in making them 
impress the people with what they stand for and represent, 
in making the city itself a more attractive place in which 
to dwell and transact business. Every architect who is 
called upon to design a court house, one of the most im- 
portant buildings of any city or town in which it is located, 
has offered to him a rare opportunity, the sig"nificance of 
which he should not imderestimate, for service to his pro- 
fession, to the public, and to the community. Nor does 
this mean wastefulness or extravagance in the use of pub- 
lic money, or unnecessary and useless additions to the tax 
rate. The exterior of the court house, and of this I am 
now speaking, need not have columns, domes, and towers 
• or wealth of ornamentation and carving, to be dignified 
and beautiful. There is a beauty in form, in lines and in 
proportion, even in simplicity, which is of the highest 
order ; but whatever the size of the structure it should 
by all means be an example of good, sound construction. 

Building committees and commissioners do not always 
appreciate the significance of these considerations, and it 
is often by no means the least difficult part of the archi- 
tect's work to make them see it. There is no model court 
house which may serve as a type for all others. Every 
state and city has its own system of courts. Sometimes a 
building- must be designed for occupancy by one court, 
exercising- a general and comprehensive jurisdiction and 
presided over by a single judge ; sometimes for a number 
of courts of independent and separate jurisdictions, each 
presided over by one or more judges ; sometimes for a 
court composed of a number of judges, who at times and 
for some purposes sit together, and at times and for other 

purposes sit separately and in different rooms. We might 
almost say "Of making many courts there is no end." 
We have long been familiar with Appellate Courts and 
Courts of First Instance for the trial of civil and criminal 
causes, with Probate Courts, with Admiralty Courts, and 
Equity Courts. But we now have Commerce Courts, 
Customs Courts, Appeal Tax Courts, Juvenile Courts ; 
Xew York has a Domestic Relations Court, and the Chi- 
cago Vice Commission has lately sug-gested the creation of 
a Morals Court. 

A constituent part of a court is the clerk, who is tlie cus- 
todian of the court records and indexes, is charged with 
the filing and jireservation of the numerous papers, issues 
all the writs and process of the court, and makes an accu- 
rate entry upon his dockets of the successive steps that are 
taken in every case and of the judgment of the court, con- 
stituting a conten-iporaneous history of everj- cause. The 
court too has its executive officers, the sheriflf or marshal 
who serves its writs and enforces obedience to its com- 
mands. It may fall to his lot to have the custody of a 
prisoner, who is on trial for his life or his liberty, of 
a refractory suitor or witness, who has been arrested 
for failing to obey the process of the court ; or he may 
have been required to seize and hold property, pending- a 
sale or other disposition. Then there are the bailiffs, the 
tipstaves, the criers, the interpreters, the messengers, 
juror+i, witnesses, suitors, lawyers, and the public, all of 
whom have to be considered in connection with the accom- 
modations tliat are to be provided in court house planning. 
Each court house is necessarily a distinct problem and 
the architect and building committee who would solve it 
wisely must understand not only the exact kind of court 
which it is to house, but must gain detailed information of 
the exact relation of the court to the public and to all its 
officers, with the functions which each has to perform and 
the amount and character of s])ace reciuired therefor. If 
we were to take the simplest form of a court, a court of 
one judge, whose jurisdiction was to hear and decide, with 
or without a jury, as suitors might elect, controversies 
arising out of breaches of contract or for the redress of 
injuries to person or property, this would involve a room 
for the hearing of these controversies, usually dcsig-natcd 
the courtroom, in which there would be prr>per accommo- 
dations for the suitors, their witnesses and lawyers, for 
the presiding- judge and the jury and for the several court 


officers, clerks, sheriff, bailiffs, interpreter, stenoorapher, 
reporter, and for such reasonable portion of the public as 
mig-ht be likely to wish to attend. This court room or 
hearini;- chamber is the most important room and domi- 
nates the structure. It must have its lobby and certain 
subsidiary rooms, the judgfe's private room or chamber, 
one and preferably two jury rooms, to which the jury may 
retire to deliberate upon their verdicts, and witness rooms 
in which witnesses maybe searegated when it is desirable, 
as it often is, to exclude from the court room all of the 
witnesses except the one who is testifying-, and which 
rooms at other times are useful for consultations, or for 
taking- care of persons who are taken ill, as frequent! \- 
happens in the court room, or for the accommodation of 
mothers with babes in arms or young- children who accom- 
pany their parents to court from necessity. All of these 
rooms should have direct communication with the court 
room and each should have toilet accommodations. The 
sole means of access to the jury I'oom should be througfh 
the court room, so that no communications with a jury 
deliberating- upon a verdict may be had excc])t imder the 
eye of the court. A model court room should also have 
connected with it a cloak room for the use of at least the 
jurors, lawyers, and court officers. Some of these subsid- 
iary rooms maybe placed in mezzanine stories and reached 
by stairs leading from doors opening: upon the court room. 
In addition to the toilet facilities provided in the rooms 
subservient to the court room, at a proper place in the 
court house there should be toilet accommodations ade- 
quate for all whose business takes them there, as well as 
for the i)ublic. Few of our cities have sufficient public 
comfort stations, though these are now recog-nized as an 
essential of the up-to-date municipality. Public build- 
ingfs afford an opportunity to provide public toilet facilities 
which should be considered. These should be an example 
of hygienic construction and cleanliness. 

If the court has a civil, in addition to its criminal, juris- 
diction, wherever, as is almost universal in the United 
States, the common law procedure for the trial of crimes 
prevails, provision must be made for the Grand Jury, an 
inciuisitorial body, sittings in secret, inquiring whether there 
is probable g-round to believe that some one has committed 
a crime for which he shottld be put on public trial, hearing- 
sometimes a large number of witnesses, who are called 
before it one by one , and reporting the findingfs to the court , 
having: frequent occasions for communication with the 
judg:e, the clerk of the court, and with the official prosecutor, 
generally designated the state's or district attorney, for 
whom also it is almost universal, and highly desirable, to 
provide suitable offices in the court house, convenient to 
the court, the clerk's offices, and the g-rand jury quarters. 
The clerk of the court and the sheriff must each be provided 
with suitable offices. The number and character of rooms 
which each may require will depend upon the amount of 
business passing through the court. If the latter is an 
active court, constantly in session, trying:many cases, both 
the clerk and the sheriff will require a number of deputies. 
The clerk will require ample storag-e space for the con- 
stantly accumulating- papers, records, and dockets, and as 
these are public records they should be capable of being- 
stored so as to be accessible to the public and yet be under 
official supervision, to prevent destruction or mutilation. 
The sheriff will require, in addition to office room for him- 

self and his deputies, one or more lockups, in which he 
may temporarily detain ])ersons committed to his custody. 
Though this is not usual, I believe that the sheriff should 
be provided, either in the court house orelsewhere, a store- 
room in which he may keep property taken under a levy 
and held for sale or other disposition under the direction 
of the court. Such a room would save litigants the stor- 
age charg-es which often make an execution fruitless. 

As the court in reality consists of the judge, the clerk, and 
the sheriff, communication between these officials is fre- 
quent, and the accessibility of the offices of the clerk and 
sheriff" to the court and to each other is a matter of impor- 
tance ; but as the clerk and sheriff have functions to perform 
toward the public, the accessibility of their offices to the 
l^ublic must not be lost sight of. The court room and the 
offices of the clerk and sheriff should all be spacious enough 
for the present and provide for future growth. There are 
few of the court houses in the larger cities, even the newest 
ones, that, if they are not already outgrown, are not seen 
to be inadequate for more than one or two decades. Even 
the simplest form of court house, such as I have indicated, 
will offer to the architect an interesting study in heating, 
lighting, ventilation, arrangements, and construction. The 
court room itself is a hearing room and its acoustic proper- 
ties are of prime consideration. The room may be one in 
which a practised orator could easily make himself heard, 
but even if law\'ers and judges may be expected to be prac- 
tised in public speaking, it must be remembered that the 
evidence by which the causes are to be decided comes from 
witnesses, many of whom are in unfamiliar surroundings, 
are frightened or timid and cannot be induced to si)eak 
loudly, and it is essential that they should be heard, not only 
by the lawyers, but by the judge and the jury. Nothing is 
more tiresome than continually reminding witnesses to 
s])eak louder, while the jury and judge are straining their 
ears in a vain endeavor to hear ; and this difficulty should be 
diminished as far as practicable by having a room in which 
hearing isnot only possible but easy. The court room should 
be lighted by windows on hco sides and preferably on two 
opposite sides. The proper heating and ventilating of the 
court room are scarcely less important than its acoustics. 
The audience in a court room fluctuates considerably, not 
only from day to day, but during the hoiirs of the same 
day. The temperature of the room and the purity of the 
air are largely affected by the number of persons who are 
in it and the length of time they remain. 

The i^lans and sj^ecifications of the court house niust 
take into accoimt the fact that all kinds and conditions of 
people come to the court room, the washed and the un- 
washed, the well and those bearing the seeds of disease, 
and it should be a room that is sanitary in its construction 
and ap])ointments, and that can be easily and quickly 
cleaned. The ordinary court room for the trial of causes 
in the first instance is no place for plush hangings, carpets, 
and draperies. It should be as sanitary in its construction 
and furnishings as the ward of a modern hosi)ital. 

When we pass the simplest form of court house, suit- 
able for a county seat or small town, and come to the 
elaborate structure needed to house the complicated and 
varying system of courts provided for our larger cities, with 
their numerous j^arts and officers, the architectural problem 
becomes more difficult and complex. Its satisfactory 
solution can only be obtained by a full understanding of 


the exact public functions the several courts pciform, of 
their interdependence and their relationship to one another 
and to the numerous officials connected therewith. The 
vital questions of convenience of arrang-ement, of heating- 
and ventilation, and acoustics are all presented in a more 
acute form, and the architect who, with the aid of the 

into the court rooms must be screened of dust and dirt, as 
well as artificially heated in cold weather or cwled in hot 
weather, to a proix-r temperature. The nearer automatic 
a heating and ventilating plant can Ix; made the Ix'tter ; 
and whatever cannot be automatic should be as simple and 
as easily operated as practicable. I have seen the cheese 


Herbert U. Hale and James rFatiil)el Rogers, Architects. 

building committee, shall resolve them wisely has a task 
that may engag-e his best talents and most consummate 
skill. "Quo difficilius eo pntclarius " is a motto that 
comes back to me in this connection, from my college days. 
If he succeeds he should be ilhistrious. In many of our 
cities where unfortunately and unnecessarily the smoke 
nuisance still prevails, the air which is to be introduced 

cloth cut from screens when it became clogged with dirt, 
because this was easier than renewing- it, and I have seen 
exhaust fans at the top of stacks left idle for long periods 
because the\- were difficult of access ff)r j^urposes of oiling 
and repair, and because, in the absence of complaints on 
the part of the patient occupants of rooms, the operators 
thought they could be dispensed with. 


u. s. 

The problem of acoustics is otten accentuated in cities 
by the street noises and traffic. If possible, the site of the 
coi:rt house should be sufficiently lartje to allow the build- 
ing to be surrounded by grounds or gardens spacious 
enough to remove it from such disturbances. The archi- 
tectural features of the 
building will not only 
be enhanced, but the 
grounds will afford a 
small public park. 

The progressive city 
of to-day is concerned 
with city planning, and 
when a new court 
house is contemplated 
it should by all means 
be located so as to form 
part of the city plan or 
civic center where, 
with proper surround- 
ings, may be grouped 
the more important 
municipal buildings. 
Where it is not possible 
to remove the court 
house from the street 
sufficiently to minimize street noises, probably the best 
that can be done is to place the offices on the exterior 
sides of the structure and to have the court rooms opening 
upon interior light courts. This arrangement has proved 
very satisfactory in some of the modern court houses 
whose fa(;ades 

are directly 

upon busy 


such as the 

Baltimore and 

Boston court 


The court 

houses of the 

c o u n t r \' are 

usually the 

storehouses of 

the books and 

records contain- 
ing the evidence 

iipon which de- 

l)ends the title 

of all real estate, 

and every cotirt 

house should, in 

addition to the 

other security it 

affords these 

records, be an 

absolutely fire- 
proof structure. 

It should not 

only be fire- 
proof, but it 

should have ade- 
quate interior 


Clarke & Howe, Architects. 


fire protection. It was not only the character of its con- 
struction, but its interior fire equipment, which preserved 
the Baltimore Court House from more serious injury in the 
great conflagration which befell that city in 1904 and saved 
the citizens the untold loss and litigation which would have 

resulted from the de- 
struction of the land 
records stored therein. 
I probably cannot 
better close this paper 
than by accompanying 
it with the floor plans 
of the court house with 
which I am most fa- 
miliar, having been a 
member of the building 
committee under which 
it was constructed, 
and, as a judge of the 
Supreme Bench which 
occupies it, having sat 
in every court room it 
contains and heard it 
variously praised and 

It is a white marble 
building, resting upon a granite base of classic architec- 
ture of the Ionic order. It cost, exclusive of ground, 
$2,261,110.38. The building committee, appointed under 
an ordinance of the mayor and city council, and unpaid, 
was composed of business and professional men who were 

required to 
select the archi- 
tect and plans of 
the building by 
a public compe- 
tition among 
architects. The 
building com- 
mittee first se- 
lected a profes- 
sional adviser, 
the late Prof. 
Wm. R.Ware of 
Columbia Uni- 
versity. Under 
his direction 
they prepared a 
prospectus of in- 
formation for 
the use of the 
competitors . 
This informa- 
tion had been 
gathered from 
every person 
who had any 
cf)nnection with 
the courts — 
judges, lawyers, 
clerks, sheriff, 
and officials of 
the citv. These 


Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 


were asked, in detail, what rooms they needed for present 
use and future g-rowth, how they were to be used, how 
connected, how located with reference to courts and corri- 
dors, what size rooms were required, what papers and books 
they had to care for, what toilet accommodations, wash 
rooms, etc. , were desired. All of the information was care- 
fully gone over by the committee in consultation with the 
officers and with their professional adviser, and after 
the reasonableness of requirements was fully considered, 
the prospectus was compiled and issued to the architects in 
a printed pamphlet containing a description of the site, the 
difficulties to be overcome, the accommodations reciuired 
in the building", and the rules of the competition. I am 
not here concerned with the merits of a competition, or the 

Court, three courts of ordinary common law jurisdiction 
(called respectively the Su])erior Court, the Common Pleas 
Court, and the Haltimore City Court ), two E(|uily Courts, an 
()ri)hans' Court, and a Sui)rcme Hench, at that time consist- 
ing of six members. The judges of the Supreme Bench sit 
together for a few purposes, but its members are assigned 
to hold the other courts, above mentioned, except the 
Orphans' Court, which has a separate bench of judges. 
I'^ach of these courts has its clerk or register, and there is 
one sheriff serving the pnK-ess of all the- courts. The care 
and custody of the record books, in which deeds, mort- 
gages, and other papers affecting the titles to land arc 
recorded, are a part of the duty of the clerk of the Superior 
Court. The court house was also designed t" accommo- 




COOK corxTv coiTRT;, Chicago, ill 

Ilolaljird it Kdclie, Arcliitoct.s. 

best method of conducting one, but as a result of the 
method adopted, a plan was found which offered a satis- 
factory solution of the problem, and when the names of the 
authors of the plan, J. B. Noel Wyatt and Wm. (J. Nolting, 
were revealed, being recognized as competent and experi- 
enced in their profession, they were appointed architects 
of the building and commissioned to give to the ]M-obk-m 
more careful study on the lines of the plan submittfd and 
prepare the detail drawings and specifications. 

The building is not only notable for its architectural 
beauty, but it has, in use, proved in the main highly sat- 
isfactory. It was designed to accommodate a Criminal 

date the bf)ard of police commissioners and the marshal 
and deputy marshal of police, and the library of the Balti- 
more bar. with its many thousand volumes of law lxM)ks. 
The site of the court house is a whole city blfK.k, and the 
surrounding streets are busy thoroughfares. The block 
was not large enough to withdraw the fa<;ades of the struc- 
ture from the streets, and the prf)blem of street noises had 
to l)e contended with. It was met, as I have previously 
indicated, by placing the more important court rrK>ms cm 
the interior of the building, with windows opening upon 
light courts on two sides, as many as six court r(K)ms and 
the record office being so located. As illustrating how 


difficult it is to anticipate the future, it may be mentioned 
that, inasmuch as but one additional court had been found 
necessary for the city of Baltimore in the preceding- quarter 
of a century, it was thoujrht that if additional court rooms 
were provided, which would allow the doubling of the 
Supreme Bench in the next half centur\-, this would be 
suflticient. The court house had not been occupied for a 
decade, when four of the additional court rooms were 
already occupied b.\- additional judges of the Supreme 
Bench and another by the judge of the Juvenile Court, 
a new tribunal which was not contemplated at all when 
the court house was planned. 

The first floor plan of the Baltimore Court House will 
show the location of some of the principal court rooms on 
interior courts, and one of them, the Criminal Court, will 
serve as an example of a court room, of admirable dimen- 
sions, quiet, removed from street noise, well lighted and 
ventilated, sanitary, conveniently located with reference 

unload in a court yard away from the public, and ascend to 
the lockups where they are kept until their cases are 
called, and they enter the court room from the rear and 
out of the reach of public attack or possible rescue. The 
judge also has a private entrance to his chambers, from a 
side corridor, and ascends the bench without having to 
pass through that jxjrtion of the court room open to the 

It is not often, fortunately, that our public officials are 
in dang-er of personal attack at the hands of individuals, 
but there have been and may still be such times, and both 
convenience and safety may be proper considerations in 
planning for the entrance of tlie judge to the court room. 
The marble screen around this jjortion of the court room 
also affords a cloak room. 

The modern court house is coming more and more to be 
considered not only the Temple of Justice but a i^lace 
where people may be taught the value and beauty of art. 

-r" — h 


feD f^LOOK PlA 


ri6rJr-Ci-go£. ■ pl-sa. 

Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 

to the clerk's office, states attorney's offices and the 
gjand jury rooms, and with subsidiary rooms, sufficient in 
number, admirably arranged and answering well the pur- 
poses for which they were intended. This room is wains- 
coted in marble to the height of ten feet, and has a 
terrazo-mosaic floor, which can be washed in the niglit, 
and all the fixed furniture is of marble. The judge's bench 
is opposite the entrance from the lobby, and is in front of 
a marble screen of the same height as the wainscoting, 
which screen extends entirely across this end of the room 
and along that part of the adjacent sides which is behind 
the jury boxes. Behind this screen the jury retire to their 
rooms, which are in mezzanines below. The judge also 
retires to his private room behind this screen, and the 
prisoners are taken to the lockups in the basement, where 
there are separate accommodations for male and female 
prisoners, with toilets, and a room where they can consult 
with their attorneys out of the presence of the guard. 
The prisoners are brought from the jail in vans, which 

where the noble deeds of the past and the present may be 
commemorated by great mural paintings, and where the 
l)ortraits and statues of great lawyers, statesmen, and cit- 
izens may be ]>reserved. 

No architect could of course sacrifice the utility of his 
building or any part of it to jirovide spaces for decorations, 
but he may well remember that some of the wall S]xices may 
in the future, if not immediatel}-, become places for such 
decorations, and he may take this into consideration when 
locating such things as flues and ventilators and electric 
lights. I have seen a splendid wall space rendered un- 
suitable for mural decoration b\- a hideous black register 
placed right in the middle of it. 

Court house planning is full of interest, and while 
there are some matters which are common to the ])lan- 
ning of all court houses, I must reiterate that each court 
house is a distinct and separate problem, the planning 
of which is worthy of any architect's best endeavor and 
most careful study. 


A House of Unusual Architectural Merit. 



I WAS requested some time ago to write a short article 
describing briefly some country house which impressed 
me as having- unusual merit from an architectural stand- 

It has been my good fortune to find such a place near at 
hand, in Sewickley Heights. It is the property of jVIrs. 
Wm. Thaw, Jr., and through the kindness of the family I 
was permitted to take numerous photographs of the place 
and insjicct it thoroughly. In this house the unity between 
the landscape and the architecture is very complete, and 
the house looks as if it had grown from its surroundings in 
a very natural way. The proportions of this house are 
exceptionally fine and the grouping of the various parts is 
most successfully done. On entering the grounds from 
the main highway there is no sign of the house, only beau- 
tiful trees and planting, and only when within a very short 
distance of the entrance does the house come to view, as 
shown in the accom- 
panying picture, the first 
view of this charming 
house. As will be seen, 
the long beautiful lines 
of the place are con- 
trasted by the ■vertical 
ones of the poplar trees. 
In the next picturcwill 
be seen the ])orte- 
cochfere, which is a ver\' 
useful one as well as 
being good looking. 
Passing from the porte- 
cochere to the main 
house through a gal- 
lery of some length one 
enters the main hall, 
directly under the fine 
staircase, which is of 
great beauty. On either 
side are coat rooms, and 


from Ikmv one passes to the garden site. The interior of 
the hou.^e is very charming and carried out in the best 
and simplest of taste, and it is seldom that I have seen an 
effect of such simplicity and artistic merit. 

On leaving the interior of the house one enters a long 
porch, which can be seen in the ensemble of the house in 
picture of garden side of house. It runs the entire length 
of the house and is most comfortable. The view from this 
porch is ver\ fine, and overlooks a beautiful country on 
which there arc no buildings whatever and, hence, it gives 
the effect of a beautiful park. 

There is a fine garden at one end of the house which is 
enclosed in pergolas, which in themselves are works of art, 
on account of their architectural simplicity and the mag- 
nificent planting with which they are covered. The little 
garden itself is exquisite in its layout, and I cannot descrilK- 
the beauty that impresses one ujion entering it. 

On the other end of 
the house are the serv- 
ants' (piarters and serv- 
ice yard. This service 
yard is most skilfully 
and beautifully ar- 
ranged, as the i)ictures 
illustrate. The level of 
this service yard is nnich 
lower than the level of 
the main terraces of the 
house, and it is entirely 
surrounded by walls 
which are beautifully 
planted. In this place 
is also the drying yard, 
and one would be at a 
loss to find where this 
necessary i)ortion of the 
house is located. It is 
usually entirely too 
much in evidence. 



m m 


hca\'y walls, as the 

The house is 
situated on the 
top of a hill, 
which slopes 
very jfentl.v in 
all directions 
and is a natu- 
ral site, which 
was not diffi- 
cult to build 
upon. The 
terraces are 
s i m p ] y of 
.ijrass, as will 
be seen in the 
and it w^as un- 
necessary to 
H'round did not 

build large, 
necessitate it. 

Another feature of this estate is the excellent wa.v in 
which the stables, .t^arasje, and servants' quarters are 
arrantfed. They are built around a little garden yard 
entirely out of sight of the main house and at a much 
lower level, and the little buildings themselves are exeep- 
tionallv attractive. 

In conclu- 
sion I wish to 
say that I think 
this house and 
groimds have 
all the chief 
u n d e r 1 y i n g' 
princijjles of 
good architec- 
ture and good 
gardenings, and 
it is merely for 
this reason that 
it is a success. 
The details and 
materials, how- 
ever, are very 
important in 

the result. I regret that the photographs are not better 
than they are, as it certainly would be possible to get better 
illustrations of this place, but I hope that they will answer 
their purpose in showing to any one who is interested in 
beautiful architecture and landscape work a sjjlendid ex- 
ample, and one which is full of inspiration for the architect, 
owner, and every one who has anything to do with this 
sort of place. 











1 1 

Recent American Group-Plans. 



AS the older American colleges have retained and 
developed the Campus, enlarging it as much as exist- 
ing bi;ildings permitted, so in most of the recent plans for 
altogether new sites, the Campus forms the central motive. 
The plainest and simplest as well as the more elaborate 
have given it great importance; the central groups of 
Piedmont and Rollins in the south and the George Pea- 
body College in Tennessee are each nothing more than a 
Campus surrounded by separate buildings, a broad stretch 
of greensward bordered 
by paths or driveways 
with the buildings on 
the farther sides, just as 
the white- painted 
houses stretched along 
the marginal roadways 
of the Village-Green in 
Colonial New England. 
The long rectangular 
form has been changed 
to the " P " of Rollins 
College or the oval of 
Piedmont, or the T- 
shaped upper Campus 
of Peabody,' but the 
similarity is clear; the 
marginal paths are 
edged 'by rows of trees 
or even colonnades to 
bind together the sepa- 
rate buildings beyond 
them . 

These three are not 
competitive plans, given 
as an architect's per- 
sonal conception, but 
the result of close per- 
sonal contact between 
architect and client. As 
a type they show several 
usual desiderata of col- 
lege trustees; for in- 
stance, in the wide sepa- 
ration of the buildings, that the wind may blow around 
and between them, in the possibly erroneous belief that 

Beverly S. King, Architect. 

more easily confined to one (this, of course, in a non-fire- 
proof construction); again, lliat tlie president be able to 
point on the plan to a certain site and say to a possible 
futtire donor: 

"This is the hall you must give; it will be a lasting 
memorial ; you may name it Such-and-Such Hall ; it is a 
unit in our scheme, part of no other building, and its design 
and details you may govern, subject only. . ." etc. 

The Peabody College, on a much larger scale than the 

other two, is more formal 
and closely knit together 
in its parts, with varied 
levels of upper and 
lower campus and fur- 
ther extensions to the 
side beyond Hillsboro 
Road. The trustees de- 
sired that all l)uildings 
be connected under 
cover and had in mind 
the colonnades of one 
or two old Southern col- 
leges and perhaps the 
University of Virginia, 
which Peabody College 
suggests in otiier ways; 
there is the same com- 
position, and a stateli- 
ncss in its architecture 
without a hard formal- 
ity . The tree-masses of 
the Lower Caminis en- 
liance a certain softness, 
sweetness, hunianness 
— whatever one can call 
it — fin'tliered by several 
irregular grouj^s of trees 
remaining in the Upi>er 
Campus, somewhat as 
Thornton suggested for 
tlie I'niversity of Vir- 
ginia when he advised 
that " the site be chosen 

Wliitfielfl Sc King, Architects. 
Irreeularly shaped Campus ; Chapel as dominant .,n minor .nxis, which passe, lliroiigh Railroa.l 
Station and Stadium ; the whole an unsynimctrical composition on two a»es, defective in that 
there is no worthy building in place of honour at head of main axis. 

in the woods, clearing out whatever is not wanted, chnni)- 
ing the most beautiful and thriving of the forest trees in 
handsome groves, and leaving straggling ones occasionally, 

thus they are better ventilated; further, that a fire might be 




Ludlow and Peabody, Architects ; Warren H. Manning, Landscape Designer. 

Forecourt and Campus, Instructional Huildings, natural woodland to remain cleared of underbrush ; group at head of plan, Residential and Social, composed of Chapel and Fine Arts 
Museum surrounded by Dormitories. Sustained interest effected by the several terraced levels, each inviting exploration. 

by which Nature may be so artificially imitated as to ])ro- 
dnce a perfect picture ..." 

On the contrary, in the new plans for Minnesota Uni- 
versity there has been no attempt in any way to reduce 
the formality. Of the highest dig'nity, austere, cold ; with 
Campus conventionalized until it is more the nature of a 
Court of Honour, these plans outdo Columbia in severity 
and. recall the orig-inally accepted Benard plan for Cali- 
fornia, now discarded ; clipped tree-hedges take the place 
of Thornton's scattered clumps ; Nature is no longer 
"Artfully imitated " ! 

The "single great impression" has been attained — a 
high development and a direct and consistent of the Open 
Court, for which the Closed Court of the competitiv^e draw- 
in.g was thrown over. A sense of great distance follows 
the removal of the building at the foot. Whereas the 
c()mi)etitive i)lan's impression was limited by the enclosing 
buildings, that of the new includes the water-gate, the 
river and the shores beyond, far greater, a grou])-plan 
surpa.ssed in dignity by none of the other colleges, the 
expositions, or even the civic centers, Washington alone 

Great monumentality, one is sometimes temj^ted to 
think, is opposed to variety. Boston College of the Jesuits 
has chosen variety ; wisely, since it is comparatively small, 
without the monumental possibilities of Minnesota. The 
premiated and second-placed designs show different points 
of view. The site is a curved hill-top, paralleling vSouth 
street to the west and sloping toward the east to Lawrence 
Basin. The second-placed design is a frank and absolutely 
natural expression of the topography. The curved Campus 
follows the hill-crest ; flanking the forecourt are the semi- 
public church and auditorium ; bordering the Campus are 
the buildings for administration, instruction, and the 
college chapel ; the court of the dormitories, or Houses of 
Retreat as they call them, is beyond, opening to the 
southeast, and the gymnasium and athletic field close 
the curved axis, segregated but united organically with 
the college proper. Except for the entrance tower set 
awkwardly athwart the main approach, and a lack of co- 
ordination between several of the buildings, it seems an 
almost perfect plan, bvit open to one criticism which prob- 
ably affected the award. Until all the buildings for in- 
struction should be completed, the Campus would appear 

A Closed Court ; 
Water-Gate; present 
in the composition. 

SUCCESSi-i'i. cciMPiniTix i: I'l 

ground gently sloping toward foot of Court, then abruptly down to 
buildings on irregular oval above head of Court and not included 

Composition cluinged to ()pen Court ; closely littinc contours; interesting development 
of abrupt slope at foot of Court, with Water-Gate, Classic Theater, and Botanic Gardens. 
Auditorium in place of honour, flanked by Library and Museum. 

Cass Gilbert, Architect. 




Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects. 

Formal but complex arrangement of many small Open and Closed Courts, strongly 
united by lines of circulation ; Variety and Intimacy sought, rather than the " Simple 
Impression," therefore adapted to a gradual construction with group after group liuilt as 

formless and straggling, and the same is true of the dormi- 
tory court, a fence lacking several palings, as it were. 

The successful plan groups the instruction and adminis- 
tration about four courts so that one may be completed 
after another, as one Oxford quadrangle was comjileted 
after another, and the group may appear finished at each of 
its several stages. On plan it appears as a single composi- 
tion, the type formerly described as the Pyramid, with the 
Recitation Hall as the center ; but in reality this hall is 
little higher than the others, and its tower (actually changed 
to a metal cupola), insufficient in mass to dominate, as for 
instance the domed library dominates Columbia, not only 
by its greater height but by its simpler, larger motives 
and different material. In short, the Boston plan is a com- 
plex composition of four courts, the squarish mass of the 
four-fronted Recitation Hall common to them all. 

The dormitories seem somewhat straggling, placed to 
fit the irregular ground, but being much of a size and 
shape seem casually dropped into their several positions. 
The exterior of the group seems, too, somewhat disjointed 
compared with that of the other competitor, and the gym- 
nasium as dominating the athletic field is less fortunately 
placed ; but the plan has the important possibility of sec- 
tional construction, and one .great quality outweighs man\- 
minor faults. Such a plan is elastic; positions of build- 
ings are not rigidly fixed and the several jxirts can be 
restudied as the plan is carried out. 

Imagine this in the Cour d'Honneur of Minnesota, or 
the same Cour d'Honneur with several buildings not yet 
constructed ! To be sure the court could be finst finished 
and the groups beyond the side streets considered as future 
extensions, but such evidently is not the intention. One 
is somehow tempted t(j think the whole scheme too 
grandiose for its purpose. 

Rice Institute seems to have solved this difficulty in a 
somewhat different way. The land is perfectly flat ; there 
were no existing buildings. The large central court was 
first surveyed, planted, and developed ; now the buildings 
around it have begun to be erected. The several sub- 
sidiary courts can be finished one after another, so at no 
time may the group seem a great attempt impractical to 
carry out. It is a curious composition in many ways, a 
series of open and closed courts intimately connected, 
rather original, and suggests the same author's Sweet 
Briar Institute. 

A similar development has actually taken place in the 
University of Georgia. Seven years ago the college con- 

sisted of thirty-odd acres with a .grouji of about 
a Campus similar to the Village (ireen in every way, oi)en 
at the foot, with separate buildings along the sides and the 
College Chapel at the head. Recent i)urchascs have added 
some nine hundred acres beyond the Chapel, and there 
one group after another is bein.g developed : the Engineer- 
ing group beyond on the main axis, the Women's College 
to the east, the Athletic Field to the west, and the Agri- 
cultural School at the head of great farms and w(X)dland 
beyond, with the various dormitories scattered 
about tlic side of the highroad ; a clever and an absolutely 
natural development, and therefore worth attention ; the 
develoiMnent of .group after group. 

Group after group can be constructed, too, in the 
Western University of Pennsylvania, an Acropolis, a col- 
lege city crowded on a hill-top with plazas, streets, and 
avenues. Of course, a pyramidal comi)osition was forced 
by the site, and to better accomplish this, the central 
building in the later study of the plan here given was 
advanced to the edge of the slope, in the center of what 
was, in the comi^etitive plan, the Court of Honour. The 
lower buildings clustered about it, — the professional 
schools and laboratories on the terraced slopes in front, 
the library and dormitory courts behind. 

So much for the classic plans. Altogether different 
principles of composition are develoj^in.g from the tradi- 
tions of the English universities. They first each con- 
sisted of two or three small closed quadrangles, exactly 
similar to the contemporary manor-houses, such as llad- 


Palmer & Hornbostle, Architecl.s. 

In effect a College City, on a steep hill ; Pyramidal Compoiilion, 10 rnhanre whicli 
and prevent its foresliorteninK from below, ilie Central Ifuildins \% brought ff>t«ard to the 
center of what was the Court of Honour; Technical lluildingi around it, rrofes»ioral 
Sciioolt on the lower ilopea, Dormitorici in the rear. 





don Hall. Doctor Kays, or Caius, as he preferred to spell 
his name, bitterly opposed the closed courts, and in rebuild- 
ing his own college at Cambridge shut in the southern 
side by merely a low wall, for better ventilation. The 
"Open-Fronted Quadrangle," Mr. Edward Warren re- 
cently called it. Trinity later sought to accomplish the 
same result in a different way. Wren built his library over 
an open arcade, that the wind 
might blow under it and thor- 
oughly air the quadrangle. 

■ Among the first to introduce 
the English Closed Quad- 
rangle in America — at the 
University of Pennsylvania 
— were Cope and Stewardson, 
who held that the air of a 
quadrangle was not stagnant; 
that the wind blowing across 
the buildings struck the 
range on the further side and 
caused a convection current 
which swept the enclosure 
clean. They have had such 
faith in this that the later 
dormitories there show ciuad- 
rangles smaller than ever. 
But at Princeton and Br\'n Mawr the\^ developed what may 
be called y\'ci>/_i,ns, irregular buildings end to end in a con- 
tinuous broken line, at Princeton, for instance, several hun- 
dred feet in length, the dormitories of Blair Hall and 
Stafford Little, and the gymnasium. This is the type of 
that portion of the Sage-Pierson group of labcjratories now 
under construction at Yale. 

The type fits itself to irregular ground, as in the rather 
erratic Richmond College, more erratic in drawing than 
in realitN' since the Ranges follow the crest of an extremely 
irregular hill and enclose a tortuous, somewhat star-shaped 
plateau at the summit. 

On a flat site the Range of course becomes an Open 
Court, as at Andover. In this form it was perhaps first 
used here by Mr. Charles Hai^ght in old Columbia and the 
General Theological Seminary in New York ; but on 
irregular ground the Rani?e is at its best, following the lie 
of the land, forward and back, an Open Court here, a 
Closed Court there, natural, of a varied and interesting 

Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 

of infinite variety and picturesque possibilities. Does 
this suggest a fault with such a plan as that of Peabody 
or Minnea]:)olis ? Either group will appear part finished 
until the last building is done. Before this happens a 
totally different construction may be necessary, just as the 
laboratories of twenty years ago must be put to other uses 
now. There is no way of completely varying the type, or 
II M after the court is finished of 

I I — ' expanding, except by starting 

a new group which will re- 
main unfinished in its turn. 
Arc we trying so hard to do 
things in a noble way that 
perhaps would be better if 
we approached them more 
naturally ? 

On the other hand, certain 
donors will insist that their 
particular buildings be se]>a- 
rated from all others, and with 
a fre(|uent repetition of this 
demand the effective Range 
is sjxjilt. True, they have 
not taken this stand at the 
Pennsylvania dormitories, for 
each donor has given a 
" house " or set of chambers, which, though it has a sepa- 
rate entrance and is shut off at the ends with fire-walls, is 
nevertheless part of a kmg continuous building. 

After all, the clients determine the style, and as long as 
they are all at odds as to what they want, there seems 
little hope for harmony in the design of American colleges. 
The architects are apparently as much at odds among 
themselves and the war goes merrily on. Formality seems 
pro]ier to some, the more formal the better ; a picturesque 
irreg-ularity to others ; separate buildings on the one hand. 
Ranges on the other ; classic traditions of the Academy 
and Stoa Poikile against Anglo-Saxon of the Hall and 
Quadrangle. There seems no tendency toward com- 
promise. The latest classic at Minneapolis is more rigid 
and cold than the first at Virginia, the last Gothic at Rich- 
mond more riotously irregular than the first at old Columbia 
or the comparative trancpullity of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. The types are steadily diverging, and as to a 
possible local college style, it has crashed into the gap 

skyline, completely flexible, never appearing as unfinished, between them 



Chas. C. Haight, Architect. 

Laboratories of Physics, Botany, and Zoology ; in composition typify the Range rather 
than the Open Court, an American development of the English tradition. 


Allen & Collens, .Xrchitects. 
Knglisli tradition, formally treated as an Open Court ; a connected series of various 


































VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE I. 


VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE 2. 




U) o 

>- (^ 

S i 

OD u 



Z < 

D "^ 







VOL. 22. NO. I. PLATE 3. 





03 u 


tr < 

Z < 

D '^ 







VOL. 22, NO. 1. PLATE 4. 

THE H R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 1. PLATE 5. 


VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE 6. 




THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 1. PLATE 7. 





VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE S. 

THE B R I C K Bin L I) ]■: R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE 9, 


VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE 10. 







VOL. 22, NO. I. PLATE 1 


• 9HOW Boon* 

^^- f |1 





■ cMic r'. :• u : "iG ef noWs pi.aNo c 

riP-3T FLCQW dl-A."! • 




VOL. 22, NO. 1. PLATE I.T 

DccoaLd tLooc- PlaW 

By'ij Iimiu l-'i A7i 


VOL. 22. NO. 1. 

PLATE 13. 


THE B R I C K R r I 

VOL. 22, NO. 1. 

L I ) i^; R . 

PLATE 14. 



VOL. 22. NO. 1. PLATE 15. 




VOL. 22, NO. 1. PLATE 16. 


r|)rn^ 1' r 




t . 

■ : I 


— lii': 



ID t 

< u 

I- " 

z 5 

< ^ 

< 2 

Z z 


z < 


1 < 






1^ ^ ^, U,^ 

A Nantucket Pilo:rima":e. 

BY HUBERT G . K 1 1' LEV. 

IT IS now time to return to the square and there take a 
ten-cent carriage to the bathing beach. Here are all the 
modern appliances and plenty of clean white sand. Flocks 
and bevies of corn-fed Venuses, either taking a sun bath 
or dashing through the clear warm waves, lend added 
charm to the view. The pursuit of art need not be 
abandoned here, as Nantucket in all her moods is equally 

After a refreshing bath in the ocean, followed by a lunch 
or luncheon, depending upon the fancy of the voyager, the 
afternoon may either be profitably employed in further 
rambles about the town, or a little trip to some of the attrac- 
tions further afield. Only a very few of the good things 
to be seen can be mentioned. An essay might be written on 
the subject of Nantucket doorways, another on the "walks 
to be found on most of the roofs of the old houses, from 
which coign of vantage the departure and return of tlie 
old sailing vessels was watched. One mi.ght suppose that 
a piazza on the roof of a house would be a disfigurement, 
but these are all handled so naturally and unobtrusively as 
to lend an added attraction to the simi)le fagades. There 
is one house where a smuggler is said to have lived, in 
which a secret cellar is reached only by going first up on 
the "walk" on top of the roof. This is not generally 
known and was told us in confidence. 

The Athenaeum is a fine Greek structure of the 1840 
type the lower story being used as a public library, and 
there is a museum or Historical Society building not far 
away, full of marvelous wonders pertaining to a .seafarmg 
community. The old curiosity shop on the same street is 
a perfect microcosmos and pantechnicon of delight to the 
collector There may be found exposed for sale most any- 
thin"" the fancy could desire, from a pious tract containing 
an account of the death of Mary Ann Clap, only daughter 

of jabez and Mehitable Clap, to a large saucer of eye 
stones, and a model of a full-rigged ship. Honorable men- 
tion should be made of the Ice Cream Cone Shop near by, 
where home-made, simon-pure, ethcrial, and flaky gaufrette 
cones, like mother used to make, may be had for a most 
moderate sum. 

A triji to Nantucket without making a visit to Siasconsct 
would be only half a feast, and it is immaterial whether 
the jom-ney is taken in the morning or the afternoon. In 
cither case it will be necessary to do a marathon from tlie 
hotel to the railroad terminus after breakfast or lunch, or 
else hire a carriage and drive over in luxury. There is 
not nnich difference in the cost, if there are four or more 
in the party, as the railroad fare is sixty cents a round trip 
for an eight-mile journey. The railroad is a narrow g'auge 
affair with a prcraphaelite engine and two cars, which 
rattle and bum]) and bang, and back and fill and wheeze, 
and snort and scream and groan, and finally land one 
safely only by the grace of an all-wise and overseeing 
Providence. If the trip is made in the morning there will 
be a good ojiportunity, after wandering about the town, to 
take a dip in the ocean, and let the big rollers, that come 
straight across the Atlantic Ocean all the way without 
interrui)tion direct from Sixain, tumble you over and over 
and fill your mouth and cars with sand. Everyb<Kly goes 
in bathing at eleven o'clock. The beach is splendid and 
stretches for miles and miles in either direction, and there 
is no end to the amount of sand, dazzlingly white and fine, 
piled ui> in great mounds and hummcK-ks. so that when the 
waves up-end the bather, one lands on a nice soft surface. 
The combers are often of great size, but there is no under- 
tow and an entire absence of rocks. 

Originally Sconsct was a fishing village, and the hr»uses 
comijosing it were used only ff>r a few weeks in the spring 



and fall seasons, the 
fishing- being- pursued 
from dories launehed 
with some considerable 
skill through the heavy 
breakers. As little was 
needed in the way of 
accommodation, the 
houses are all very tiny 
and built on the scale of 
about six inches to the 
foot. Everything- is one- 
half full size or even 
less, and perhaps that is 
the reason why they look 
so g-ood. We all know 
our drawings look well 
at small scale, while the 
actuality at full size is 
sometimes appalling. 

Rarel\- do any of the 
houses have a second 
story and most all of 
them show evidences of 
additions and alterations 
made by the sun-imer 
residents, who have pur- 
chased the old fishing- 
cottages and adapted 
them to their needs. 
Strangely enough these 
chang-es have not in the 

least spoiled the original outlines, rather have they added 
to their picturesqueness. The whole village is perfectly 
ripping:, an ab.solute scream froni one end to the other with 
but few exceptions. 

There must be at least a thousand corking sul)jects for 
sketching- purposes and innumerable variations on each 
theme. There are several " oldest " houses and, while all 
the types are similar and hanuonious, no two are just 

Sankatv lighthouse is at the extreme end of the villag-e 

and i)ieturesciuely lo- 
cated on the high sand 
dunes. It is a pleasant 
little walk to Sankaty, 
and if a longer ranible 
is desired, one can keep 
on following- the shore 
to Quidnct, about a mile 
and a half further. This 
is a small settlement of 
a handful of uninterest- 
ing- houses and is called 
Sachacha, the site of the 
ancient Indian villag:e of 
Pee-dee, A.v. 1700. 

The most curious and 
interesting: sight in the 
village is a g:ateway 
made by using- the two 
jaw-bones of an enor- 
mous whale as gate- 
]iosts. This was surely 
some whale in its day, 
capable of swallowing, 
whole, a trolley car or a 
Bai)tist picnic. Each 
bone is about sixteen feet 
long: and of the diameter 
of a barrel in its larg-est 

After wandering- 
about until tired, and 
still not having- half seen all that is desirable, it would be a 
wise and judicious thing- to do, to stop in for tea at the 
" Chanticleer." This is a bully little place, neat as wax 
and far nicer and with better things to eat and drink than 
can be found in either Dorsetshire, Herts, or Bucks. The 
sandwiches are delectable, the cakes divine, and the tea 
steaming- hot and fragrant, with little puffs of spicy incense 
that project themselves from the kitchen in advance of 
its arrival. There are a number of these small tea rooms 
both in Sconset and Nantucket that specialize on various 











aliments, and when fatig'ucd from 
sig:ht-seein,^' it is a ])leasinff relaxation 
to visit the one most handy. Between 
Xantucket and Seonset are moors 
which are not the least of the attrac- 
tions of the island. Covered with 
scrub pine and low bushes they afford 
a variety of coloring which every 
jjainter delights in. Lonely fisher- ^'"*^ ■*""" 

men's cottag^cs are dotted throughout the moors, some of 
which are commonly believed to have been the haunts of 
smugglers. To a visitor imfamiliar with New England 

towns where 
many fine old 
houses are to be 
found, N a n - 
tucket is a reve- 
lation and de- 
light, Seonset is 
a b s o 1 u t e 1 y 

After having once taken a trip to vSconset even the most 
hardened and blase traveler will wish to go again ; in fact, 

one trip to the 
island only 
whets the api)e- 
tite for another, 
and the going 
soon becomes a 
habit and the 
departure a re- 
gret. To quote 
a celebrate d 
writer, " Nan- 
tucket is the 
A -r«.,tAx ^=.EePiAc.^ I'ltima Thule of 

the poet's dreams. It is the rose of 
the garden of ocean islands. It is 
vain to try to set forth its many 
charms in the hojie of doing it jus- 
tice, — it is a place to dream in while 
there, and to dream about when 
absent. It is an earthly paradise." 
Quoting still another who has become 
enthusiastic, " A town seated like an 

empress on her throne upon the rising shore and en- 
circling bluffs, and looking out on the i^eaceful harbor 

and beyond the restless sea. Historic in respect to a 

great industry, 

now dead, the 

nursery of noted 

men and high- 
bred women." 

In the little 

l)oem entitled 

Bliss Carman 

has i^resented a 

picture expi'css- 

ing better than 

any sketch or 

photograph the 

beauty and at- 
tractiveness of 

the island, 

which will ap- 

l)eal to all those 

who have l:)een 

t h e r e , a n d 

which will make 

all others long 

to go. 


Did you ever hear of 'Seonset, where there's nothing much 

but moors. 
And beach and sea and silence, and eternal out-of-doors, 
Where the azure round of ocean meets the paler dome of day. 
Where the sailing clouds of sufnmer on the sea-line melt away, 
And there's not an ounce of trouble 
An\-where ? 

Where the field-larks in the morning will be crying at the door, 
With the whisper of the moor-wind and the surf along the shore ; 
Where the little shingled houses down the little grassy street 
Are grey with salt of sea-winds, and the strong sea-air is sweet 
With the flowers in the door-yards ; 
Me for there. 

— B/iss Carina n. 



The North American Building, Chicacro, I 


THE North American Buiklino-, on the northwest cor- 
ner of State and Monroe streets, forms another 
link in the long: chain of higfh office building- development 
in Chicagfo. From the time of the old ]\Ionadnock Block. 
when composition and not conglomeration began to be 
studied by architects in the design of their building's, two 
main attempts at the solution of the problem have gone 
on. The first endeavored to make an ideal entity out of 
the complexity of motives. The composition became 
simple and well composed, with no accentuation of any one 
of the number of steel features forming its framework, 
whose actual sizes as conceived by the eye were not in 
proportion to their inherent strength, and whose functions 
had not the same simplicity as those of stone. The second, 
following- the line of structural expression, accentuated the 
main structural features, generally the perpendicular sup- 
ports, and developed these at the expense or forgetfulncss 
of the others. In the North American Building there 
seems to be a combination of the two above-mentioned 
solutions. It is designed as an immense glass show-case, 
supported by a lace-like framework of slender columns, 
mullions, and spandrels. Thus the entity of the building- 
has been striven for and the framework truthfully ex- 
pressed in the exterior features of the design. 

The difficulties of the problem determined the final 
resulting- design. The main obstacle lay in the demand of 
the lessees of the lower floors, that as far as possible an 
unbroken glass front, esjiecially in the show window of the 
first floor, should be maintained. Hence came to be posed 
the project — upon a wall of glass three stories high, in which 
only a few of the supports are visible — to erect a buiUling 
sixteen stories higher, in plan 96 x 130 feet, to the height of 
275 feet. To solve this problem was an engineering and an 
architectural feat which would have been impossible at any 
other period than the present, and yet in commercial com- 
munities the architect has often been called upon and com- 
pelled to attempt it. The Pylon treatments on the corners 
of the building partly destroyed that which the general 
design attempted to do, which was to lead the mind away 
from the distressing fact of a building held in mid-air by 
unseen supports. vSo followed the partie of an all-over 
glass treatment, and the selection of that style and that 
material for exterior veneer which would best subserve 
the effect of lightness and best express the steel-supporting 

The Gothic style, associated with concentrated points of 
support and least possible wall surface, with predonnnance 
of the vertical, with lines which run from the ground to 
the pinnacles, and with small projections, adapts itself 
well to the design. While in general the Gothic feeling is 
adhered to, a free adaptation of the English perijendicular 
with Renaissance motives have been intermingled in the 
detail, and except for the entrance arch there is not a 
single' arched window in the entire structure. The squarc- 
hea'ded windows, however, add to the commercial char- 
acter and show a trutliful handling of the need for good 
lighting- in the offices. Where the inspiration of the 
Gothic is greatest, in the arched entrance doorway and 

in the baltlemented and pinnacled attic, the beholder is 
given the greatest pleasure, especially so by the attic and 
its delicate tracery, its perforations, its pinnacles, and its 

This termination of the building is its greatest architec- 
tural asset and is one of the very few attemi>ts to depart 
from the monotonous line cornice which seems to be the 
box trademark of almost every high office building struc- 
ture in Chicago. No matter how beautiful these cornices 
are, they emphasize the roofing: line of the building- they 
finish off, and in a large city become tiresome without 
sloping roofs or towers to offset the grinmess of the 
masses. The lacework of acroteria tacked above the 
cornice only seem to smile at their own inadecpiacy. 
The North American is a very positive contrast to these, 
and may i^oint the way to better silhouettes in the roof 
lines of the future ; to balustrades and vertical motives, 
even if these must be at the of the cornice. 

By restraint in the projections throughout, by the use of 
no decorations which would have unnecessarily- added to 
the initial cost of the building and be unaccounted for in 
the rental return, b\- comparatively small window reveals, 
and by having procured the largest amount of li.ght obtain- 
able by a maximum of glass surface, there has been 
secured an individuality or architectural character to the 
building which is bioi cii rapport with the type of build- 
ing which it pretends to be. This honesty of expres- 
sion and desig-n which places the building in the class to 
which it belongs, "not too great nor small to suit its 
spirit and to i)rove its powers," has been attained here. 

Enameled terra cotta was the material rightfully used 
as the fireproof incrustation of the iron framework and as 
a decorative veneer to display the desig-n. There have 
been no new methods of handling- terra cotta in this 
building-, which have not previously been described in 
The Bkickiu'ilder. That by using terra cotta instead 
of stone one half the weight of a stone exterior was saved 
in the design of the steel, and that forty to fifty per cent 
of the cost of the exterior was also saved ; that terra 
cotta is easily fastened to the steel frame; that it is wash- 
able, durable, and one of the best fireproof materials, are 
all facts sufficient to exi^lain its use. The color selected 
was of ivory white, which carries out the light effect of 
the framework and contrasts agreeably with the more 
.somber and grayer buildings around. 

The building looks its best when seen at a sharp angle 
or from a block or two away. In iK'rsi)ective at these 
distances the long vertical columns form in line and give 
the opposite impression than is received when the buildinjsr 
is seen in elevation. Instead of all glass the effect is that 
of an all masonry treatment, the windows lieing lost in the 
reveals and the resulting impression being that of a solid 
mass. At sunset, from Michigan and Monroe streets, or 
in the early morning north or south on State street, there 
are glimpses and touches of the vertical lines and pinnacled 
terminations of this building which are very iK-autiful. 

The cost of the building was approximately $1,50(),(XX) 
at forty cents per cubic foot. 





lliiPiiCiWll IJ III II in, 
III III IP! Ill II !l II II II « ^ 

I" III III III II jiiii'!' 









1 b 1- 1 

ncT I on 

on AXU 


A — 

1 >^ ^ j^ — 








* 1 ' 

I' •■ II II * " " II nil iiii" ■' n 

'" T 



-.- 1 - .|— . - 

— \ — h^ 



1 k 



= A 





-P , - 




' 1 



^UTTH TlJl! 






, 1 


S c 


-1*- — 


— t — 

, '— pT « * > ^ ' *1 " '' '' '^ "i ' " T 




/" "\ 



/-■ ■^ 

U J 

TBllJ TlO0^•■^ 



















1 1 ' 1 f 


^ ■ 

1 ' |, 




"T 1 








— =*= 

=J— =L 




=-| r- 




- :p^^^^c^%^s^ 







Jt — J— 

,J— liIILU 

■V* 1 

-i — ^ 

' — ll — * » 

I *IT- 

! i 


^ 1 ' 





: j 


f N. 





ft % 

'M -i 


11 ! =1 






1 1 








'..,., 1^, \ :' 

-t \- 


)tJlt t ill II I I rf \ m 

» 1 * * V— 

Dt TAl n or MAH tlfUAHr 

\i ^ *. J^ V '^ *> V 

-y r- 







AN D*N OTES ^ f 


IT IS of interest to both the public and to members of the 
architectural profession to note that during: the past few 
years a new method of computinj^' just compensation for 
architectural services has been experimented with and in 
some instances adopted by well-known and respected 
architectural offices in this country. 

This new basis for computing comiicnsation is founded 
on the principle of charging- the client the exact cost of 
producing his work, plus a just fee to the architect for 
professional experience and service. Working with this 
principle in mind, two methods of determining the charges 
to clients are said to have been tried : first, — the practice of 
charging the client twice the amount of the salaries of the 
draftsmen employed on the client's work, plus a fixed sum 
(determined in proportion to the cost of the enterprise) 
as fee for professional service ; second, — the practice of 
charging the client four times the sum of the draftsmen's 
salaries employed on his work, in which case the archi- 
tect's professional fee is included in this amount. Radical 
as this new principle of basing charges on draftsmen's sal- 
aries may seem, it is claimed to be a just substitute for the 
commission basis, in fact one that is founded on the " per- 
centage of the cost of the work complete system," sanc- 
tioned by the American Institute of Architects. Those 
who have experimented with the idea state that it is in no 
way an attempt to do work for a rate less than the mini- 
mum amount upheld by the Institute, but rather a system 
which is fundamentally based on the six per cent principle 
adopted at the 1908 convention. 

For years it has been customary for both the public and 
the architect to regard a percentage basis as the only 
available means of determining the just remuneration that 
an architect should receive for his professional services. 

However, that this method of determining charges has 
for a long time been customary and recognized, does not 
necessarily mean that it is the only possible method of, 
establishing a rate of charges, and it is probably because 
the percentage system has not in all cases proved satisfac- 
tory, either to the architect or the client, that a new 
method for establishing i)rofcssional charges has been 
resorted to in some offices. 

WHEN one stops to analyze the percentage system, 
when one compares the actual cost of carrying on 
in a well organized office different pieces of work which 
bring in identical gross profits to the architect, although 
the actual cost of their production shows vastly different in 
the deadly parallel columns of the ledgers, does this cus- 
tomary and long recognized method of charge, based solely 
and entirely upon the cost of the comi)leted work regard- 
less of the type of structure, seem logical ? 

Regarding the situation from such a view-point, the 
array" of questions which immediately confront one are 
numberless. Should the architectural compensation for 

designing and supervising the erection of a one hundred 
thousand dollar mill building or storage warehouse he iden- 
tical to the remuneration received for the designing and 
supervision of the erection of a richly ornamented theater 
or an elaborately detailed C.othic chaiiel, produced with 
the identical investment of capital by the client? Would 
it not be ]iossible for the architect to make an unreason- 
ably large jn-ofit on his work in connection with either of 
the first two enterprises, and might it not be possible for 
him to be forced to accept a considerable loss in carrying 
out his work conscientiously for his client when designing 
and supervising either the theater or the chapel? It would 
seem in these instances that the percentage system of 
ciiarging proved itself unsatisfactory, in the first cases to 
the client, in tlie second to the architect. 

AT THIS ]H)int let us consider the (|uestion of whether 
there is any reason to supiK)se that the cost of a 
comi)leted building should bear any relation whatever to 
the time and money expended by the architect in studying 
the problem or in creating the i)1ans, data, and supervision 
necessary to enable the contractor to deliver over to the 
owner at the completion of his work the finished structure. 

Is a surgeon paid for his professional services in per- 
forming an operation in direct proportion to the cost of 
the anesthetics that his patient consumes ? Is a painter 
paid for a portrait in direct proportion to the cost of the 
lead, oil, and canvas necessary to produce the picture? 
Vet are not lead, oil, and canvas just as much building 
materials to the painter as burnt clay, steel, and stone to 
the architect ? 

Su])iK)se, for the sake of argument, we take the follow- 
ing exami)le. If a man were to go to a painter to have a 
sign painted, he undoubtedly would pay him less for the 
work than he would had he gone to him for a miniature, 
regar^lless of the fact that the paint used in making the 
sign cost infinitely more than that used in producing the 
miniature. The artist would be receiving a profit in pro- 
Ijortion to his skill and time exi)cnded on his work. Is 
this true in the architect's case ? Docs he not, by the per- 
centage system, receive more for the sign than for the 
miniature? If, then, we admit that the case of the archi- 
tect and the painter, however extravagant the com]iarison 
may seem, are to a degree analogous, doesn't this tend to 
make the logic of the time-honored ixr cent system of 
basing charges totter ? 

But this is not all. There are still other (luestions to 
be answered. If an architect spends his time and his 
draftsmen's time unsparingly for the sole iniri>osc of 
cutting down the cost of erecting his client's building, 
without materially cutting down his client's rc<|uirenients, 
is it reasonable that he should receive less profit for such 
study and diligence than he would if his client could afford 
to invest more money and, by so doing, considerably facili- 
tate the architect's work (which is merely another way of 



saying:, " Save the architect money " ) ? Is it then extrav- 
agfant to draw the conclusion that, in many instances, the 
more conscientious and faithful the architect is with his 
client, the less he receives for his work on the percentagfe 
basis ? 

ARCHITECTURE is essentially a profession in which 
men sell to their clients the products of their brains, 
but of all the professions it is the one perhajis most closely 
connected and affiliated with the business world. An 
architect's best clients are business men, men used to the 
system of studied business organizations . Does the per- 
centagfe system seem logfical to these men ? Is it what 
they would term "good business " ? Wouldn't a system 
by which they saw how their money was being expended, 
by which they knew that the architect was impartial to the 
amount of their investment — would not such a system 
appeal to their business instincts ? And presuming that it 
would, does not this new basis of computing architectural 
compensations on the actual cost of producing architectural 
work for the client, and about which we will have more to 
say in our February issue, make a step toward the solution 
of the problem ? 


WE are prone to think of the architecture of Byzan- 
tium, like its history, as one of which the annals 
are brief. After its sudden glorious bloom under Jus- 
tinian, we used to be told, it declined to immobility and 
stagnation, against which the reviving art of Italy in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries had to struggle for 
freedom. As the veil of the East is lifted, however, we 
see an empire and an art fvill indeed of tragic vicissitude, 
but full also of irrepressible life and continued creation. 
Among its later products was an architecture little known, 
differing widely from that of St. Sophia and Ravenna, yet 
displaying the same qualities of beauty of massing and 
rich use of materials. 

On emerging from the struggle over image-worship, 
which had disrupted it in the eighth century, the Byzan- 
tine empire, with marvelous ,and unexpected recuperative 
powers, entered on a renaissance both in politics and in 
art, justly called the second golden age. Between the 
middle of the ninth century and the end of the twelfth, 
under the Macedonian and Comnenian emperors, the em- 
pire flourished as scarcely even in the time of Justinian. 
The reconquering of lost provinces went hand in hand 
with internal prosperity and intellectual stimulation. 
Both Macedonians and Comneni were great builders. 
Though their principal churches and palaces there have 
now disappeared, travelers of the day without exception 
testify to the incomparable luxury and s])lendor of Con- 
stantinople at that period. The activity at the capital soon 
spread to the provinces, where it was furthered by the 
power and wealth of monasticism, especially in Greece. 

In Greece during the tenth century were founded the 
most ancient monasteries of Athos ; in the eleventh, the 
great convents of Saint Luke in Phocis and Daphni near 
Athens. The artistic influence extended even beyond the 
political frontiers, to Georgia and Armenia, to Russia, full 
of monuments almost purely Byzantine, even to Italy and 
Southern France. Thanks to this new flowering, the 
Byzantine style retained a preeminence which it yielded 

only to the victorious Gothic of the thirteenth century. 

Hitherto we have been familiar with but few buildings 
from this period except .Saint Mark's at Venice, which we 
were a])t to regard rather as an isolated survival of the 
style of the early period than as an off^shoot of a living 
contemporary development. Only in the last dozen years 
has an awakened interest resulted in such scholarly illus- 
trated monographs as those of Schultz and Barnsley on the 
monastery of Saint Luke and of Millet on Daphni and 
Mistra, in M. Diehl's compendious " Manuel," in a grist 
of articles in the archeological journals. The Greek gov- 
ernment, alive to this rich heritage, has now carried out a 
comprehensive photographic survey of these monuments, 
side by side with those of classical antiquity. A series of 
unrivaled photographs, taken by the experts of the Royal 
Prussian Photometric Instittite with its superb equipment, 
and exhibited by Greece at the Roman exposition of 1911- 
1912, has made accessible for the first time the great 
number of Byzantine churches scattered throughout the 
kingdom, with their wealth of unhackneyed detail and 
above all their masterly and charming treatment of brick. 

The Brickbuilder begins with the present issue a 
series of Frontispieces selected from the best examples 
recently photographed. We will continue the presentation 
from month to month throughout the j-ear, accompanying 
same with descriptive text. 


AT Glasgow, Ky., there is a residence built by George 
Washington in 1790, for General Spotteswoode, then 
Governor of Virginia, in which State Glasgow was in- 
cluded at the time. There is nothing remarkable in the 
architecture of the building, but in respect of construction 
it is very unlike modern houses. The walls are of solid 
brickwork, 36 inches thick. The floors are of chestnut, 
2 inches thick, and laid with dowels. The original roof 
covering, part of which still remains, consisted of chestnut 
shingles, Yi inch thick, secured with wood pegs. The 
building was constructed entirely without nails, which 
were not manufactured in the United States when the 
house was built. The original windows were of glass 
imported from France, as this material was not produced 
in America at the time. The windows illustrate the wear 
and tear of structural materials, for it is stated that the 
glass remaining intact has worn so that it is no thicker 
than paper, and is readily broken by rainstorms. The 
house has not been remodeled in any way, and presents 
substantially the same appearance as when built one hun- 
dred and twenty-two years ago. — London Builder. 


BY beciuest of the late Daniel H. Burnham, architect, 
a new Architectural Library has been established at 
the Art Institute of Chicago, to be known hereafter as the 
" Burnham Library of Architecture." 

The committee in charge of this library have decided to 
hold an open competition to receive designs for an appro- 
])riate book-plate, seal or device, for which purpose two 
prizes, the first $250, the second $50, are offered. 

By making this competition open to all wishing to submit 
drawings, the committee hopes to receive designs worthy 
of the memory of the late Daniel H. Burnham. 

THE B R I C K B r I L D I-: R . 


Hotel McAlpin 

is plumbed with the best — 
as every building should be 
which is designed to make 
money for its ow^ners. 

The Plumbing Fixtures are not only 
made of Solid Porcelain and Vitreous 
China — acknowledged by all sanitary 
experts the best material — but are 
of simple, clean-cut design — unob- 
trusive to the eye yet pleasing in 
their very simplicity. 

T-' • it M 

Ur t i i i 

The McAlpin Hotel, New York 

\A/ith two private baths showing the designs in 
Sanitary Pottery selected and used throughout 

The Trenton 
Potteries Com- 

IpSLTiy^ made all these 

clay fixtures — is making the 
sanitary pottery plumbing for 
many of the country's best 
buildings — because ARCHI- 
TECTS are coming to realize 
more every day the quality 
of the ware, how good the 
basic materials used and our 
method of employing them. 

Competition is an element which every 

Architect, to be fair with his clients, should consider. 

The Trenton Potteries Company, by its method of marketing its 
product, throws open to any plumber who desires, an opportunity 
to bid. We do not take advantage when specifications are written on 
our goods — our prices being constantly in the hands of the trade. 
On them depends the percentage upon which they are ready to work. 

Do you want to see the complete illustrations on The McAlpin Hotel? Ifc shall he very ylad to 
send the February issue of our Magazine which contains an exhaustive article on the plumbing of 
this job. Also a copy of our new LM Catalogue just off the press. 

The Trenton Potteries Company 

Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

The World's Largest Manufacturers of Superior Quality Sanitary Pottery Ware 



'1^ H E B R I C K B U I L D E R 

"Target and Arrow " Roofing Tin 

FiK. A. Showing appearance of finished 
roof, with one seam unfinished to show 
appHcation of cleats ; thickness of sheets 
and joints exaggerated in the latter. 

How to Apply Tin Roofing with Standing Seams 

Fig. B. First operation, showing adjoining sheets 
turned up at rignt angles, with cleat installed. 

Fig. C. Second operation. Projecting edge turned over. 

Fig. D. Third operation. Entire seam turned 
partly over. 

The illustrations show the 
method of forming the 

Paint the finished roof two 
coats. Use metallic brown, 
Venetian red, red oxide, 
or red lead with pure lin- 
seed oil. 

Paint the roof every five 
years, and if you have used 
our ' ' Target and Arrow" tin 
you have a roof that should 
outlast the building. 

Our 80-page illustrated booklet, "Sell- 
ing Arguments for Tin Roofing, " is the 
most elaborate treatise ever published 
on this subject. Shall we send you "V^ ^ ^^"''^ operat.on. Standing »eam completed. 

j*_v,i. w « J showing cleat in position. 1 hickness or seam magni- 

a copy ? fied. to show the folds of the metal. 

N. & G. TAYLOR COMPANY of Philadelphia 

The Pioneer American Tin Plate House. Established 1810 

THE B R I C K B U I I. D E R . 

XX\ 11 



Continued Responsibility 

The responsibility of the architect does not end 
when the keys are handed over. 

It takes time for the house-owner to find out 
whether his house offers the convenience and com- 
fort for which the architect planned. It also takes 
time to test the quality of the materials used. 

Interior and exterior painting will stand the most 
critical test of the house-owner and time if 

Dutch Boy White Lead 

and pure linseed oil in sealed one and five-gallon 
cans has been used. Be sure- to specify these 
materials for all your buildings. 

National Lead Company 

New York Boston Buffalo Chicago 

Cincinnati Cleveland St. Louis San Francisco 

John T. Lewis & Bros. Co., Philadelphia 
National Lead & Oil Co., Pittsburgh 




Water Tube Boilers 

represent the highest types for Heating 
installations. Made in different sizes to 
meet varying conditions, they solve the 
question of true economy with guaranteed 

Capacity: steam rating 900 to 15000 feet. 
Capacity : water rating 1500 to 25000 feet. 

Send fo?- ?ieiv complete catalog No. 858 

N«). ;J4 Hoilcr 





Every Architect Kno\rs 

m 553 
A.S. <Sf T, P. m. 

Sa (?®|i!)(i3[E)§ S®A?0K1© 

The weather resisting quahties of copper. When 
copper is properly combined with high grade Open 
Hearth Steel, a superior rooting plate is obtained. 
All of our 


including the accompanying well known brands, is now made 
Long service tests have convinced us that this is the highest quality 
and most durable Roofing Tin on the market. The weight of 
coating is stamped on each plate — a feature the profession will 
appreciate. Write for full information. 

j^erican Sheets Tin Plate Compaji^ 

General Offices: Frick Building, Pittsburgh,Pa. 



Detroit New Orleans New York Philadelphia I'ittshurfjii 


Export Representatives: Unitkd States Stekl Products Company. New York City 
Paoilic Coast Kiiiresentatives: ITmtid States Steel Products Company. San Francisco. Los .Vntiili's. I'l.riLiml S 

St. L( 




\ ■ 



Kesidence of Mr. Ti. 11. Wnnl. Now Roohelle. N. Y. (Prpsidpnl of Ward Itrend Co ) 

Charles Hnrton Koen. Architect. Philadelphin. Pfl. 

HYDREX-SANIFLOR -Sound-Deadening Felt 

'^O part of a residence should be more sanitarily treated than the floors of the rooms in which we live and sleep. 

■'-^ Dust, vermin, water, moisture, germs — lodge on the floor, and sift through into the ordinary absorbent floor 

interlinings, which in time become a menace to cleanliness and health. 

HYDREX-SANIFLOR differs from the ordinary sound-deadening materials. It is not only .sound-proof, but is also 
absolutely sanitary. It contains no grass or cattle hair to decompose and harbor vermin, 
but is made of a thick, soft felt with a shell-like, flexible coating on both surfaces, which 
makes it vermin-proof, water-proof and perfectly sanitary. Write for .samples. 


Waterproof Building 


A tough, thorouehly water- 
proofed and coated, imper- 
vious and airtight sheathiuK 
paper. Clean, durable and 



Milkers of n'iilrrf>roo/ Fclli. Ruihling r.ifirn, Ilrailrtuvt; l-'fil. Knn/iiig!, Paints, rt.. 

120 Liberty Street, New York 

:MiiliitMn Avenue \V \SJIIM 1 I ( )N Fa.lorie^ II VTIW \ V. N .1. 

I. X. L. No. 1 =— 

(For Varnishing Interior Woodwork) 


I. X. L. 

Carry this guarantee on every can : 

these varnishes as well-aged and made of 
nothing but hard fossil gums of superior 
grade, finest oil of special refining and pure 

spirits of turpentine. 
No Rosin No Substitutes 

They are made for the architect who wants the 
very best obtainable. On account of elasticity 
and freedom of working they cover the greatest 
amount of surface, and therefore are the most 




Artistic set of finished panels on request 


Varnish Makers for 86 years 

West Avenue, 6th and 7th Sts., Long Island City 

p. O. Box 1780, New York City 
Western Hranch, .Ii32-.'M S. Morgan Street, ChicaKo 

YnimK Men'nChrinlinn Awwrintien lllrtg . Newton. Mbob. 
Hrninerd A I.e<i1"i. Arrhiteet", llo«t«n 

Entire Exterior Waterproofed by 

Colorless Waterproofing, No. 700 

A wBterprnoftn([ioiii|i..illiHtlinl lian twen prore.l liy over Tirrnlii Vrnrt- •irliinl .... 
in all parts of tlie e.Mintr) . Kvery hriek irall «lirnil<l be wali-rproofert — neommen 
l>ri(k will BliKorh a pint o'( water. The ColorleM Waterprooflng !• »l»o ln«<l» will. 
r>ur fine ntain pigmentn aiMetl, an<l 

Waterproof Brick and Cement Stains 

((ive Leant if nl. wilt i<il..rini[ efTerti.. renloring t lie tone !.• ol.l «n.l fa.lert hrnkw.itk 
anil inakinft it look like new, an<l Aninhinii eement, pl»««er or ronerete in liar 
inonionn tonea. The eolora are natnr«l. without (jloM. •nil <lo not apoll Ih" 

Knll information wnt on re.pieat. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Mnnufaclurinii Chcmi*t« 

\l.» IlROADVfAT. ».» VOHK :1.')" l>KAKIlOK> A\ R., fllir A«^. • 

AaKXTI AM.'oTBa TOT ror»T»T 

Cabot'8 Deafeninjr (Juilt -Cahnt's rrcoBotc ShinRlp Stains 
I'lastprbond Damp-proofinir 



The Elevators of 
Unlimited Capabilities 

Otis Elevators have been cliosen for most of the world 
renow ned buildings, of every kind, in this country 
and abroad. Otis P^levators ha\e demonstrated they 
are unapproached in 

Quality, Safety, Efficiency, 
Economy, and Durability 

Back of our product is fifty-five years' experience and 
success in solving all kinds of elevator problems. We 
build all types of passenger and freight elevators for 
every purpose — for e\ery kind of power. Otis 
Elevators should be used for modernizing old 
buildings and for ensuring the greatest convenience, 
economy, and satisfaction in the new. 

Otis Elevator Company 

. and Twenty-sixth St., New York 



43 and 45 EAST 19th ST., NEW YORK CITY 

London : Chapman & Hall, Ltd. Montreal, Canada : Renouf Publishing Co. 
Freitag's Fire Prevention and Fire Protection as Applied to Building Construction 

A Handbook of Theory and Practice 

By Joseph Kendall Freitag, B.S., C.E., Associate Member American Society Civil En^neers, Sub. Member National Fire Pro- 
tecuon Association, Sub. Member British Fire Prevention Committee. 16mo, viii + 1038 paces. 395 figures, including line and 
half-tone cuts. Morocco, j54. 00 net. r-s » s , -6 

Mr. Freitag has presented in this volume the present status of fire-resistance as applied to buildings, which will prove of practical 
value to architects, constructionists and underwriters ; also tliose preventive means and those broad principles of scientific fire protective 
design, without which constructive details are often of little avail. 

This book has received favorable commendation from the leading authorities, such as Franklin B. Ware, formerly Architect for the 
State of New York; Franklin H. Wentworth, Secretary and Treasurer National Fire Protection Association; Gorha'm Dana, Manager, 
The Underwriters' Bureau of ^ New England; C. H. Blackall, Architect, 20 Beacon St., Boston; Edward T. Cainis, General Agent, 
U. S. Branch North British & Mercantile Insurance Co. 

Ries' Building Stones and Clay Products 

A Handbook for Architects 

'By Heinrich Ries, Ph.D., Professor of Economic Geology in Cornell University. 8vo, xiii -j-415 pages, 59 plates, including full-page 
half-tones and maps, 20 figures in the text. Cloth, $3.00 net. 

Gives the fundamentally important facts, and takes up the more important occurrences of building stone. 
Contains a list of structures in which the more important building stones have been placed. 

Greene's Elements of Heating and Ventilation 

A Text-Book for Technical Students and a Reference Book for Engineers 

By Arthur M. Greene, Jr., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 8vo, vi -|- 324 pages, 223 

figures. Cloth, $2.50 net. 

This book brings together, in logical order and in a small volume, the necessary data from which to design the heating and ventilating 
systems of buildings. 

"Ausgefiihrte Bautenund Entwiirfe 
von Frank Lloyd Wright'' 

Two portfolios, 17^ x 25^ inches 
in size, of lithographed plates 
showing plans, elevations, and 
perspectives of seventy buildings 
by this architect. Published by 
Ernst Wasmuth of Berlin. 

Special arrangements have 
been made for selling this 
work direct to the purchaser. 

Write for descriptive circular to 



One Hundred Bungalows 

Tiie title of a 120 page booklet which 
contains one hundred designs for 
houses of the Bungalow type sub- 
mitted in the competition recently 
conducted by THE BRICKBUILDER 

Price, 50 cents 


The Natco House 

The title of a new 72 page booklet 
which contains a selection of designs 
submitted in competition for a house 
to be built of terra cotta hollow tile 
at a cost of six thousand dollars. 
Also illustrations of houses built of 
this material, together with articles 
describing construction, etc 

Price, 50 cents 


Look for the word "NATCO" 
on each tile. It means the genuine 


The great demand that has developed for NATCO HOLLOW TILE has led to many 
imitations — in design £aid general appearance. 

Tliese imitations when submitted in sample — and always quoted at a lower price — may 
often compare with " NATCO/* but the vital difference invariably becomes apparent 
when the material is delivered in quantities for actual construction. Their use results in 
the depreciation of the investment worth of the building. 

Only the genuine " NATCO " has behind it the invcJuable fireproofing experience zind 
the modem equipment of the NationeJ Fire Proofing Company. No other company czui 
offer such a record as this one has for supplying the methods and materials employed in 
fireproofing most of America's great business and public structures. 

" NATCO " costs little more than imitations, but the profitable advzintages resulting from 
its use make it the least expensive to buy. 

NATCO HOLLOW TILE is fireproof, decay-proof, moisture-proof, and vermin-proof. 
It is rapidly superseding older and less practicable forms of construction for all moderate- 
sized buildings, residence, commercial and industrial. Buildings constructed of " NATCO " 
are cooler in Summer and warmer in Winter. 

















Marsh ami Peter & E. D. Kyerson Zf^, 11 


HOUSE, COUNTRY, ON LONG ISLAND, N. Y I.a Far^e & Morris 17-19 



HOUSE, CITY, WASHINGTON, D. C Wood, Donn & Deming 32 


STABLE, ON LONG ISLAND, N. Y. .--. ..I.a Fari;e & Miyrris 2<) 




The Hitt Residence, Washington. D. C. John Russell Pope, Architect. 

Illustrations from photographs and scale drawings. 

I. Preliminary Considerations with Tables - Charles L. Hubbard 

MEASURED DRAWINGS- ITALIAN SERIES - "W*>'- .//'/''■"''. net. 

House in Via San Vitale and Palazzo Tacconi, Bologna, Italy. 
GROUP-PLANS, RECENT AMERICAN. -V ....Alfred Morton Cithens 

Preparatory Schools and Institutions. 
TILE FLOORS - — - ....Addison B. I.e Boutillier 

Illustrations from drawings. 










B O 5 T O N 


'i;.VrP:TTJc" 0:.MM... post O.MCt M »CO».>-C .ASSMM..MT,.M.. CH.,...„CO>..,CKT.,U »V .OC.,S -MAH^OH COM.».V 


For the United States. iU in.ular possewions and Cuba. $5.00 per year 

For Canad" $3.50 per year For Foreign Coun.rie. in .he Po.t.l Un.on. $6.00 per year 

All copirs TTtailcd n«I 
Trade supplied by »Kr Ammc^n Newi Company and itt branch^. 

I'holo by the Royal Prussian rhotomelric InsiHule. 


Stone and common brick, cut to shape 
for friezes and panels. 




N\'MHKR 2. 

A House of Unusual Architectural Merit. 



IN writing- an article to accompany the beautiful illus- 
trations of the Hitt house in Washington, it does not 
seem necessary to g^o into any technical description of the 
plan, and style, and material, but rather to try, if possi- 
ble, to point out the general reasons why it is so much 
more satisfying than most residences being designed 

During a visit to Venice a few years ago, I was sitting 
on the plaza of St. Mark's with two architects, in view of 

all it is the better architecture. It may not be as satis- 
fying structurally ; it may not have its ornament arranged 
as we are taught to believe it should be ; its composition 
maybe is peculiar ; and yet we architects and laymen 
alike love to look at it. If this result is obtained, it is 
good architecture ; and I have reached the conclusion 
that in criticism we should try to discover why the good is 
good . 

The Hitt house is as good as the Doges Palace because 

si: Alt M M w I I ^=3- f-taT 

6tCO/1D tLOOJZ FM/t 

un/fc- eoon 

H \ 


John Russell Pope, Arcliiteit. 

the wonderful Renaissance Library by Sansovino, and 
the majestic old Doges Palace. I asked them which they 
thought was the better piece of architecture and they both 
said, "The Library." I then asked them which they 
would rather look at and they both answered. " The Doges 
Palace." I agreed with them at the time and then began 
to wonder why, and arrived at the one and only conclusion, 
which is. that the Doges Palace is the more charming 
because it is the more human, and being human, after 

it is human ; and it takes a thinker and not a draftsman 
to make a new building human. Mr. P«)i)e has the rare 
(luality of being both, which I believe is rather imusual. 
The Doges Palace is human because of the countless ages 
of humanity that have left their impress on it as well as 
because the original designer constructed it to tell the 
story of his time. A new house has to be l)orn with a 
voice, to speak to peojilc as the D«)ges Palace does. 

The Hitt house is formal without being stiflF. simple 






THE B R I C K R r I L D E R . 

I ! 



'PHI-: B R I C K I5U I L I) H R 

^ ij-s^ 

i tT 



^ — 

^^_L;-— r 






L--'^ t t 



„. ,i. 



















..^j >Jfe,;^>!S.^.vJ^^^^ .*..\?...-. : 

-f- T 

/.» ,_»Lf 

-» p »- 








■,0 Coat .**e 

L -,:. - 







without being: plain, scholarly without being- dry, and 
finally is very human. 1 believe that my readers will 
agree with me in the above statements from a g-lance at 
the illustrations which directly follow this page. When a 
man can accomplish a design which is at once formal, 
simple, scholarly, and human, it seems that his work is 
not only extremely rare, but so far 
above our average of American 
architecture as to warrant most 
careful study. It is by this means 
that we may lift our own work to a 
higher plane. There are many of 
us practising architecture that have 
his talent, and still more who have 
had his training ; but I know of no 
architect now actively engaged in 
the practice of his ])rofession who 
combines as he does both talent and 
training. His work is the result of 
this combination, and the Hitt house 
has an advantage over his other 
works in being done from a riper 
experience. It shows that he has 
arrived at his steady gait after feel- 
ing around in a more or less hap- 
hazard way in his earlier residence 

On the return of a Washington 
draftsman from a trip to New York, I asketl him for 
his impressions. He said, "Well, I will tell you. There 
are two distinct styles of architecture in that city." 
Knowing the many men of such dift'erent ideas and 
ideals there, and the straining after everything that has 
ever been done before which they are trying to do, I 
could not quite see how he could make such a state- 
ment. It seemed to me that if any city in the world 
had been cursed with a conglomeration, made iwssible 
by too much mone_\' and too many books, it was New 
York ; so I asked with considerable interest what the 
two styles were. His answer was, " One well-known firm 
of architects and the others:' ' A truer thing was never said, 
and his answer naturally makes one pause to wonder how 
he can get that individuality into his own work as does 
this well-known combination. Unless he is a genius the 
answer will never come. He can greatly help his work, 
though, after arriving at this stage and help greatly to 
make his country more beautiful, because he has an ideal 



John Russell Pope, Architect. 

above his reach. The Hitt house has those qualities which 
have made the work of that one firm classified above stand 
out above all others, although totally differently ex- 
pressed — qualities which make the rest of our Washington 
residences look like "the others." This is done in a 
cjuiet, dignified way and in a way that makes one realize 
that it was far from the thought 
of the designer to strain after in- 
dividuality. When a man tries to 
get indivMduality and fails, it is piti- 
ful ; all we .see is the fall. Individ- 
uality is born in one, is God-given, 
and if properly directed can lead 
others on to better things. 

A glance at the Hitt house fac^-ade 
shows individuality properly di- 
rected, and without an effort to do 
more than simply express the home 
of a cultivated American woman. 
That was the problem and it seems 
to me that Mr. Pope has solved it. 
Our architects have tried every con- 
ceivable style for this purpose and 
have failed in almost every case. I 
do not think these failures were en- 
tirely due to the styles adopted or 
the lack of education or taste of the 
designer, but to the fact that they 
were not conceived out of the mind of the designer for 
the purposes for which they were to be used. They 
were adopted from memory and training and lacked the 
vitality of something born into the world. A vital thing 
born with life or in one's mind, reared brutally or with 
due regard for precedent, is alwai's interesting to an>- one 
whether architect or layman. This house has life and 
was reared with refinement; therefore, it not only is 
interesting, but something to love. I have foimd that 
people not trained in architecture are interested in it, 
which i^roves its life : and liked because of its refinement, 
which shows the blessing the designer enjoys of having 
had a thorough training. We can get the training, that 
we know ; we do not know how large the spark or con- 
ception in us is, but one hope we all have, that it is there, 
however small. When this spark is fanned into a flame 
by ambition and controlled by training and work, then we 
can hope to do work as good and interesting as the Hitt 
house in Washington. 




VOL. 22, NO. 2. 










THE BR I c K Br I I. n i-: r . 

VOL. 22, NO. 2. PLATE 18. 






Til K 

VOL. 22. NO. 2. 

BRU- K n r 1 

1 . 1 ) 1-: R . 

PLATE 19. 


VOL. 22, NO. 2. 

PLATE 20. 

. •TS-rSEtCSYK.T- \ / .1 . 

^-~ " — '-"---^----)^----*-ffv-^ -' 

I'lta- - - \ - • "••■'. 










VOL. 22. NO. 2. 

PLATE 21. 

! ' "^ ■ I 






VOL. 22, NO. 2. 

PLATE 22. 

W0^^,, ' 


*»"»^ra' ' -' - 



kmk.\ 4ti 

- 1\ 














u «, 



Q u 


a < 

I- u 
Q. V 

I- < 
li- x 

li. >- 











THE BR I c K nr I L 1) K R. 

VOL. 22. NO. 2. PLATE 23 

■ i^Ill^i^^^^-' 














I -I 

I a- 








z (j 

< t 


c < 

3 ». 

Q. >- 
D ? 

q: < 

H < 
U. ><: 











VOL. 22. NO. 2. PLATE 24. 


VOL. 22, NO. 2. PLATE 25. 


VOL. 22, NO. 2. PLATE 26. 

1 1 

i ■ ; ? i i ! i i I ' i ' ; • ' '■ i 1 I ' ' i I ! I i i • ' H ' 


". ! T -|----r— i:.-.v.«.-7.v«j:: 

i [ J....i, 

J I i::::r::xri..^..i 




THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 2. PLATE 27. 



VOL. 22, NO. 2. 

PLATE 28. 

• CHIA\N£.r- 


1 ' A-eMjilMu fLoetj 

' F IbON-T ' £L£VATI Q) VT ' 




VOL. 22. NO. 2. PLATE 29. 





T II E H RICK 15 r 1 

VOL. 22, NO. 2. 

LI) 1-: R. 

PLATE 30. 


Til E 1^ R U- K ]\V I L n KR. 

VOL. 22. NO. 2. PLATE 3L 


< < 





■ ^ 


VOL. 22, NO. 2. PLATE 32. 


THE B R I C KBIM L 1) 1-: R 


The Unit Power Plant for Isolated Riiildino;s 

and Small Groups. 



We .start herewith a series of articles whioh will take up in a .simple and concise form the isolated power plant as applied to sinple 
buildings of different types and to small groujis. The matter has been treated especially from the architect's point of view, and data 
presented in such form that it may be used without extensive readinij. Among the subjects considered are tile uses of steam and power 
in buildings of various kinds ; the determination of boiler, engine, jnimp, and dynamo caiiacities for different jiurposcs, such as heating, 
ventilating, lighting, refrigeration, elevator service, etc. Apparatus of various kinds is discussed in detail, with special reference to the 
selection of equipment best adapted to the re(|uirements of any ixirticular case, taking into accovint comparative costs, both of installation 
and operation. The conditions under which it is advisable to install a power equipment in conibination with the heating jjlant, witli 
examples showing the saving which may be made with certain relations between power and heating refjuirements, will be studied. I)etails 
of design are considered to some extent, such as piping layouts for boiler and engine rooms, and underground conduits for steam and 
hot-water distribution to the various buildings of a group. The last article of the series treats of water supply by mechanical means, 
discussing briefly- different sources of su])])ly, reservoirs and tanks, pipe lines, and pumping machinery of various kinds, with a comparison 
of costs. — The Editors. 

FOR the benefit of those who may be a little hazy upon 
certain terms and quantities employed in power and 
heatingf work, we will take tip in a simple manner some of 
those in most common 

Steam Boilers. Power and largfc heatiny boilers are 
usually rated on a Iiorse po7ver basis ; one horse power 
being- the capacity to evaporate 30 pounds of water per 
hour, from a feed-water temperature of 100 degfrees, into 
steam at 70 pounds pressure. This quantity will vary 
somewhat with changes in the relation between tempera- 
ture and pressure, but for the pressures commonly carried 
in this class of work, and where the feed-water is heated, 
the boiler may be safely proportioned on a basis of 30 
pounds of steam per horse power per hour. 

General Proportions. The coiumercial horse power of a 
boiler is commonly based upon its heating surface ; hori- 
zontal fire-tube boilers being- rated on a basis of 12 sciuare 
feet of heating surface per horse power, and water-tube 
boilers on a basis of 10 square feet. 

The required grate area depends upon the rates of com- 
bustion and evaporation. The rate of combu.stion mean- 
ing the ]wunds of coal burned per square foot of grate 
surface per hour, which, with a natural draft, will run 
from 12 to 15 pounds for anthracite and 15 to 18 pounds 
for bituminous. The rate of evaporation means the pounds 
of steam generated per pound of coal. With the best 
makes of power boilers, well cared for and skilfully fired, 
this will run from 8 to 10 pounds, although the lower fig- 
ure probably comes nearer the actual result in the average 
power plant of small size. The grate surface in any par- 
ticular case is found by the following formula, 
H. P. X 34.5 


in which, 


S = grate area in square feet. 
E = rate of evaporation. 
C = rate of combustion. 
H.P. = horse power of boiler. 

Table I, computed by the above method, gives the 
square feet of grate area per horse power for different 
rates of evaporation and combustion- 


Rate of Combustion. 
Rate of Evaporation. 

10 lbs --- 

9 ,, 

8 ,, 

The approximate coal consumption per boiler horse 
power per hour may be found by multiplying the sciuare 
feet of heating surface per horse power by 0.3, which gives 

12 lbs. 

15 lbs. 

20 lbs 










12 X 0.3 ^ 3.6 pounds for horizontal fire-tube boilers, 
and 10 X 0-3 = 3 pounds for water-tube boilers. In 
computin.g the total boiler horse power for any building, 
first determine the maximum weight of steam rc(|uired 
per hour for all purposes, and divide the result by 30. 

Chimneys. The successful operation of a boiler plant is 
largely dependent upon the action ^^i the chimney, unless 
mechanical draft is employed. The latter method is not 
usually required in plants of small size, although used 
quite extensively under certain conditions in larger ones. 
The draft of a chimney is dependent upon the height, 
while the power, or capacity for carrying off the waste 
gases, varies with the sectional area of the flue. The 
required draft varies largely with the kind of fuel used, 
because the finer the grade of coal the greater the pressure 
necessary to force the air through it. The following 
heights have been found to give good results in plants of 
moderate size, and produce sufficient draft to force the 
boilers from twenty to thirty per cent above their rating. 
Free burning bituminous coal, 75 feet ; anthracite of 
medium and large sizes, 100 feet ; slow-burning bitumi- 
nous, 120 feet ; anthracite pea coal, 130 feet ; anthracite 
buckwheat coal, 150 feet. 

Table II gives the diameter and hei,ght of flue for differ- 
ent boiler horse powers. To use the table, first select the 
l^roper hei.ght for the grade of fuel to be used, and then 
from the table find the reciuired diameter for the given 
horse i)ower of boilers to be provided for. 


HelRht of 


aiul B 

oiler Horse 


of Flue. 




























































. . _ _ 








Steam Engines. The iwnver of a steam engine is also 
rated in horse power, but on an entirely different basis. 
In this case one horse jiower means the capacity of doing 
work at the rate of 33,000 foot ]H)iinds per tninute. The 
indicated horse power (1. 1 1. P.) means the total power 
developed, and includes that ie(|uired for overcoming the 
friction of the engine itself, while the brake or delivered 
horse power (D.H.P.) means the pf)wer delivered by the 
engine and available for driving other machim-rv. This, 

34 T H E B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

at full load, will vary from eighty to ninety per cent of the 250 volts, is usually to be preferred for the unit plant 

I.H.P. depending upon the type and size of engine. For where motors are to be supplied. With a direct current 

machines of medium size, the average of these or eighty- it is possible to use direct-connected slow-speed motors 

five per cent may be used. The ratio of the delivered for the driving of ventilating fans, which is a matter of 

. ,. , , /D.H.PA . considerable importance in certain types of buildings, 

horse power to the mdicated horse power, I . tTp" ) '^ t- .u »u a ^ ,■• c * /> ■ u 

^ \ I.H.P. / Furthermore, the speed regulation of motors driven by a 

called the mechanical efficiency, and enters into computa- direct current is more satisfactory. Electricity is meas- 
tions involving the power of engines for different purposes, ured commercially by the kUo-watt hour ; a kilowatt (Kw.) 
The water-rate of an engine is the weight of steam re- being equal to 1,000 watts. A watt is the unit of measure- 
quired per I.H.P. per hour for driving it. This quantity ment, being equal to the product of 1 volt x 1 ampere. 
varies greatly in different types of engines, and also in the For example, a current of 4 amperes, flowing under a 
same type when operating under different conditions, voltage of 250, will have a capacity of 4 x 250 = 1,000 
Table III gives average water-rates of engines of medium watts, or 1 Kw., and a kilowatt hour is the electrical energy 
size and first-class make, when running at or near full delivered per hour by a current of this capacity, 
load. Electric generators or dynamos are rated in kilowatts, 
TABLE III and have an efficiencv at full load of about ninety per cent 
Type .,f Engine. ^"'^^e'r lh'p'"^" for those of medium size. 

per Hour. This means that for every 100 horse power of mechanical 

|-™''{^ vr'^r '^''s^'^ d 30 energy expended in driving a generator, 90 horsepower 

Simple Corliss 28 of f/^r/;7V«/ energy will be given out. The indicated horse 

Compound HIrIi Speed - — 26 power of an engine for driving a generator is given by 

Compound Medium Speed - 25 ' '^ » o a j 

Compound Corliss 24 ,u r i i iiti Kw. X 1,000 . 

' the formula, I.H.P. = , in which 

746 X A X B 

The above figures are for non-condensing engines, that I.H.P. = indicated horse power of engine. 

is, where the exhaust steam is turned outboard to the Kw. = capacity of generator in kilowatts, 

atmosphere or into a heating system operating under a A = efficiency of engine, 

slight pressure. When a condenser is employed in con- B = efficiency of generator. 

nection with an engine, the water-rate, under ordinary For generators ranging from 25 Kw. to 250 Kw., the 

conditions, is reduced to about eighty per cent of the I.H.P. of engine may be taken as 1.7 times the Kw. 

above. rating of the generator, with sufficient accuracy. 

Steam Turbines. The princii)le of the steam turbine is Efficiency Losses. When a steam engine is used for driv- 

such that its capacity cannot be expressed in indicated ing a generator, and the electrical energy from this again 

horse power, and the brake or delivered horse power is transformed into mechanical energy by means of a motor, 

used instead. This makes it necessary, when comparing there is a loss in each transformation. In other words, 

the power or water-rate of engines and turbines, to reduce there is one loss in the engine, another in the dynamo, 

them both to brake horse power. The steam economy of and another in the motor, all of which must be taken into 

a turbine depends largely upon a low vacuum at the account when computing the sizes of motor, generator, 

exhaust end, and hence, to get the best results, must be engine, and boiler, to do a given amount of work. The 

run condensing. For this reason they have not in the efficiencies of small motors, such as are used for fan work, 

past been used to any great extent in small sizes and on will average about eighty per cent, while larger ones for 

non-condensing work because of the excessive amount of elevator and similar service have an efficiency of about 

steam required as compared with a reciprocating engine, ninety per cent at full load. 

Recent developments along this line have produced small Assuming, then, efficiencies of eighty, ninety, and eighty- 
and medium sized non-condensing turbines which com- five per cent for motor, generator, and engine respect- 
pare very favorablv in steam economy with simple high- , . 1 ,.,.,, 

J . ' . J .i ' J- • -iiT, ivelv. It will require = 1.63 indicated horse 

speed engines operating under the same conditions. When ' .80 X .90 x .85 

run condensing, the advantage in economy is in favor of power at the engine for each horse power delivered by 

the turbine, especially on a variable load. the motor ; or conversely, the total efficiency of the three 

Ciasolene Etiffines. Steam engines and turbines are machines is .80 X .90 X .85 = .612, or practically sixty 

more commonly used for generating power, in the class of per cent. 

work under consideration, because the exhaust can be used Electric Liff/iiifig. There are two common methods of 

for heating purposes during the winter. On the other determining the sizes of generator and engine for electric 

hand, there are instances where power is simply wanted lighting. One is to prepare a list of all the lamps, together 

during the summer season, as in the case of estates occu- with the current in amperes required by each. The total 

pied for only a portion of the year. In plants of this kind current, multiplied by the voltage of the system, will give 

an outfit employing gasolene or oil engines will often be the watts required, and this in turn divided by 1,000 will 

preferable on account of its simplicity and lower first cost, give the Kw. rating of the generator. 

The amount of fuel for operating an engine of this type The second method takes into account the candle power 

will vary somewhat, according to size and make, but for and efficiency, the latter being expressed in watts per 

the average machine it may be taken as about 0.8 pound candle power. In this case the candle power of each lamp 

per brake horse' power. is multiplied by its efficiency and the total of these pro- 

Electric Power. Both direct and alternating currents ducts divided by 1,000 to obtain the Kw. rating of the 

are used for power and lighting, but the former, at 125 or generator. Having determined the capacity of the gen- 

T H E B R I C 

erator, the I.H.P. of the engine for drivino- it is obtained 
by the methods already given. 

It is often desirable in preliminary work to approximate 
the power required for lighting- before the number and 
type of lamps have been worked out. In cases of this 
kind the necessary current may be based ujion the floor 
space to be lighted, using the following assumptions, lujr 
general lighting with incandescent lamps, as in the case 
of offices, halls, etc., from 1.0 to 1.2 watts will be required 
per square foot of floor space, while drafting rooms and 
other places requiring a more brilliant illumination will 
take twice that amount. For arc lights with opal globes, 
the following may be used for rooms used for different 

Use of Room. Watts per Sq. Ft. 

of Floor Space. 

Clothing Store 1.30 

Hall 1.00 

Drafting Room 2.00 

Machine Shop 0.75 

Weave Room 1.20 

Elevators. The elevators employed in stores, hotels, 
office buildings, etc., are of two general kinds, hydraulic 
and electric ; the latter being subdivided into the drum, 
duplex, and screw types. The power required for run- 
ning an elevator varies a good deal with the type, speed, 
and general conditions under which it is operated. 

In the figures given below, average loads, speeds, and 
efficiencies have been assumed for the various types ; also, 
the different methods of counterbalancing the cars have 
been taken into accotmt, together with the additional 
power required for accelerating the load when first start- 
ing. The usual custom has been followed, where definite 
information is not at hand, of computing the power 
required for running all of the cars at one time under full 
load and taking 0.7 of the result. 

Under these conditions, hydraulic elevators require from 
0.6 to 0.7 delivered horse power per sqtiare foot of floor 
space in the cars. Elevators of this type are driven by 
direct-acting steam pumps, and in order to determine the 
necessary boiler power for this purpose, the water-rate of 
the pump must be known. 

For average conditions, this is given in Table V for 
different types of pumps. 


Pounds of Steam 
„ , „ per Delivered 

Type of Pump, Horse Power 

per Hour. 

Simple, Non-condensing 120 

Compound, Non-condensing 65 

Triple, Non-condensing 40 

High Duty, Non-conden.sing • 30 

Electric elevators of the drum and duplex types reciuire 
from 0.4 to 0.5 delivered horse power per scjuare foot of 
floor space, and the screw type about 1 horse power. As 
electric elevators are motor driven, the efficiencies of the 
various machines through which the energy passes must 
be taken into account as already described. That is, the 
I.H.P. of the engine driving the generator must be approxi- 
mately 1.6 times the power delivered to the car. 

Refrigeration. There are two methods of refrigeration 
commonly employed, known as the compression and absorp- 
tion methods. As the latter does not require mechanical 
power for its operation, only the former will be considered 
in the present article. The capacity of a refrigerating 

K lU' 1 L I) 1-: R. 35 

plant is commonly expressed in " tons of refri.geration " 
or "ice-melting effect." That is, a 5-ton machine will 
produce the same cooling effect in 24 hours as the melting 
of 5 tons of ice. The ammonia compressor is commonly 
driven by a direct-connected steam engine or electric motor, 
although small machines arc often belted to a convenient 
counter-sliaft, if one is available. Under average condi- 
tions, 1 I.H.P. at the steam cylinder of the compressor 
will produce about 0.75 ton of refri.geration per 24 hours. 
For examjile — a 5-ton machine will retjuire 5 : 0.75 = 
6.6 I.H.P. at the steam c\lindcr for driving it. If the 
compressor is motor driven, the efficiencies of motor and 
.generator must be taken into account, which will call for 
a])proximately 2 I.H.P. per ton of refrigeration at the 
en.gine driving the generator. The above figures api)ly to 
the form of refrigeration commonly employed in hotels, 
etc., for cold storage and not to the actual manufacture of 

Heating. The simplest method of determining the 
quantity of steam required for heatin.g is to base it U]Kjn 
the amount of radiating surface to be supplied. This, for 
ordinary conditions, may be taken from the following 
table, which gives the potinds of steam condensed per 
scpiare foot of radiation per hour for different forms of 
sttrface . 

TABLE VL Pounds of Steam 

Required per 
Type of Radiating Surface. Sq. Ft. of Sur- 

face per Hr. 

Direct Steam 0.3 

Indirect Steam 0.6 

Direct Hot Water* 0.2 

Indirect Hot Water* 0.4 

*In forced hot-water systems where the water is heated by exhaust steam. 

Vcuti/atioii. In case the building, or a jiortion of it, is 
supplied with fresh air by means of a fan indeiK-ndently 
of the heating system, it is customary to assume a 
temperature rise from zero to 70 de.grees. 

Under these conditions it will take 1.5 pounds of steam 
for each 1,000 cubic feet of air supplied, which includes 
that used in generating the power for driving the fan. 

Ifot- Water Heating. In some buildings, like hotels, 
hospitals, etc., the item of hot-water heating for toilet and 
latmdry purposes is an important one. 

This will reciuire approximately 1 pound of steam for 
each gallon of water heated from 50 to 170 de.grees, wiiich 
may be taken as average conditions durin.g the winter 

Utilizing Ji.xlianst Steam. If the exhaust steam from 
the engines and pumps is used for heatin.g and ventilating 
ptirposes, as should always be done under ordinary condi- 
tions, this should be deducted from the total quantity of 
steam required for all i)urposes, when computing the boiler 
horse jwwer. The available heat in the exhaust will dejiend 
somewhat ui)on the type of engine used, initial jiressure, 
etc., but it will be safe to consider eighty per cent, at least, 
of the steam delivered to the en.gincs available in the exhaust 
for heating purposes. 


lioiltrs. One Iwiler horse power (B.I I. P.) is reiiuired 
{ox each 30 poimds f)f steam i)er hour. Average coal con- 
sumi)tion, 3.6 pounds jier H.I I. P. for fire-tube boilers, and 
3 pounds for water-tube boilers. 

For grate area, see Table I. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R , 

Engines. Averag:e efficiency eig'hty-five per cent. 

Indicated horse power (I.H.P) equals approximately 
1.2 X delivered horse power (D.H.P.). 

For water-rate, see Table II. 

The use of a condenser rediices the water-rate twenty 
per cent. 

Steam Turbines. Water-rate approximately the same as 
reciprocating enjjines working- under same conditions. 

Oil l-lniiines. About 0.8 ]:)Ounds of oil required jier 
delivered power under averag:e conditions. 

lilectric Poxver. Commercially measured by the kilowatt 

Averag-e efliciencj' of generators, ninety percent. Indi- 
cated horse power of engine for driving generator is ecjual 
to 1.7 times kilowatt rating of generator. 

Efficiency Losses. The loss in power between that gener- 
ated by a steam engine and that delivered by a motor is 
approximately forty per cent, or 1.6 indicated horse power 
must be provided at the engine for each horse power 
delivered by the motor. 

Ehriric Lighting. Total current, times voltage, divided 
by 1,000, will give Kw. rating of generator, or candle 
])ower, times efficiency, divided by 1,000. 

Approximate method — allow 1 to 1.2 watts per square 
foot of floor space for ordinary lighting ; also see Table III. 

Elrvators. For hydraulic, 0.6 to 0.7 delivered horse 
power per square foot of floor space ; see also Table I\'. 

For electric, 0.4 to 0.5 delivered horse power per square 
foot of floor sjxice for drum and duplex types, and 1 horse 
power for the screw type. See " Efficiency Losses." 

Refrigeration. For steam compressors, provide 1.3 
indicated horse power i^er ton of refrigeration, and for 
motor-driven machines, 2 indicated horse power at main 
engine per ton of refrigeration. 

Heating. vSteam consumption based on square feet of 

See Table \\ 

I'enti/afion. Provide 1.5 i)()unds of steam for each 
1,000 cubic feet of air supplied in zero weather. 

Hot- Water Heating. Provide 1 pound of steam for each 
gallon of water to be heated from 50 to 170 degrees. 

I 'tilizing Ex/iaust Steam. About eighty per cent of the 
steam supplied to engines and pumps is available in the 
exhaust for heating purposes. 

Order of Computation. (1) Reduce the horse power to 

be delivered by all motors to electrical horse power 

(E.H.P.), bv formula (a). 


ia) E.H.P. = 


(2) Reduce electrical horse jwwer to kilowatts, by 
formula (/;). 

id) Kw. = E.H.P. X 0.746, 

and to this add kilowatts required for lighting, to find size 
of generator. 

(3) Find indicated hcjrse ]xnver of generator engine by 
formula ic). 

(c) I.H.P. = Kw. X 1.7 
(A) Find maximum weight of steam required in pounds 
per hour, deduct such part of the " available exhaust " as 
may be used for heating purposes, and divide the re- 
mainder by 30 to find the boiler horse power. 

Pounds of steam per hour 

Example. A building is to contain 12,000 square feet 
of direct steam radiation, 4,000 square feet of indirect, 
and is to be provided with 300,000 cubic feet of fresh air 
per hour. 

Hot-water supply, 300 gallons per hour. The building 
is also to contain the following equipment : 

One 5-ton refrigerating- machine of the steam com- 
pressor type. Three hydraulic elevators, each having: a 
floor area of 30 square feet. One dui)lex electric elevator 
with a floor area of 12 square feet. Miscellaneous motors 
amounting to 10 horse power. 

The electric lig-hting service will call for a total of 400 
amperes at 125 volts. 

The problem is to compute the capacity of generator, 
the indicated horse power of the engine for driving it, 
and the boiler horse power. Computations to be made on 
the assumjition that the entire plant will be in o])eration at 
one time, and that the available exhaust steam will be used 
for heating puri:)oses. 

Starting with the electric elevator we have 12 X 0.5 = 
6 D.H.P. required, which added to the miscellaneous 
motor output amounts to 6 -f 10 = 16 D.H.P. This re- 
duced to E.H.P. bv formula ia) gives E.H.P. = ~ = 20, 


which reduced to Kw. by formula (b) calls for 20 X 0.746 
= 14.9 or 15 Kw. capacity in the generator. 
The generator cai^acity for lighting amoimts to 

^= 50 Kw., making a total of 15 + 50 =^ 65 Kw. 

Power of driving eng-ine, by formula (c), is 65 X 1.7 = 
111 I.H.P. 

The next step is to compute the steam required for 
power purposes, and determine the available exhaust. 

Assuming a simple high-speed engine for the generator, 
the steam requirement will amount to 111 X 32 = 3,552 
pounds per hour. The power for the hydraulic elevators 
will amount to 3 x 30 X 0.7 ^63 D.H.P. 

If compound non-condensingf pumps are used it will 
reciuire 63 X 65 — 4,095 pounds of steam per hour. 

A small slow-speed simple engine for driving the refrig- 
erating- machine will have a water-rate of about 40 pounds 
per I.H.P., which, in the present case, amounts to 5 X 1.3 
X 40 = 260 pounds of steam per hour- 

This gives a total of 3,552 + 4,095 + 260 =- 7,907 
pounds of steam per hour for power purposes, of which 
7,907 X .80=^6,325 pounds are available in the exhaust 
for heating purposes. 

The steam required in pounds per hour for heating pur- 
poses is as follows : 

Direct radiation, 12,000 X .3 = 3,600 

Indirect radiation, 4,000 X .6 ^ 2,400 

Ventilation, 300 X 1.5 =^ 450 

Water heating, 300 X 1 = 300 

Total, 6,750 pounds per hour 

The available exhaust amounts to 6,325 i)ounds, .so that 

only 6,750 — 6,325 = 425 pounds of live steam per hour 

are required for heating. This calls for a boiler capacit\- 

7,907 -I- 425 



278 H.P. 

(d) B.H.P. 


In the above exami)le it has been assumed that all of 
the apparatus would be in use at its full capacity at the 
same time. A following article will take up cases varying 
from this condition. 

THE BRICK Br I L 1) i: R 










' ' ' ■ ' ■'■' V . ' i ' . ' . ' i 'i' i ' . ' . ' . 'i' i ^^ff^' . ' . 'i' i 'i' i 'i' . ' . ' . '^^W^ 

I . 1 1 . 1 i .^v^ 

' ' '' TjT^ jL ' J_^ ' L' ' '!. ' ' . ' ■ ^ ^^ 

1^ [ ! ' .' . I . . ' . . T~ 

j,Hp,q, H , t ^, t i MHaPHHMNa HH M HHH, ^ 

I I 

I I I I I I 


' i ' i' i' f 

' i ' i 'i' '. ' i' ^ 

II I 1 




THE B R 1 C K Rr I L I) K R 


MORRISTOWN SCHOOL, MORRISTOWN, N. J. Horing »V •rilli.n, Arcliitccts. 
A closely connected group composed as an " Open (.'ourt,'' according to the best classic traditions. 

Recent American Group-Plans. 



PASvSING from the colleges to the schools, one finds 
no abrupt division ; the smaller colleges and the larger 
schools seem quite the same thing in problems to be solved 
and in types of solution adopted. The following Ana- 
lytical Table classifies the usual reciuirements : 











Class Rooms. 


Students' Clubs. 
;\Iasters' Houses. 

Playing Fields. 

There is usiially also a power plant. Universities may 
add various professional schools ; any of the divisions may 
be missing ; in the Boston Normal and Latin School there 
is neither Athletic nor Residential divisions. 

As to architectural style, 
of course the great monu- 
mental college groups find 
no counterpart among the 
schools. The Tome Insti- 
tute in Maryland is one of 
the most formal and near- 
est a college in expression. 
It is being built from a 
comprehensive plan ; a 
winding drive leads up to 
a garden, treated with the 
formality of a Court of 
Honour ; the Instructional 
buildings surround it ; the 
dormitories are around a 
practice-field and the pri- 
mary department sur- 
rounds a play ground ; the 
masters' houses edge the 
hill to the east. 

Phillips Exeter, Phillips 
Andover, and St. Paul's, 


Boring & Tilton, Clias, \V. Leavitt. Jr.. Architects. 
On edue of plateau overlooking Susquehanna River; inlere.tinii .ubdiyinion by group.: 
usua" arrangement of Scholastic building, in Knirance group. Dorm.tone. more remote; 
compare State Normal School, Troy, Ala. 

Concord, arc counteri)arts amon.g the larger schools of that 
ha]:)-hazard college which .grew uj) in the latter half of the 
eighteen hundreds. Exeter has one great lesson in its 
concentrated Instruction and Residence and the enormous 
space given the third .great division. Athletics; surely as 
needful to a boy as anything else and too often left for the 
strong lad while the under-developed, needing it the most, 
avoids it. This condition Exeter attempts to improve. 
The catalogue states that " during the first two months of 
the fall term all members of the school are urged to engage 
in football or other sports apjiropriate to the season. The 
prescribed .gymnasium work be.gins early in November 
and continues to the end of the winter term. Thereafter 
all students are required to report re.gularly at the Playin.g 
Fields four times a week, where they participate in base- 
ball or track sjiorts, or tennis, or .golf, as the individual 
may prefer." 

Perhaps Benard was not ver\- far wron.g wlien he placed 
the gymnasium and its field in the most important jiosition 
of his great plan for the University of California. The 

trend is toward a fuller 
development of this branch 
in schools for both sexes, as 
proved by the prominence 
of the gymnasium and 
terraced tennis-courts in 
the Dow School for .girls, 
the parade of the New York 
Military Academy, and the 
tennis, football, and 
ball fields in the proposed 
l>lan for St. (icorge's, New- 
port. Like the Tome In- 
stitute, this is one of the 
few lar.ger school groujis 
being built from a definite 
plan ; but whereas the 
Tome is designed accord- 
ing to the monutnental 
traditions of the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts as applied to 
the generally accepted 
American ideals, St. 



George's blends anEnglish 
naivete with the gfraceful 
diffnily of the lesser Italian 
jjardens. One miyfht fancy 
it embodied the inspiration 
that an imaginary architect 
of Wren's time might have 
broiig"ht back with him 
from Italy. The Tome is 
a group of wide spaces, of 
openness ; St. George's 
charm would be impaired 
were the buildings sepa- 
rated from each other. It 
is an example of the 
"Range," that English 
type of composition which 
was perhaps first suggested 
by the irregular Gothic 
courtyard shorn of its en- 
trance side, as at Sutton 
Place in Surrey, or part 
destroyed, part rebuilt 
South Wingfield in Derby- 

Iloosac School is an ex- 
ample of it among the 
lesser schools ; in Institu- 
tional groups it seems sel- 
dom to have been used ; 
for Ecclesiastic groups, as 
at the Intercession in New 
York, it has apparently 
come to stay. It easily 
adapts itself to the close 
connection imder cover 
desired by most small 
schools, but on the other 
hand this can just as well 
be obtained in the form'al 
plan, as by the curved 
colonnades of Morristown. 

The older Ilotchkiss School ingeniously places its buildings 
alternately along a wide corridor and so arrives at a com- 

Cram, (ioodliue & Ferguson, Architects. 
Typical modern " Range" ; the Semi-Monastic, Semi-English-Collegiate ideal adapted to 
an American school ; the " Hall " central, used as a Commons by masters and pupils and 
arranged exactly as in the traditional model. 


\I vr.AM A 

Chas. W. Leavitt, Landscape Engineer. 
Central .Schonl-building, with Auditorium and unassigned building in front ; Chapel to the 
left ; special schools to the right, ending in Library : Commons, Dormitories, and Service 
behind: Farm-School group in extreme rear. Interesting connection of diagonal axis; 
several existing buildings incorporated in the plan. 

College, or a library as at 
school rooms are generally 

pact connection recalling 
the arrangement of the 
shops at the Carnegie 
Technical Schools of Pitts- 
burgh. The dormitories 
of the Hoosac School are 
in a second floor ; all other 
rooms are below, the refec- 
tory, chapel, and gymna- 
sium extending through 
both stories. The refec- 
tory divides the boys' from 
the masters' portions and 
is arranged like an English 
hall, with entrance and 
screen at one end and dais 
for the masters at the 
other. The gymnasium, 
bein.g for the boys, termi- 
nates their portion ; the 
chapel, for both school 
and visitors, naturally is 
next the entrance and ad- 
ministration. Most small 
schools seem to prefer the 
dormitories or chambers 
in the upper floors, as in 
the Iloosac, the Ely and 
the Dow Schools for girls, 
the Hotchkiss, Taft, and 
Morristown; the larger 
schools have separate dor- 
mitory buildings, as at St. 
George's, St. Paul's, the 
Tome and the Exeter 
Schools. The analysis of 
the various groups shows 
that the administration is 
.generally in the central 
and most important build- 
ing, seldom displaced by a 
Social Hall as at Peabody 
Columbia University ; that 
close to the administration, 

ST. George's school-, Newport, r. i. 

Architect unannounced. 
Marginal Ranges of buildings giving the greatest possible area for open playing fields and 
turf; unusual arrangement; completely different from typical plan, as at State Normal 
School, Troy, Ala. 

A«E eATMm< AND Boat- HOOJer. mrik-MARK AMD 


A closelv connected compact type with buildings jutting from a central wide corridor ; 
rarely used; compare Palmer and Hornbostle's shops of Carnegie Technical Schools, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 


though not at Hoosac or 
Hotchkiss ; that the refec- 
tory may be near the 
dormitories, or widely sep- 
arated as at St. George's, 
where its position is gov- 
erned by the infirmary, 
which reqviired the same 
service and yet was to be 
as far as possible from the 
dormitories. In the Dow 
School there is no attempt 
to separate the infirmary, 
while the principal's house 
is distant ; in the Hoosac 
School this arrangement 
is exactly reversed. The 
central group of the Mor- 
ristown has administration 
and dormitories in the 
central building, while the 
refectory is to the left and 
the class rooms to the right 
in separate buildings, the 
three linked together by 
curved colonnades in the 
academic manner. 

A comparison of each 
school with the Analytical 
Table is interesting ; there 
is great diversity in fimc- 
tional arrangement, for 
each head master has his 
own particular views. It 
is therefore evident that an 
architectural competition 
for a school must be most 
uncertain. Apparently 
this explains the recent 
reversal of the Loomis In- 
stitute award, the profes- 
sional adviser preferring 
one arrangement, the head 
master another. The site 
is a bleak, windswept hill- 

Design placed first by Professional Adviser. 
Charles C. Haight and Githens, Architects. 
A compact type of small quadrangles open to southeast ; shortest possible communication 
between Dormitories, School, and Refectory; Masters' houses in ends of Dormitories; 
service by encircling roads, inner quadrangle and green for pedestrians only. Loomis 
Homestead and old Garden to remain; Power House, Gymnasium, and Field in separate 

Successful competitive plan ; Murphy and Dana, Architects, 
•Site, an exposed hill-top ; views to north and southeast ; principal approach from north, 
with required right-of-way through property toother properties to the south. The separate- 
building type with connecting colonnades around a large court ; direct communication 
from Dormitories to School and Refectory ; entrance to court through Schoolhousc; ex- 
terior appearance of group subordinated to interior of court, as proved by position of 
Power House, Infirmary, etc. - - 


to]i overlooking the Farm- 
ington River to the 
northeast, with low lying 
meadows to the south and 
west, 'I'lie iirogram called 
for connection under cover 
between school, dormi- 
tories, and refectory ; 
choice of " i)artic " was 
between either a close-knit 
.groujiing or a distribution 
of buildings around a large 
campus with connecting 
colonnades. The scale of 
the plans is cjuite different, 
a series of small open 
quadrangles as oi)i)oscd to 
one great enclosure. 

In several of the schools, 
as at vSt. Paul's, Concord, 
there is a division of the 
Residence .group into sev- 
eral classes according to 
age ; sometimes each has 
its own school rooms. 
Such, however, is more 
typical of the institutions. 
The Perkins Institute for 
the Blind has its instruc- 
tional portion between two 
dormitory groups, boys to 
the right and girls to the 
left , each in ran.ges of build- 
ings around a long close, 
sug.gesting the arrange- 
ment of a medieval English 
monastery like the Vicar's 
Close at Wells. The 
smaller children have a 
ciuadrangle of their f>wn. 
The central cha])cl tower 
dominates them all ; unfor- 
tunate that the children 
can never see it nor be 
influenced by the delicious 



Chas. W. Leavitt, Landscape Engineer. 
Unusual relation of the three divisions, Scholastic. Residential, and Athletic, as entrance 
court is used for Dormitories, and school court is behind, with Academic- Aditiinistralivc build- 
ing common to both ; arrangement selected because there is more communication with town 
(lying to the southeast) from Dormitories than from school. Typical American plan in every 
way, with all advantages and defects of the style. 


% \ - 

ir ir 





Harry Allen Jacobs and Max Ci, Heidelberg, Architcct.-i. 

On a long hill-cre«l in open country; Central Adminislmtivc-Srholaslir-Sofial xroup 
with separate collage-dormiloriei each with its garden, bordering a " Village Green." 



semi -Georgian, semi-Medieval architecture. Difficulties in 
the way of existing- roads bordered the greater part of their 
length by fine trees, the orchards of pears and apples, the 
formation of the land as it slopes towards the south to the 
Charles River, — these have all been used to such good 
account that the group has gained thereby. In its archi- 
tecture it vindicates the de- 
sirability of the " Range." 

On the opposite principle is 
the Jewish Protectory at 
Hawthorne. This is the cot- 
tage scheme, and a modern 
ideal Beaux Arts plan, per- 
fectly composed with the 
functional divisions clearly 
marked — administration, re- 
fectory and school in the cen- 
ter and the separate cottage 
dormitories, each with its 
playground, right and left, 
down each side of the 
"Village Green." The 
widely-spaced cottages are 
free from the ragged, 
crowded appearance of the 
average institutional plan of 
the separate-building type. 
The group stretches along the 
straight ridge of a hill of 
such even contour that the 
regularity of plan is appropriate : but unfortunately in 
other examples the symmetrical plan seems to occur over 
and over again where the contours least warrant it, or 
opposed to great irregular hills with the same effect of 
petty silliness that some of the modern watering-places 
show at the foothills of the Alps. The plans look so well 
on a sheet of paper that the Boards of Governors or Trus- 



R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 

Utilization of old roads with bordering trees, and old orchards ; segregation of ages 
and sexes; compact schools and administration with central tower as an effective 
Dominant to the entire group. 

tees, or whoever they be, enthusiastically adopt them. 
Every one knows what a fiasco the gridiron plan of San 
Francisco has proved ; simplicity on paper, but in reality 
with many of the paved streets so steep that there is no 
attempt to drive thereon. Perhaps in the future we shall see 
the winding road adopted, as the Germans have recently 

developed it in several of their 
smaller towns. It has been 
impossible to show grades on 
the illustrations here, though 
they are so vitally important ; 
or to show the relative height 
of the various buildings to 
each other or to the spaces 
between them. Buildings 
may look far apart on plan 
and crowded in reality ; one 
of the large courts or quad- 
rangles now so much in 
favor may look bare and 
straggling, because the mar- 
ginal buildings are too low. 
The relationship a plan shows 
may not be at all evident in 
reality. As some one sug- 
gested, if Manhattan Island 
were bordered by rows of 
buildings, they might be ever 
so well balanced on plan and 
each sufficiently wide as to 
count on paper as pro]X)rtional to the space between them, 
but in reality they would not form a group. Perhaps there 
is some absolute ratio of height of buildings to space 
between them that must not be overstepped. One who is 
trained in ])]ans can only see a group as a plan, and, after 
all, a jilan is only a decorative arrangement in black and 
white on a sheet of paper. 

ri;Ksi'ix 1 i\i;. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 

THE H R I C K Hr I L I) F. R 


TILE floors havL- a practical value; they also have 
great decorative value, and it is with the latter that 
we are at present concerned. 

Owing to the peculiar limitations of the material and 
the method of manufacture, tiles are necessarily small 
units. To cover a large surface with these units, obviously 
requires numerous joints. Therefore, the joints, as well 
as the tiles, should be given importance in the design. 
From a designer's point of view, the limitations of a mate- 
rial are its greatest asset, each material requiring its own 
peculiar treatment. 

Not many years ago, all the tiles that were available for 
floors were of the machine-made variety, so perfect in 
workmanship that they could be laid in a floor with joints 
of a hair's breadth. These tiles were made in a variety of 
shapes and colors, but it was useless to lay out a pattern 
in one color, because the pattern of the joints could not be 
discovered without close inspection. If pattern was to 
count, it was necessary to use color, and the effect was 
generally hard, dry, and uninteresting. Conditions have 
since changed, and we have come to realize the value of 
the joints. It is seldom necessary to lay a floor of i)Iain 
tiles with joints less than one-quarter of an inch in width. 
Whether these joints are left the natural color of cement, 
or are colored, they will always count in the design, and 
the slight unevenness of the tiles themselves will give a 
texture that is not as hard and uninteresting as the floors 
of mechanical perfection. 

The character of the building and the location of furni- 
ture and rugs affect the design of the floor. If the floor 
is in an important room of a monumental building and is 
free from large pieces of furniture, it may well be treated 
so as to be in accord with the architectural treatment of 
the walls, but if there is to be much furniture and many 
rugs on the floor, it is better treated as a whole. This is 
a point that is often lost sight of in railway waiting rooms 
and restaurants. 

Church floors afford as great an opportunity for tile work 
as the windows do for stained glass. Much could be said 
on this subject alone, but it is sufficient here to make the 
following observation : The nave aisles should be simple. 

tile ehoir somewhat m<.)re elal.)(_)rale, and the saiietuarj- 
very rich in pattern, symbols, and color. In short, the 
elaboration increases as the altar is approached. 

It is not necessary to use large tiles in a large room to 
get scale, as the tiles can be arranged so that the unit is 
composed of several small tiles and the scale of the pattern 
increased or reduced at will. 

It is not essential that all the tiles laid in a floor come 
from one factory. Herein has the tile setter great advan- 
tage, especially in colored tiles. In the matter of shapes 
and designs, clay is so easily moulded that there is almost 
no limit to the variety that the smallest factory can jiro- 
duce. It is in the matter of glazes and ([uality that manu- 
facturers differ. 

There are many patterns that have been common pro])- 
erty ever since the beginning of tile making, and are to be 
found, with slight variations, in many tile manufacturers' 
lists. New designs can be readily produced and old ones 
revived ; the process is simply a model in clay or wax, 
from which a plaster mould is made, then the clay pressed 
in by hand, removed from the mould, dried and baked; a 
simple primitive process, to which tiles owe much of their 
chann. The difficulties are in the composition of the clay 
and glazes ; these, of course, it is assumed have Ix^cn 
overcome by the manufacturer. 

The ideal method of designing a floor is to arrange a 
general scheme and then lay out the details on the job, 
changing and rearranging details as occasion arises. 
This, of course, requires an artist as a workman — and 
there are such — or constant supervision. This is not 
always possible, but when it is done, the result is spon- 
taneous and free from the mechanical look that might 
come from a hard and fast i)lan laid out on the drawing 

By the use of color in i)attern, and pattern in individual 
tiles, there is almost no limit to the richness and elabora- 
tion possible for tile floors, but on the other hand, it is 
also possible to make an interesting floor of plain tiles in 
one color by taking advantage of the joints. 

The following diagrams will serve as reminders that the 
joints are of equal importance with the tiles. 


THE B R I C K Bin L D E R 




' — 

— ^ 

— \ 



' — 


' — 

■ ~\ 

The simplest floor of square tiles is interesting if the 
joints are in scale. 

When scjuaro tiles are laid with broken joints, long lines 
in one direction are the result. 


^^ ^ 

. ^. 


. )i 


By groups of four squares as a unit separated by wider 
joints, the scale is increased. 

A diagonal pattern of square tiles is emphasized by a border. 









— , 





Hy a few rows of broken joints, an efiect of border is produced in a field of square tiles. 






. .. ... , 

n \f • 

, )l J I . 


— i 




r ' 


By breaking joints in one course, tlie border 
is made wide. 

An arrangement adapted to large rooms. 






PI ] 



When the small squares are less than one-quarter of 

the area of the large squares, the pattern runs 

off at the side. 




ni If 


I r 






I ir~i 



When the small squares are one-tjuarter of the area of the 
large squares, the pattern has more repose. 

1 J 

1 — 



■ — 










Another wav to increase the .scale with small tiles. 

A decorative pattern that can be made "" 'h" '■■'' 






r— ir — ■ 

j — 1 

— ^ 

When double squares are laid "basket pattern," 
the necessary allowance for joints adds interest. 

A good pattern for corridors. 

Varieties of " herringbone. 

— , 

, . 

■ — 

., . 


- ■ - 


1 1 




Two combinations suggesting plaids. 

A simple device for a panel or a floor for a large room. 



T II K P>R 1 C- K WV I L n K R. 


^asg^gg^^g^g^^jRjR^^^^^^^^^^ggga^gsaaggasssjaggggMggg^^ i 

AN Df N OTES ^ * 



LAST month we discussed two new methods by whicli 
architectural fees migfht be computed. We shall now 
discuss the advantages of these methods, and then point 
out their defects. 

First let us consider the method of charging' the client 
double the salaries of the draftsmen employed on his work 
plus a fixed sum for professional services. A client comes 
to an architect to discuss a building operation. Given the 
type of structure the architect should be able to approxi- 
mate the cost of the completed building even if the client 
has no preconceived ideas other than the amount he wishes 
to invest. As stated in the January number, those who 
have experimented with the new systems of charging claim 
them to be based on the six percent commission basis. The 
architect therefore calctilates the amount of his commission 
on this basis. If it were a one hundred thousand dollar 
building the commission would be six thousand dollars. It 
is reasonable to suppose that if the work went ahead with- 
out hitch the architect would make a net profit of one-half 
of this commission, because if we analyze his expenses we 
find them somewhat as follows : Experience and book- 
keeping have shown that draftsmen's services and overhead 
expenses (office rent, stenography, clerical work, supplies, 
blue-printing, etc.) run about even when prorated to indi- 
vidual jobs. If the progress of the work were smooth, it 
is reasonable to suppose that the drafting work on the 
average one hundred thousand dollar building would take 
three thirty dollar a week men about three to four months' 
time to complete. In other words, the actual drafting 
expenses on the work would be in the neighborhood of 
fifteen hundred dollars. If the building were a factory, 
mill construction, this expense might be reduced ; if it 
were a private house, it might be increased. Now as the 
general overhead expenses can be rated as approximately 
equal to the drafting expenses, we find that three thousand 
dollars will practically cover the cost incurred if the work 
is carried out under ideal conditions for the architect, that 
is, if he has full sway to carry on his work from start to 
finish without innumerable unforeseen delays, making the 
job drag- on for two or three years, and so eat up his 
profits. But an architect's work is very seldom carried 
on under such ideal conditions, and to average a profit of 
one-half of the gross commissions, although it may be 
done now and then, is not usual if the work is carried on 
conscientiously, and especially if the work is small. The 
architect therefore goes over the situation with his client 
and finally makes him the proposition that he, the archi- 
tect, receive three thousand dollars for professional compen- 
sation, and that the client pay him double his draftsmen's 
salaries. By such an arrangement the architect makes 
sure of his profit in the beginning, and except from the 
standpoint of personal inconvenience he does not care how 
long the client procrastinates in his building operations. 

The situation for the client also has its distinct advan- 
tages ; he is certain that the architect is disinterested in 
the total cost of his structure. The client is simply pay- 
ing a fixed sum for the architect's professional services, 
and the actual cost of producing the drawings and specifi- 
cations. He is practically hiring the architect to run an 
office for him. 

Now, let us see just where the client stands, and in 
order to do this let us take a concrete example with which 
to demonstrate. An architect is designing a bank. In 
this bank is a large and lofty banking-room. The archi- 
tect tells his client that he can make it a beautiful room in 
two ways. He suggests either paneling the walls with 
costly marbles or carefully and elaborately decorating the 
room, treating the surfaces in plaster of Paris. The 
former treatment depends largely on the material for its 
beauty, the latter on the complexity and refinement of its 
detail. It is possible that the cost of these two treatments 
might be identical. If the architect were working on the 
six per cent commission basis, it is j^ossiblc that the elab- 
orate decorative plaster drawings that he would have to 
produce would completely annihilate his profit, whereas 
marble paneling could be drawn up and carefully specified, 
with but little expense. But the architect is working for 
a definite sum, the client has paid him for his professional 
services, and if the decorative jilaster treatment is decided 
upon, the burden of the cost of producing the drawings 
for it rests where it should, on the man for whom the 
draftsmen are working — the client. 

What then are the defects of this system from the archi- 
tect's point of view? How can he lose ? He can lose con- 
siderable profit in the case possibly of a factory or mill in 
which the drafting, and consequently the overhead ex- 
]ienses, would in no way aj^proach fifty per cent of a total 
six per cent commission. But letting alone the question as 
to whether or not it is just that the architect should receive 
a profit out of proportion to the work he does, what he loses 
on the mill job he makes up with the guarantee of an 
assured, just, and reasonable profit on the house, bank, 
church, etc. It would seem then that the system was of 
benefit to the architect. 

What then are the client's arguments against it ? It is 
reasonable to suppose that his first (|uestion would be, 
" How am I to know how many and how expensive drafts- 
men it is warrantable for my architect to employ on my 
work ? " If it is entirely at the discretion of the architect 
as to how many and liow exjiensive draftsmen he may 
employ on the client's w(ji-k, doesn't the system of paying 
double the draftsmen's salaries set a premium on in- 
efficiency on the part of the architect ? 

We have already stated that experience shows that over- 
head expenses can be calculated as equal to the drafting 
expenses. This is true if the work is efficiently and con- 
scientiously carried out by the architect, but if the archi- 



tect were to emploj- a man receiving: forty dollars a week 
to do the work of a man receiving ten dollars a week, 
the overhead expense column would not tally with the 
extravagant pay-roll. The client sees then that if he is 
paying: double the draftsmen's salaries, he must have 
implicit confidence in the conscientiousness and practi- 
cality of his architect. 

It would seem, therefore, that by "the professional 
bonus, plus twice the draftsmen's salary " basis, the 
architect could lose nothing- but that the client mig-ht lose 
considerable througrh inefficiency in drafting-room man- 
agement. The other alternative system suggested, that 
of charging four times the draftsmen's salaries, simply 
increases this difficulty, the imixjrtance of which we will 
discuss more fully in our March number. 




THE Jury of Award for the Public Garage, Automo- 
bile Sales and Service Building Competition awarded 
First Prize, $500, to John S. Sheridan, New York City ; 
Second Prize, $250, to Valere de Mari, Chicago, 111 ; 
Third Prize, $150, to Ralph Herman Hannaford, Boston, 
Mass ; Fourth Prize, $100, to Arthur O'Neil Geddes, New 
York City. Mentions: Sampson J. Fountain, College 
Station, Texas; Claud W. Beelman, Toledo, Ohio; 
Frederick Scholer, Chicago, 111 ; H. P. Beers, Chicago, 111. ; 
F. N. Roberts and S. Nesselroth, Boston, Mass. ; (i. Evans 
Mitchell and Wm. F. Burkhart, Jr., New York City. 

The competition was judged in Boston, January 25th, by 
Prof. Jas. Knox Taylor of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Burt L. Fenner of the firm of McKim, .Mead 
& White, D. Everett Waid, Walter H. Kilham (Kil- 
ham & Hopkins), J. Lovell Little, Jr., and F. L. W. Rich- 
ardson (Richardson, Barott & Richardson). 


Hospital for the Relief of the Ruptured .^xd 
Crippled, New York'City. Plates 21, 22, and 23. — 
The building is designed in the Renaissance style of 
northern Italy. The wall surfaces and the shafts of the 
octagonal columns are constructed of a buff wire cut brick 
laid in Flemish bond. The secondary' cornice band 
courses, capitals, etc., are of ornamental terra cotta of a 
color toning in with the brickwork. The main cornice is 
of copper. As the building site is in the middle of a 
block, extending through from street to street, it was 
important to have large courts for light in the upper stories 
and wide areas for sufficient light and ventilation in the 
basement. The body of the building was therefore placed 
across the lot in front of its center, with two wings on the 
north and two on the south. The building is of the most 
modern type of fireproof construction. The two main 
staircases, located in the east and west ends of the main 
building, are entirely enclosed and separated from the 
corridors by fireproof doors. The floor plans show in 
detail the departments on each floor. The sixth floor is 
planned with a flat roof for outdoor treatment and recrea- 
tion. The solarium divides this into two sections, one for 
the boys and the other for the girls. A large part of each 
section is roofed over so that patients may be out, even in 
the most stormy weather. As the view in all directions is 

most attractive, the masonry parapet is kept low and a 
wire mesh screen built above it for protection. 

First Church of Chrlst, Scientist, Washington, 
D. C. Plates 26, 27. — This new building is of fireproof 
construction, the floors of reinforced concrete and parti- 
tions of brick or terra cotta blocks. The materials for the 
exterior are Ohio gray-canyon sandstone for entrance por- 
tico and base, in combination with gray terra cotta and 
3 by 12 inch gray facing bricks, of a rough texture, laid 
in Flemish bond with wide recessed joints. The roofs are 
covered with Greek pattern unglazed tiles in a soft shade 
of green. The three main entrance doors are of bronze. 
The staircases are of gray Tennessee marble with wrought 
iron balustrades. The woodwork of interior, including 
pewing and platform railings and desk, is Mexican mahog- 
any, and the floors of auditorium and Sunday school room 
are of quartered white oak in parquetry patterns. The 
floors and wall bases of foyers are of gray Tennessee 
marble, and the floors of entrance portico and terrace are 
of 13 by 12 inch red Welsh quarry tiles. 

The building contains 538,500 cubic feet, measured from 
the lowest floor lines, and the entire cost, exclusive of 
organ, was $140,000, or at a rate of twenty-six cents per 
cubic foot. 

Easthampton Public Library, Easthampton, L. I. 
Pl.'VTES 28, 29. — The donor of the library, remembering 
the fact that Easthampton was settled by peo]ile from 
Maidstone, ?>ngland, desired to construct a building which 
would recall the architecture of the Maidstone Library, 
which was formerly an P>nglish Manor House. Certain 
details of the Easthampton Public Library were copied 
pretty closely from the old, especially the fireplaces and 
certain pieces of furniture and the andirons. The front of 
the building, divided by removable screens into three 
parts, is arranged to open into one for lectures and enter- 
tainments. As the library is used largely in the summer, 
a garden and fountain were made a feature of the design 
at the rear, enclosed by trellises. The peculiar shape of 
the plan is due to the fact that the lot lines ran at quite 
an acute angle with the street front. The furniture, the 
lighting fixtures and decorations, even to rugs, were pur- 
chased for the owners by the architect, and a considerable 
part of the furniture was designed and built especially for 
its present location. 

THIS month we are illustrating the Church of Kato 
Panhagia, Arta, Epirus, Greece. 
These churches, like those of the new period elsewhere, 
are almost invariably very small, rarely exceeding 30 feet 
in their greatest dimension. On the other hand, they were 
built in incredible numbers, frecjuently with considerable 
richness and delicacy of execution. Their size is perhaps 
to be ascribed to the practice of having but a single altar in 
each, in contrast with the Western custom which assembled 
many minor shrines as chapels of a single great building. 

WE acknowledge, with regrets, that the name of 
the architectural firm, George S. Orth and Bros., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., the architects of the Thaw House, Se- 
wickley. Pa., was inadvertently and not intentionally 
omitted by both author and iniblisher in an article point- 
ing out the architectural merits of this particular house. 
This article appeared in our January, 1913, issue. 


MARCH 1913 




APARTMENT, CHICAGO, ILL Schmidt, Garden & MaHin 



HOUSE, ROWLEY, MASS ^''""'^ Chouleau lUotcn 


HOUSE, CHESTNUT HILL, MASS Page & l-roihingham 

THEATRE AND OFFICE BUILDING, COLUMBUS, {)W\0 -Richards, McCarty & lUtlford 
Y. M. C. A., LAWRENCE, MASS --- Brainerd & Leeds and O . A . Thayer 




33, 34 

45, 46 

41 43 



35, 36 




Part I. The Theory of the Plan Louis Ailen Abrci,nsou 

Illustrations from plans and photographs. Associate of Louts E. Jallade 


Illustrating the Use of Brick as a Garden Embellishment on the Estate of C. W. Lasell, K.sq. 


II. Types of Apparatus and Plant Design Charles L. Hubbard 

TERRA COTTA GRILL ROOM, A _.. --- /•• ^'- -i»drews & Co.. Architects 

Illustrations from photographs. 

Cornices — Verona, Brescia, and Siena. 
ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH. PHILADELPHIA, PA.. LA FARCE .V '■''''''^^^;^f';';™:^^^'^^ 

An Appreciation - 




















For the United States, its insular possessions and Cuba, $3.00 per year 

For Canada. $3.30 per year For Foreign Countries in the Postal Un.on. $6.00 per year 

All copies mailed flat 
Trade supplied by the American New. Company and its branche. 

U ' UIJ} ' .jJIVfli 


Peiraic yellow sandstone with intermediate 
courses of brick. Below the clerestory win- 
dows is a curious terra cotta frieze of Oriental 
character. Middle of twelfth century. 

Photo by Royal Prussian Pholometric Instiliile. 


MARCH, 1913 



The Planning of a Young Men's Christian Association 

Buildino:. — Part I. 


IN a recent issue of The Bkickbuildkk there a])peared 
a very able and concise presentation of tlie basic i^rin- 
ciples that must govern the successful planning- of a build- 
ing- for the Young- Men's Christian Association. In this 
article, and those to follow, it is the aiithor's intention to 
supplement the former more theoretical treatise with a 
practical study in reg-ard to the plan, detail, and construc- 
tion of the integrant rooms and departments that compose 
the Association building- of to-day. 

A ])erusal of the descrij^tive matter of an_\- Association will 
immediately establish the fact that the initial of a 
Young- Men's Christian As.sociation is "To Make Men " 
— to develop manhood from the raw material," Youth." 
But as the Association is i)ractically always, and intention- 
ally so, partially dependent upon the community in which 
it exists for sustenance, the planning- of the building- must, 
above all else, make possible the consummation of its j^ur- 
pose at a minimum cost for overhead carrying- chargfcs. 

This is accomplished when the following- conditions are 
brought about : 

(a) Construction must be of durable materials, selected 
only after a thoroug-h test as to their fitness from a 
utilitarian standpoint. 

(d) The plan must permit of the maximum flexibility 
and varied usagfes for the same rooms. Reapportionment 
of area for the different apartments must be relatively 

(c) The plan must permit of efficient supervision by a 
minimum staff of ])aid em])loyees. 

(d) The mechanical e(|ui]iment must be i)ossible of 
operation by other than skilled engfineers ; and so desigfned 
that all possible sources of unnecessary consumjjtion of 
energy are avoided. 

Under the first classification we arc to deal entirely with 
the problem of the choice of proj^cr materials, their use 
and abuse. This will be discussed at gTcater length in a 
future cha])ter. But in i)assing, we shall regard one ex- 
ample. It is common j^ractice to construct the ceilings of 
the natatorium and shower rooms of plaster or galvanized 
iron. The former, unless constantly repainted, will ulti- 
mately disintegrate and become loosened; while the latter 
will rust where it has been sheared, or punctured at the 
nailing points. To illustrate the .second condition : The 
gymnasium should be planned so that it can readily be 
converted into a place of public assemblage — having 

direct entrance and exit to the street and adequate stairs 
to the running- track, temi)orarily serving as gallery. That 
this arrangement might be feasible, it is necessary to i)ro- 
vide a large room on the same floor level as that of the 
gymnasium (an exercise room or boys' gymnasium), into 
which all ai)paratus can be moved. Again, the several 
locker rooms should be planned with regard to the future 
re(iuirement of the i)hysical deixirtment. The rooms 
should adjoin one the other and be divided by wire mesh 
or other movable partitions as, invariably, the proportions of 
the junior to the senior members, as determined before 
the erection of the building, does not accurately materialize 
and is otherwise always subject to reapportionment. 

To efficiently and economically supervise, it is necessary 
to centralize and amalgamize the points of control and the 
focal point of each story where such su]>ervision is 
required, e./r., basement and first floor. 

Finally, an absolute control of the light and heat must 
be had of each deiiartment indejiendently of all others. 
For exami)]e, during winter it is necessary to i)rovide a 
constant sui)ply of heat in the boys' deixirtment during the 
entire day. However, it is an advantage to discontinue 
the sui)i)ly of the dormitories during the greater i)art of 
the day. It is therefore necessary that the dormitory 
rooms be cojitrolled independently of other departments, 
and so eliminate the necessity of visiting each room and 
there closing each radiator valve. 

There is no one building that can be chosen as being 
ideal, excei)t as to its type. Nor could a jilan be devised 
that could reasonably be termed ideal ; for each commu- 
nit\- has its individual jn'oblems, and the peculiarities of its 
membershii), the privileges afforded to both members and 
non-members, and the extent of its executive force, all 
tend greatly toward the determination of the projier iilan. 
An analytical study of local conditions must Ix- made by 
the architect in consultation with the secretary and com- 
mittees, if a plan adai)ted to the needs of the community is 
to be obtained. The autlK)r is aware of the existence of 
several buildings of exactly similar plan and designed by 
the same architects of which the original building has 
successfully met the demands ; and the others dismally 
failed. A total collaboration between the architect and his 
committee is more essential in Association work than in 
any other form of institutional building. Professional 
obstinacy to suggestions and precedent predetermines fail- 



urc. In this jmpcr the author will take as a subject for 
illustration and discussion the units that compose the 
avera.qe building: adaptable to the needs of the community 
of eight to ten thousand, and will study these imits sepa- 
rately and in conjunction with their related parts. Gen- 
erous reference should be made to the diag^rams and other 
illustrations reproduced herewith. 


Hall. The termination of the main stairs in the base- 
ment should be directly in a hall. This hall should be 
ample in its dimensions to prevent eongfestion, as is ai^t to 
occur after the discharge of gymnasium classes. From 
this hall, entrance should be had to all other departments, 
supervised, and some mechanically controlled, by the attend- 
ant in of the basement. The position of this attend- 
ant's desk must be such that from it a careful supervision 
can also be obtained of the activities in the different rooms. 

In conjunction with this desk there is often a moderate 


FIG. I. 
An arrangement insuring ideal supervision and control from the attend- 
ant's desk. Notice that the spa serves both juniors and seniors. 

lunch counter or spa where light refreshments can be pro- 
cured. This lunch counter is mostly used in the morning 
by the dormitory men and by the physical department 
members after exercising. It should obviously be placed 
in the line of their circulation, but still be recessed suffi- 
ciently to avoid becoming obtrusiv^e. It is decidedly of 
advantage to have the serving space in direct communica- 
tion with the kitchen on the second floor by means of a 
dimib-waiter. Care must be taken to adequately and 
rapidly ventilate this serving space so that the offensive 
odors will not be carried into other rooms or up the stairs 
into the social rooms of the first floor. 

The position of the attendant must be such that in addi- 
tion to the duties mentioned above he can collect tolls for 
the use of the bowling alleys and game room (if in the 
basement). During certain periods of the day it is often 
necessary for the attendant to be away from his desk, and 
a circular stairway, or other convenient means of access, 
should exist between the main desk on the first floor and 
that of the basement. However, this stair should never 
lead through an open well in the floor, as otherwise the 
noise of the basement will be communicated directly to the 
office and become decidedly objectionable. 

Physical Department. A study of the natatorium and 
baths, likewise the locker rooms, will be taken up later. 
Suffice it to say that certain rigid laws affecting light and 
ventilation must be strictly adhered to. There are several 
locker systems in successful operation. Some have merit 
by reason of their space-saving possibilities ; others per- 
mit of greater sanitation ; and again, some have virtue by 
reason of their economy. 

Toilet. Provide ample toilet accommodations, but re- 
duce standing room to the minimum to discourage the 
room's use as a rendezvous. Two water-closets, one 
urinal, two basins, and a slop sink are ample. 

(ianie Room. This room, containing the pool and bil- 
liard tables, is not always provided, local protestation 
sometimes forbidding its initial introduction. However, 
if not originally iirovided, experience has taught that 
provision should be made for its future installation, 
whether in the basement or on the first floor. The maxi- 
mum equipment will, in most instances, probably consist 
of four tables, full size. Ami>le provision must be made 
for spectators, preferably aUmg the walls and not between 
the tables. If the spectators' chairs are placed on a raised 
platform, the tendency will be to keep the visitors from 
encroaching upon the playing space. (Fig. II.) 

^JCTQC7QQO J)Q p ' JjoAoAQ&Qibd 

^-^U" T C p ~J 

^ — • 1/ T e- p _^ 



An exceptionally good arrangement for the game room. Note that the 
windows are opposite each table and that spectators reach their chairs 
without interfering with players. 

Ihm'ling .llleys. The bowling alley ecpiipment (Fig. Ill) 
should always be of the regulation size, of the latest model 
and complete in every particular. Otherwise, their 
patronage will soon be diverted to quarters offering more 
satisfactory inducements. The number of alleys to be 
planned for depends entirely upon local demand, the 
usual installaticin being two pair. Spectator space on 
stepped platform should be provided behind the runway, 
likewise alongside of alleys and next to the exterior wall, 
if the source of light, so that (a) spectators will not be 
obliged to face a strong blinding sunlight ; (b) splashing 
rain cannot enter the windows and ruin the surface of the 
alleys; (c) radiators and steam-pipes placed along the 
exterior walls can be reached and valves adjusted without 
walking over and consecpiently mutilating the surface of 
the alleys. There must be no posts or other obstructions 
between the alleys that will prevent a clear view along the 
entire length of the bowling alleys. Discretion should be 
exercised in determining the position of the alleys so that 
the noise generated will in no way annoy other activities 
in progress at the same time. As the junior department 
is least active in the evening and the bowling alleys have 
their maximum usage at this time, it is advisable to locate 
the alleys under the boys' rooms with the pin pit farthest 



from the street. But 
the si^cctators' space, 
to the contrary, 
should be contiguous 
to the front wall so 
that its very active- 
ness and ai)])ro]>riate 
excitedncss will tend 
to arrest interest and 
a desire of participa- 

To i)ermit the 
rental of the alleys 
to outside parties and 
thus increase this 
source of revenue, an 
exterior entrance 
should be provided. 
This entrance, how- 
ever, should be in- 
conspicuous, and can 
also serve as a base- 
ment delivery way 
for supplies, trunks, 
etc. In order that it 
be jiossible to rent 
but part of the alleys 
and still allow the re- 
maining: pair to be 
used by the Associa- 
tion members, a re- 
movable partition 
should divide the 
spectator space and 
runway. This parti- 

Note the absence of windows on the rear wall, eliininatinj;; a source of 
annoyance to the players. 

tion can either be in the form of an obscure, j,^lazed 
sliding- sash or else rolling' shutters. The latter are 
more desirable, for when not in use the vertical guides 

can be removed and the lines of vision unobstructed. 
For tournament purposes a considerable number of chairs 
are required, and for their storage a convenient room 
should be provided. In a community where bowling is 
active, a small locker room with a shower bath for the 
exclusive use of the bowlers is a very profitable adjunct. 

Storage Room. A cajiacious rof)m is necessary for the 
safe storage of such e<iuipnicnl that is only to be used 
from time to time. Again, certain activities, as, for ex- 
ample, some of the educational classes, are discontinued 
during: certain seasons, and their especial ai)paratus nuist 
be safely preserved. 

l-"lK.ST Fl,f)()K. 

lintranrcs. While the exterior of the building nnist of 
necessity l)e simi)le and modest, the main entrances, that 
is, to the junior and senior departments, must be accentu- 
ated, i^referably by exaggerating the scale of the mastmry 
oi)ening in relation to all other fenestration, and so give 
the entrances an asi^ect of openness and shelter. Archi- 
tecturally, the junior entrance should not be quite as 
prominent or imposing as that provided for the seniors. 
The entrance steps should be confined within the vestibule, 
to discourage loitering on the ]iart of the members and 
others, and further to reduce the possibility of accident 
through negligence in not removing snow and ice. The 
entrance to the lobby must be direct and not circuitous. 
Upon entering one should immediately see the lobby and 
not come face to face with a barring wall. Minimize the 
distance from the entrance to the center of activity. 

-Senior Department — Lobby- Careful study should be 
given to the location and plan of the lobby and its related 
rooms. Being the hub of the building, its position nnist 
be central and the entrances to the other rooms, halls, and 
stairs must be directly from the lobby proper and within 
the control of the attendant's desk. The lobby should 
present an extremely dignified and genteel atmos]ihere, 
unpretentious and hospitable, as its function in the build- 
ing is that of a social center ; and its outward appearance 
must be such that it will conunand the proper respect and 
regard of its members. If poorly lighted and cheaply con- 
structed of sheathed j^artition and common partition sash, 
having: columns scattered here and there, and bizarre 
fresco decoj-ations, quite naturally the members will refrain, 
perhaps unconsciously, from cultivating- a jiroper sense of 
dignity. A room well illuminated, free of obstructing 
columns, of studied proportions, and imparting an hos- 
pitable atmosphere of the home living' room will obtain the 
desired resiK'Ct from the members. 

rio. IV. 

An absolute, unobstructed view of all alleys from any \v 
spectators' platform. 

fk;. V. 

till- An example of excellent supervision — enlrnnce, lobby. Rame room, stairs, 

coat room. etc. 


T H p: B R I c k b it I l d e r 

...crsi-Tf-l ^:;^L 

Perfect supervision and control. 

As im])]iL>d above, the attendant, from his position, must 
be able to conveniently sujiervise the movements of the 
men entering and cireulatin.t;' to all other parts of the build- 
ingf. Therefore the means of entrance, stairs and corri- 
dors, must be within the possible visual, if not physical, 
control of the attendant. Non-members must be detected 
and properly directed to their destinations. (Fi.t;\ VI. ) 

(ieneral Desk and Offices. The i)roi)er relationship for the 
desks and offices is best expressed in Fijjr.VII. This arrange- 
ment groups the offices, .so that in addition to a suj^ervision 
by each secretary of his own department, at certain times, 
partial control can be had by either from their offices, of 
the other departments. It is decidedly, advantageous to 
have each office so placed that the secretary, remaining 
in his office at his labors, can _\-ct be able to greet the 
members as they enter. This, however, should be 
arranged for through a glazed i)artition, rather than 
through an oj^en door, as otherwise each man st) welc<jmed 
would accept the greeting as an invitation to linger. 

The boys' secretary's office need only be of sufficient 
size to comfortably accommodate his desk and such other 
usual furniture, but the general secretary's office must 
be of such size that it will accommodate committee and 
board meetings. If space is limited, and the committees 
large, then it must be possible to convert two or m<jre 






offices into one. This, however, is not ideal, as it necessi- 
tates the moving of cumbersome furniture. Here the 
ciuestion of expansion and flexibility becomes very impor- 
tant. As the work of the Association increases, additional 
offices are established, such as for employment and religious 
work, and provision should be made for their accommo- 
dation. A vault for the storage of documents and silver 
service, about 18 inches deep and 5 feet wide, is of great 
value and its location should be within the general office 
space. Light and air for the offices should be obtained, if 
at all possible, through windows, and not through sky- 
lights. The advisability of providing a special toilet for 
the secretarial staff is questionable. It is considered by 
the author to be an advantage to the work if one of the 
compartments in the general toilet be reserved and so keep 
the conditions familiar to the force. 

Coat Room. The coat room should do service for both 
senior and junior departments. It must consequently be 
contiguous to both desks, as the office attendants are in 
charge the greater part of the time. It should be placed 
at a i^oint not too distant from the entrance and on the 
line of circulation to and from the main stairs, but never 


An ideal combination of offices permitting supervision of all departments 
by one man. 

i'k;. viu. 

A group of well arranged, light e.xecutive otTices. 

(m a corridor. The size of the coat room dei)ends entirely 
upon the service it is to perform. That is, whether it is to 
be used bj' members only or also by those attending g-eneral 
meetings. The door should be of the Dutch type, not less 
than 3 feet in width, with brass-rimmed shelves 16 inches 
at its maximum width. If the coat room is to be used on 
occasions of general public meeting, then there should be 
a secondary door of the same size and type to accelerate 
the service. In addition to ccjat and hat racks, jirovision 
should be made for the reception of umbrellas, school 
books, tennis rackets, and members' outgoing and incoming 
laundry. A steam coil should be placed close to wall with 
a metal shield to deflect the radiation vertically and be 
operated during inclement weather. 

Stairs. The stairs, both up and down, should start from 
a point in the lobby adjacent to and in direct view of the 
desk. An arrangement similar to Fig. VI. is ideal, as it 
compels one to pass the desk and so insures against i^ro- 
miscuous entry. Furthermore, at such times as the attend- 
ant is not at his desk in the basement, the general office 



I Ulu m 





frtirjj SO yS 

|r_^ nr.PAR-rntyiT 

f/esT /"woe piA/y 


"T KtaJTia/f LOBBT Jkw'^ 



f-ieST rLOOIS PL^/V 



desk can control the circulation to the basement, by opera- 
ting: an electrically controlled door at the head of the stairs. 
If that part of the basement at the foot of the stairs is in 
the proximity of the bowling: alleys, or other rooms where 
shouting: is common, then doors must be placed at the 
head or the foot of the stairs to check this disturbance. 

Reading Room. The Association does not usually 
attcmi>t to vie with the public library as customarily 
books are not for circulation. The reading' room does 
not, except in few instances, even attem])t to co-operate 
with the educational department in supplying: reference 
books. Its function is more that of a retreat, where books 
and periodicals are acces- 
sible and where the mem- 
bers of the educational 
department can retire in 
advance of their classes. 
It should therefore be iso- 
lated to insure quietude. 
Enclosed bookcases to a 
heig:ht within standing- 
reach should line the walls. 
A fireplace is extremely 
well fitting- and useful. 

Social Room. The social 
room, usually placed sym- 
metrically to the reading- 
room with regard to the 
lobby, contains the smaller 
game tables such as 
checkers and chess and is 
really an adjunct to the 
lobby. At times it will 
be used as a meeting- place 
in conjunction with it, and 
the separating- partition 
should really be a glazed 
screen with wide doors. 

The social life of the 
Association is exemplified 

in the lobby social and reading- rooms. They therefore 
should be placed along- the main facade, so that passers- 
by can be favorably impressed by the activeness and 
attracted at nig-ht by the brilliant and symmetrical 
illumination of these rooms. It logically follows that 
the junior department, dormant at night (excei)t when 
used by employed boys), should be releg-ated to a less 
important section of the building- than that given over to 
the seniors. 

Junior Dcfiartnient. The location of the junior depart- 
ment is also determined by other factors. As is readily 
conceived, the social rooms of this de])artment at times 
become a bedlam and their location should therefore not 
be such that their presence will disturb and handicaj) other 
departments, especially when da\- classes are given. 
Modern practice, as a result of a varied experience, 
demands a segregation of the boys' work from that of the 
seniors. In the smaller type of building:, however, the 
seg-reg-ation is only confined to the social rooms and 

A well arranged boy.s' department under good control. 

the shower and locker rooms. In the larger building-s, 
however, it has been foimd advisable to provide inde- 
pendent g-_\-mnasium and natatorium. 

Rn trance. The boys' entrance to the lobby can, if con- 
tinued upward, become a nig-ht entrance to the dormitories, 
and, where the meeting: room of the second floor is used 
extensively by the general public, the same entrance can 
be converted into a special one for this room. 

Lobby or (ianic Room. The social rooms provided for 
boys' work difi^er in purpose from those given to the senior 
department, inasmuch as a g:eneral lobby is not neces- 
sary. Boys will not sit around unless otherwise occupied, 

and will therefore rather 
be found playing- at their 
games in the reading room 
or else in i)hysical exercise. 
Consequently, a large 
room, furnished with the 
re(|uired game tables (jiool, 
shuffle board, carroms), 
and a reading room are 
necessary. Several club 
rooms, about 10 feet by 12 
feet, are desirable, and 
should be arranged with 
connecting folding doors. 
(Fig. IX.) 

The importance of the 
boys' work has only re- 
cently been generally es- 
tablished, and modern 
])ractice is compelling a 
further segregation ac- 
cording to ages. Where 
the boys' work is, or 
l^romises to become, exten- 
sive, the lobby or game 
room should be divided, 
by movable partitions or 
glazed screens, into three 
distinct departments: Junior boys (grammar school), 
.senior boys (high school), and employed boys. 

Reading Room. The reading room, similarly, should be 
divided for junior and senior boys, separated from the 
lobby by transparent screens. Constant supervision must 
be had at all times by the boys' secretary of his entire 
department. And consequently it must be possible for 
him, from his desk or ofiice, to thoroughly control the 
activities and circulation of his members until they pass 
into the physical or educational departments, where they 
immediately should come within the supervision of the 
secretary in charge. For this reason, as much as possible 
of this department should be located on one floor, and 
that, the main floor. The boys' toilet should never be 
placed in the basement, but adjacent to the desk and under 
its supervision. The stairs to and from the boys' lobby 
should be so placed that they can be most easily controlled. 
It is well to enclose them within wire g-lass partitions with 
the doors mechanically controlled from the secretary's desk. 

Mr. Abramson will continue in the April number to di.scuss the "Theory of the Planning' of 

Y. M. C. A. Buildings." The series will further treat of the "Materials of Construction" and 

"Physical Dejiartnient" (comprising Gymnasium, K.xercise Rooms, Hand Ball Courts, Locker 

Rooms, Baths, and Natatorium). — The Editors. 

THE 15 R 1 C K lUT I L 1)1 

Architectural Landscape Design. 



OUITE the most unique and effective brickwork that 
has been seen since the late Stanford White discov- 
ered the Harvard brick is found in the walls, buttresses, 
and arches of the garden of Mr. Chester W. Lasell, at 
Whitinsville, Mass. 

Here are seen brick rangfin.e;' in color from delicate oran^fe 
to rich reds and deep violet tints like the brick which is so 
picturesque in Southern France. They are found to be 
brick that heretofore have been thrown away by the thou- 
sand, or used in partition walls, because they came from 
over the arch in the kiln and so near to the fire that they 
became badly twisted. Being' so near the fire in the baking 
they vary widely in color. Looked at separately, the indi- 
vidual brick are almost hideous, but, when jnit toy:ether 
in walls, the colors blend most effectively and harmonize 
with the planting. 

The accompanying photog^raphs show the manner in 
which the odd brick were utilized, but, unfortunately, do 
not give any idea of the rare coloring". The pictures do 
show, however, what rapid work can be done in garden 
construction. Less than a year before the jihotographs 
were taken there was no garden on the site at all. 

The design of the garden was limited by certain fixed 
conditions, viz., a privet hedge bordering three sides of 
a veg-ctable garden, 150 feet by 80 feet, and near it, on a 
lower level, an old gravel tennis court. Both of these 
were to be preserved. The owner expressed himself very 
firmly about not wanting the hcdg^e harmed in any way. 

The vegetable garden was on a level 5 feet higher than 
the tennis court, and, between the two, was an old retain- 

ing: wall. With this situation the architect worked out tlic 
following general scheme: The vegetable garden, which 
had a slope of about 5 feet to the south, was leveled and 
made into what is now called the upper garden. This has 
grass panels and is surrounded with an herbaceous border 
and the old hedge. Upon the old retaining wall was 
placed a 3-foot paneled wall made of the multi-colored 
brick ; a handsome wall fountain and steps were built to 
the lower level. Here was the old tennis court on the 
right, to which was added, on the left, a rose garden, with 
high walls of the unusual brick. In order not to have a 
5-foot bank on the north side of the garden, the hedge, 
which must not be damaged, was dropped 3 feet. This 
ticklish job was done without the loss of a single plant. 
A 2-foot terrace was then built, in front of which was 
planted the herbaceous and perennial border of the paneled 
garden. In back of the hedge the ground was graded into 
the natural slo])e toward the house. The whole garden is 
nestled amid fine trees, and for the background on the 
north of the i)aneled ujii^er garden are large chestnuts, 
oaks, and i>ines on slightly rising ground. In addition to 
lowering the hedge, whole trees, some of them 35 feet high, 
were moved into harmonious i)ositions. 

It will be noticed in the photographs that the bond of the 
brickwork changes throug'hout in order to make the sur- 
faces more interestingf, being Flemish in the ui)per garden 
and English in the rose garden. In fact, the garden is 
full of pleasant surprises and no matter which way one 
turns one is always coming upon new patterns in brick 
design which show they have been carefully studied and 



Joseph D. Leland, Architect. 

harmonize effectively with one another. A three-<|iiarter 
inch joint has been used throughout. 

Let us take a short stroll into the garden. Passing from 
the house down a short gentle slope, shaded with big trees, 
and then down an easy flight of brick steps, laid in pattern 
and flanked by two large Roman urns, we enter the pan- 
eled ui^per garden. Directly in front of us, in the center 
of this upper garden, is a circular, stone-coped lily pond 
with a small fountain. In two of the corners of the upper 
garden are marble seats in the form of quarter circles. 

Not being able to see it all at once, the garden draws you 
on, and, crossing through the middle of the upper portion, 
we come to a picturesque wall fountain, around which are 
two flights of steps. The pictures describe the wall foun- 
tain, but they do not bring out the fine coloring of the 
brick or the delicate vellow and rose tints of the stucco 

work around the lion's head, from whose protruding 
tongue the water falls in the shape of a fan into an Italian 
well-head. The water then overflows from the well-head 
intf) another basin at the bottom. 

Before going down to the lower garden, the pergola to 
the right is of interest. This is on the line of the old 
retaining wall and is at the southwest corner of the upper 
garden, while its balcony overlooks the tennis court. This 
balcony is cantilevered with steel beams encased in con- 
crete, the floor is inlaid with a brick pattern, and the 
roof is of red tiles which can be seen from inside the 
pergola. It makes a charming resting spot, and yet has 
the advantage of being a good viewi^oint. Returning to 
the wall fountain, and passing down one of the two flights 
of ten steps which meet on a platform below, the brick- 
work again attracts attention. The back of the fountain 











has a recessed brick arch and panel, in which the brick 
are laid in a cross pattern. These brick are a deep purple. 
On this wall surface is a bronze s;rotes(iue dwarf who is 
blowing bubbles out of a tiny pipe. This pipe, in reality, 
is a sanitary, bubbling drinking- cup where the tennis 
players can find cold water near at hand. 

At the foot of the steps one can either pass into the 
tennis court on the right, or, mounting two steps and 
passing through a handsome wrought-iron gate, go into 
the delightful rose garden. The walls of this lower garden 
arc lYn feet high and are .made of the picturesque many- 
colored brick. The pathways in the garden are paved 
with Ilarv^ard brick, the kind used in the walls being too 

rough and irregular to be comfortable for walking. On 
one side of this garden is a charming little recessed 
l)ergola. From the rose garden a flight of steps and a 
skedaddle path lead through the border planting into the 
upper garden, and another gate, under an arch, leads to 
an annual and bulb garden, which is not shown in the 

The garden is not yet completed. Vases for the top of 
the walls, a sun-dial, statues at the end of several vistas, a 
rockery and grai^e arbor, which all form a part of the 
general plan, have yet to be put in place and much of the 
planting has yet to be done. The photographs, therefore, 
show the rather remarkable results of less than one year. 



The Unit Power Plant for Isolated Buildin^^s and Small 




THE architect who is interested in the subject of power 
plant installation should provide himself with a col- 
lection of catalogues of the best makes of apparatus. 
These contain a considerable amount of practical data, 
and it has seemed best to refer the reader to this source 
of information rather than to reproduce the same matter 

Boilers. The boilers used in power and heating: work 
are classed as fire-tube and water-tube boilers, according- 
to their construction. 

The horizontal return tubular boiler, with a brick set- 
ting-, is the type of the former most freciuently used. It 
is so designed that the hot gases pass through the tubes 
which are enclosed in a shell and surrounded with water. 
This form of boiler is used extensively for heating work, 
and also for power to a considerable extent. It has a 
larg-e water capacity, is simple in construction, requires 
less head room than some types of water-tube boilers, and 
is also lower in cost. As boilers are rated on the amount 
of heating surface which they contain, there is a tendency 
on the part of some makers to crowd in too many tubes 
for the best efficiency. 

Specifications may be obtained from the Hartford vSteam 
Boiler Ins]:)ection and Insurance Company of Hartford, 
Conn., giving" the principal details of construction for 
boilers of different sizes. Copies of these should be placed 
on file by the architect who wishes to take charge of this 
part of the equipment of his building". 

The principle of construction of the water-tube boiler is 
the reverse of the fire-tube, as the name implies. In this 
case, the water is inside the tubes, which are surrounded 
by the hot gfases. This type of boiler is used extensively 
for power purposes for various reasons, among which its 
g"reater safety is one of the most important. This is due 
to the division of the water into small masses, which tends 
to prevent serious results in case of rupture. Other 
advantages of this particular form of construction are, the 
large proportion of heating: surface exposed directly t(i the 
fire, which results in an increased transmission of heat 
and a more rapid circulation of water, ample draft area, 
and a slower movement of the gases over the tubes. As 
to efficiency, there is probably very little difference be- 
tween the two types when equally well designed and cared 
for. In city buildings, and others where there are many 
occupants, the water-tube boiler is usually preferred for 
power work on account of its g-reater safety at higher 
pressures. There are many different forms of water-tube 
boilers designed to meet almost any reeiuirement as to 
floor space and height for a given power. Much valuable 
data relating- to capacity, dimen.sions, setting's, etc., will 
be found in the catalogues of the various manufacturers. 

Steavi /inffines. Steam engines are classified partly 
according to their mechanical construction and partly with 
reference to speed. The hig-h-speed sing:le-valve engine 
and the medium-speed four-valve engine are the types 

most frequently used for isolated [ilants. High-speed 
engines have come into general use for driving: electric 
generators on account of the desirability of connecting- the 
.generator directly with the shaft of the engine. The mod- 
erate-speed engine is more economical in the use of steam, 
and may also be direct-connected to a generator of suit- 
able design. 

The principal waste in an engine is due to cylinder con- 
densation, and where steam economy is of g:reat importance 
this may be overcome, to some extent, by the of mul- 
tiple expansion engines. In a simple engine, the total 
expansion takes iilace in a single cylinder, while in a coii- 
/>o ////(/ engine two cylinders are employed, so arranged that 
the steam first enters the high-pressure cylinder, expands 
a certain amount, and then exhausts into the low-]iressure 
cylinder where expansion is completed. 

Compound eng:ines are of two general forms, the taiidcm 
and cross-compound. 

In the former, both pistons are placed upon the same 
rod, with the axes of the cylinders in line. Only one set 
of reciprocating parts is re(|uired, and excei)t for the two 
cylinders, the appearance is the same as that of a simple 
eng-ine. Cross-compound engines are made up of two 
complete machines, except for the main shaft and fly 
wheel, which are common to both. One advantage which 
this form has over the simple and tandem engines is that 
the cranks may be set at ninety degrees from each other 
so that there is no " dead center." The cross-compound 
engine is more expensive to make and reciuires a larger 
floor space than the tandem engine, hence it is not so 
well adapted to the isolated plant as the latter. In triple- 
expansion engines the steam is expanded in three stages 
instead of two. Three cylinders are usually employed, 
the high, intermediate, and low, with the cranks one hun- 
dred and twenty degrees apart. Engines are made both 
vertical and horizontal in form. While the former recjuires 
less floor space than the latter, it is more difficult to balance 
the reciprocating parts, and the horizontal type is usually 
preferred for high-speed work on this account. The selec- 
tion of an eng:ine for any particular location depends upon 
the conditions under which it is to oiK"rate. For sizes 
imder 100 horse ])owcr, and for larger sizes where the 
exhaiist is to be utilized for heating, the simi)le non-con- 
densing engine oi)erating under a pressure of SO to '^0 
l)ounds is generally used. 

The best type as reg-ards speed depends much ujKm the 
available room. In office buildings and similar locations 
where floor si)ace is valuable, the high-si)eed engine is 
used almost exclusively. I'or central lighting jilants in 
connection with public institutions, where floor sjiace is 
not so limited, the moderate-speed engine is a good type. 
When all of the exhaust can be utilized for heatin.g purposes 
there is of course no advantage in installing a high-priced 
engine for the sake of economy in steam consumiHion, but 
if conditions are such that only a comparatively small i)arl 



of the L-xhaust can be used, or if the heating season is 
short, it may be an advantage to install compound engines, 
at an increased cost of perhaps thirty per cent over that of 
simple engines. The steam consumption in the case of 
high-speed, non-condensing engines at full load is from 
twenty to thirty per cent less for the compound type, while 
the increase in fuel consumption required to raise the 
boiler pressure from 80 to 125 ]wunds is only about one 
per cent. In order to secure satisfactory results with a 
compound engine it should always be operated within its 
economical range, which is from fifty per cent load to full 
load, and under a steam pressure of 100 to 125 pounds. 

Slcam Turbine . Steam turbines are of two general types, 
t\iQ impulse a.nA reaction. Practically all of those built in 
the smaller sizes for isolated plant work are of the former 
type, in which the steam is blown in jets against the 
vanes of a revolving wheel. Turbines are especially 
adapted to the driving of electric generators and centrifu- 
gal pumps, and are also used to some extent in connec- 
tion with ventilating fans. The conditions under which 
they are used are ])ractically the same as for reciprocating 

Gasolene Rjigines. As previously stated, these are par- 
ticularly adapted to cases where power only is required, and 
where it is desired to simplify the equipment as much as 

A general idea of the different types of both turbines 
and gasolene engines can best be obtained from a study of 
the catalogues of some of the best makes. 

Condensers . Condensers are of two general types, the 
surface condenser, where the exhaust steam is condensed 
by contact with a series of tubes through which cold water 
is forced, and the Jet condenser where the steam mingles 
with the water and is condensed by direct contact. Con- 
densers are not used in connection with combined power 
and heating plants, except in some cases during the 
summer, where condensing water can be obtained from a 
near-by river or water front free of cost, except for pumji- 
ing. In large central stations condensing equipment is 
always provided. The wcyght of condensing water re- 
quired in connection with recii)rocating engines is about 
thirty times the weight of steam condensed for a jet con- 
denser and thirty-five times for a surface condenser. 

J'^eed- Water Heaters. A feed-water heater should form 
part of every power plant equipment, no matter how 
small, for use at such times as the steam from the engine 
is exhausted outboard, as by this arrangement about one- 
seventh of the heat contained in the exhaust may be saved. 
Furthermore, it will add to the life of the boilers if the 
water is heated before being fed into them. In the 
winter season, when the exhaust is used in the general 
heating system, the feed-water heater may be cut out of 
service and the make-up water fed into the receiving tank 
with the condensation from the radiation. Feed- water 
heaters are of two forms, the opeti and closed. In the first 
of these the water and steam mingle in a common chamber, 
which also serves as a receiving tank for the return of 
condensation from the heating system. In the closed 
heater the steam and water are separated the same as in 
a surface condenser. There is no particular difference in 
the efficiency of the two types, but the o])en heater has the 
advantage of acting also as a purifier where the water con- 
tains certain scale-forming salts of lime and magnesia. 

Feed Pumps and Injectors. The boilers are commonly- 
fed by means of a direct -acting steam pump, supplemented 
by an injector for use in case of accident or repairs to the 

Boiler feed pumps are of the piston, inside plunder, and 
outside packed plujiger types. The first of these is com- 
monly used where the water is free from grit, the second 
where it is liable to be slightly gritty, and the third where 
conditions are such that there is likely to be considerable 
wear, making it necessary to pack the plunger at frequent 
intervals. With the latter type, this can be done without 
dismantling the ])umi). In the case of heating systems, 
automatic governors are used which start and operate the 
pump as condensation accumulates in the receiving tank. 

Special Apparatus. Steam separators should be pro- 
vided in the supply pipe to each engine for removing the 
entrained water from the steam before it enters the cylin- 
der. Oil separators should also be placed in all exhaust 
lines leading to the heating system in order to prevent 
cylinder oil from the engine being returned to the boilers 
with the condensation. 

In exhaust heating systems the maximum pressure 
should be limited by a back-pressure valve placed in the 
outboard exhaust pipe. This is a special form of relief 
valve which may be set to open when the desired pressure 
is reached and discharge the surplus exhaust outboard. 
On the other hand, a live steam connection should be made 
with the heating main, the same being provided with a 
pressure reducing valve, which opens and admits live 
steam to the system whenever the exhaust proves insuffi- 
cient to supply the needs for heating purposes. These 
two valves work in connection with each other to maintain 
a supply of steam within the heating system which shall 
automatically meet the varying demands at a constant 
pressure. Separators are so constructed that they may be 
connected into either vertical or horizontal pipes, as most 
convenient. They are drained by traps which discharge 
the condensation froro the steam separators into the receiv- 
ing tank, from which it is returned to the boilers, while 
the drip from the oil separator is turned into the sewer. 

Both back-pressure and reducing valves are adjustable, 
although the latter are limited in range ; for this reason, 
when specifying a valve, the initial and final pressures 
should be stated so that it may be equipped with the 
proper springs or weights for the si)ecial conditions under 
which it is to work. 

Steam tra]is for drainage iniri')oscs are made for both 
high- and low-pressure work, and the conditions under 
which they are to operate should always be s]iecified, as a 
smaller discharge v'alve is employed when used under high 
l^ressure. Water-line traps, so called, are employed in 
combined power and heating plants where it is desired to 
seal the main return pipes with water. In the case of a 
low-pressure system, where the condensation is returned 
by gravity, this is done by carrying the pipes below the 
water line of the boiler ; but with high-pressure boilers, 
this is impossible, and the water must be raised in the 
returns by means of a special form of trap. While the 
subject of ventilation in general is not included in the pres- 
ent series of articles, a word should be said regarding 
equipment for the ventilation of the boiler and engine 
rooms. It is customary in the case of boiler rooms to blow 
in cool outside air, discharging the same downward in 

T ME B R I C K B U 1 L D E R 


front of the boilers throiig-h galvanized iron pipes with 
flaring- outlets. Discharge ventilation is largely through 
the furnaces, as a considerable proportion of the air thus 
supplied is needed for combustion. 

Eng-ine room ventilation may be partly by the exhaust 
method, if means are provided for the entrance of cool 
fresh air to replace that which has been removed. Cen- 
trifug-al fans driven by direct-connected motors are 
commonly used for this class of work. 

Cost of Equipment. The cost of power-plant equipment 
will, of course, vary considerably under difi'erent condi- 
tions, but may be approximately estimated by use of the 
following table. 


Kind of Equipment. Installed. 

Horizontal Tubular Boilers $10-|!12 per B.H.P. 

Water-Tube Boilers 12-15 ,, 

High-Speed Simple Steam Engines __- 12- 15 ,, I.H.P. 

Medium-Speed Compound Engines 17-21 ,, ,, 

Gas Engines 30- 36 ,, ,, 

Oil Engines 45-50 ,, 

Dynamos — Direct-Connected 13- 16 ,, Kw. 

Switchboard 5-10 ,, ,, 

Foundations 5- 10 ,, ,, 

Steam Fitting, including Auxiliary 

Apparatus, such as Feed-Water 

Heater, Separators, E.xhaust Head, 

Tanks, Pumps, etc 15-18 ,, I.H.P. 

Tables of this kind usually give the cost of all equip- 
ment in kilowatts. This is convenient for plants g^enera- 
ting- electricity only, but for the combined power and 
heating plants, and where power is required for other pur- 
poses, such as refrigeration, etc., the per horse power 
is also convenient. 

Plant Design. There are two gfeneral conditions under 
which isolated power plants are installed. The first of 
these being- where the location is remote from a central 
electric station, so that it must be provided anyway, regard- 
less of competition or of its relation to the heating system. 

The second condition relates to cases where the build- 
ing, or group of btiildings, is in a territory served by a 
central station, and where there is a question as to whether 
it will be more economical to purchase electric current 
from the local company or generate it on the premises. 
The desirability of the latter method will depend largely 
upon the relation of the exhaust steam to that recpiired for 
the variotis heating purposes, and also upon the amount 
of exhaust which may be utilized in this way. Although 
there maybe sttfificient exhaust .steam in the course of twenty- 
four hours to do all, or a considerable portion, of the heat- 
ing-, if it be produced within a period of a few hours so 
that a large part of it rntist be thrown away, it is evident 
that the advantage will be much less than when the hourly 
balance of stipply and demand is more nearly ecjual. In 
comi)Uting cost of operation, the available exhaust from 
the power plant is simjjly that which can be utilized as 
fast as it is discharged from the engines, for it is not pos- 
sible in practice to store it for future use. 

In order to determine the available exhaust in any par- 
ticular case, make out a table like the following, which 
will show the relations between steam supply and demand 
for each hour in the day. 







6 7 

Hour of 
the day. 


w U* 

c: c 

Steam required 
for heatings 
pounds per hr. 



pounds per hr. 

Live steam 
pounds per hr. 

— - 






— - 

— - 




In the above, column No. 1 gives the hour of the day, 
column No. 2 the indicated horse pf)wer of the engine 
necessary to jn-oduce the average power required dm-ing 
that hour. This is obtained approximately by estimating 
the lights and motors in use and reducing electrical energy 
to indicated horse power at the eng-ine, as described in a 
i:)revious article. The quantities in column No. 3 are 
fotmd by multiplying- the corresponding- horse powers in 
column No. 2 by the water-rate of the engine and taking 
eig:hty per cent of the result. Column No. 4 gives the total 
amount of low-pressure steam required for all heating- ])tir- 
poses during this hour, including the warming of building, 
ventilation, hot-water heating, etc. Column No. 5 shows 
what part of the exhaust may be titilized for heating pur- 
poses. If No. 3 is greater than No. 4, place the difference 
in column No. 6 ; and if it is smaller, place the difference 
in column No. 7. 

The difficult quantities to estimate are those in 
column No. 4, as the steam required for both heating and 
ventilating changes with the outside temperature, which 
varies from day to day and from hour to hour throughout 
the heating- season. For ordinary work a table like the 
above shotild be prepared for an average day representing 
each month of the year. This may be made up by consult- 
ing- the weather charts for two or three years back, and 
giving to each average day the average temperature of the 
month for which it stands, as obtained from the weather 
charts. Actually the temperature will vary from hour to 
hour, but it will be sufficiently accurate for ordinary work 
to assume a constant temperature throughout the day. 
The methods given for computin.g the weight of steam for 
heating and ventilation are based on an outside temperature 
of zero. It is evident that as the leniperature rises llie 
steam requirements will become less. Theoretically, the 
heat loss from a building is proi)ortional to the difference 
between the inside and outside temperatures. If tlie 
amotmt of heat given off by the radiators could be regu- 
lated to exactly balance the heat loss from tlic l)uilding, it 
would be a sim])le matter to estimate the weight of steam 
re(|uired. In practice, however, it is not jiossilile to do 
this, as the regulation in different buildings will vary from 
keeping steam on the radiators and opening the windows, 
to one of the more or less eOicient systems of automatic 
temperature control. Table \'III has been incpared for 
different systems for varying outside temperatures, and 
will be found useful in api)roximating the steam recpiired 
for different seasons of the year. To use, first cominite 
the weight of steam re(|uired for zero weather by the 
methods given, and multiply the result by the factor in 
Table \'III corrcsi)onding to the outside temi)erature and 


foTthe ordinar"T'- '""'' '"'"" ""''^' -'--; A ^ are n.anner, forty per cent in the vacuun. svsten., and twenty 

vacuum system , C for a forced hot-water system ; control is used, all radiators will be shut off at seventv 

and D or a system provded with automatic ten.pera- degrees. These factors, except in co umn ' D ' wHlof 

ture regulation, ether steam or hot water. ,ouTse vary somewhat according to the "re given tTtem 

TABLE VIII. perature regulation by the inmates of the building, but 

Outside Factors. ""'^^'"'^ average conditions will not be far from the figures 

Temperature. As CD .^riven in the table. 

50 '-J; '9? '94 't ^^" assumption that the temperature will remain con- 

10" .94 .91 "89 86 ''^^^^ ^^^^"^^0"^ ^he " average day " will not of course be 

15° .92 .87 .83 .'79 fulfilled under actual conditions, as it will vary from hour 

^^° -89 .83 .77 .72 ^^ ^our according to the amount of sun and wind, and also 

"I • 11 -11 ■^- -65 with general changes of the weather. However, when 

35» 'so 70 il CO ^^'^ ''''"''"'''''''' '''''^^^'''' "^ ^^'^ '■"^'■'■'^ "^""t^ i^ taken into 

40° .77 .'66 '54 43 '1^'count it will be sufficiently accurate for all practical 

45° .74 .62 .49 .36 Purposes to assume a constant temperature throughout the 

50" .71 .57 .43 29 twenty-four hours. 

g^I f -5^ -^7 .21 In estimating the exhaust steam at different parts of the 

65« ."63 "44 '% 'It '^''•'' "''''^ '^'•'™ ^""»" which power is reciuired must be taken 

70' '60 .'40 '20 00 "'' ^'-''"''"^tely, and the time and amount considered to- 

srether. For example : a refrigerating machine runs con- 

Exampl,. If a building contains 5,000 square feet of tinuously, while motors for operating ventilating fans, 

direct steam radiation, not provided with means for auto- ^'l^^^'ators, etc., run only at certain hours of the day. The 

matic temperature regulation, the following amount of 1'^"'"'"^ for lighting varies both in len.gth and time of day 

steam will be required per hour for different outside ^^''^'^ ^^^''^ stJason, and must be estimated accordingly when 

temperatures, as shown below : computing the power re(iuired at different hours of the 

Outside Temp. Steam per ^^^' ^-Iso a certain allowance must be made for cloudy 

0° -5000 X. 2x1.0 -. 1,000 lbs. weather and for lights which are burned all day, when 

10° --50OOX.2X .94= 900 ,, niakin.g up the total . 

30° ""'" " - iZ V ■', J Z = ''° •' ^^'^''" '"^^'"- '''" "'^""-'^''^ f"'" ^-""iPannj, ,vith central 

40° :::::;;:::::::"' '5000 x '2 J '77 "" 77S " '^''^'"" ''^^'''" '''''^"'''' """ '^'"''''"'^ ''"'■^^'"^ required for dif- 

50°.... ..-..5000X.'2X .'71 = 710 " ^^^'^"^ purposes, to kilowatt hours, for a year, and then 

60° _ 500OX.2X .66 = 660 ,'.' compute the additional cost over that for heating alone, 

rp, r , • T- ui ,rTTT , taking into account interest, taxes, depreciation etc on 

radiation .viii be in use, u^:':^^^^ 7^:!^^ ::^-:^:::^::t:^■^- 
^.^.... above zero, sixty per cent of the radiation in the may be found for comparison with the entral Vtat on r.te 
direct gravity system will still be turned on ; and in like for the same service. 

Mr. Hubbard will continue his paper in the April number. "Details of Design - will be di.scussed 
and followed by a paper on "Water Supply by Mechanical Means." - The Editors. 



See page 3S, 

Feljruary Number, 

for Measured Drawing. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D J-: R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 33. 





VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 34. 




-i ID 

< H 

O ir 
5 < 

Hi O 


< < 

U 5 




THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 35. 


■ 1 I^HHI II X'^ "^ '"" r~n^HI lU^H 

■ 1 ■Hf If 1 ^^H . ^ ^^1 

^^^L J ii ■ ^^IMIB^^B 

■ ■ ' HKIi Ik 'I^Hl ' IH 

illl V , 

Y. M. C. A. 


'I mi 

i iljf 

j-j 1 

1 •' 






-U "^ 



:ii a 


Byl3ftMC/Vr PLA/V 

T//,Tn « rvurnf ri rrr /x-?/k- 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 36. 




T H E B 1^ I C K R r I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 3. PLATE 37. 


VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 38. 

i^^m:^^mL. .l^ i\ 







Q. tn 
-J ^, 



I E 


I « 

(J ij 


;x < 


VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 39. 


VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 40. 




VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 41. 




VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 42. 



























































VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 43. 

IMi E B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 44. 









j llH^r^ r' 




if ^lll^QA-L^ 


1 i|^Mi 

JH^P^HEk."^ -vjnL LZ. 












r — •^, } 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 3. PLATE 45. 


I- n 
3 I 


1 q: 
o < 



VOL. 22, NO. 3, PLATE 46. 



u !] 

D t 
I I 
















THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 47. 

-I O 
CD -1 


UJ m 

y <« 


a 5 


H < 
< I 

u u 

1 E 







VOL. 22, NO. 3. PLATE 48. 


f-resT riooe Fi^r^ 





A Terra Cotta Grill Room. 



WHERE in the world did you get that red? " asks 
one as he takes the small broken fragment of 
terra cotta held out to him. It was somewhat the tone ot 
Egyptian jasper or of a color known as Chinese orange. 
" Why, it's the red of Abbey's Holy Grail. It is just the 
tone of the costumes he occasionally uses as the central 
accent of his canvases. It is astonishing what they are 
doing- Avith terra cotta to-day ! " 

The exclamation was the outcome of a description of 
the Terra Cotta Grill Room of the new Hotel McAlpin, 
an architectural and decorative triumi^h of which much 
will doubtless be heard, as it is undoubtedly the first time 
that this interesting- material has been used in the New 
World in iust this particular manner. That is, it is here 
employed as an interior decoration, as an element of 
beauty, enriched, yet well able to take care of itself. It is 
the same as the material of the structure. In no way is it 
a thin sliver of clay, cemented to the under side of a brick 
or concrete arch. It is not a tile decoration, nor is it 
simply a slab in form and thickness. The sections are 
masonry in their size and character. To this the jointing: 
also testifies. From start to finish the bold spirit of the 
mason dominates everywhere. A spirit that is omnipres- 
ent, softening and humanizing at times where condition 

The architect, in this assumption of the responsibility of 
adding in this particular way decorative ornament to the 
structure, has so adroitly conceived a motif of a refining 
nature as to make interesting every foot of the surface 

both of walling and vaulting. Even to the flooring, with 
its paneled pavement, has he assigned an important part of 
the. scheme, so contriving- it that it forms both in drawing: 
and in color a substantial base for the composition. He 
has devised broad bands of countersimk ornament with 
rosettes and bosses at set intervals which panel the vault 
and the piers. Much of this is not only a tribute to the 
wondrously stimulating- memories of Italy's sculpture 
wherein, cameo-like, ground and ornament vary but little 
in relief, but it sjieaks well for the color sense of the arehi- 
tect, who has so devised the floriated section of the 
ornament as to bring into the i)icture certain (pialities 
somewhat unusual and very stimulating. Yet care has 
been exercised to treat the chamber as an entirety. The 
scheme throughout is big; and wholesome in idea. It is 
broadly handled, very much after the fashion of the great 
Roman basilica, exhibiting everywhere a sensitive regard 
for color, form, growth of ornament, adjustment of accent 
and relation between pier and walling. The vaulting 
springs from sciuare piers, which carry the building, form- 
ing two ranks through the chamber. It sjirings also from 
the walling. As a matter of faet, it is somewhat low in 
inches, but so skilfully is the paneling arranged that the 
apparent heig-ht is greatly increased. There is not any 
acknowledgment of the spring- line, nor demarcation of the 
actual commencement of the vaulting. It appears to begin 
from the floor, — an ingeniously contrived illusion ! The 
perpendicular paneling of the ])iers, the moulding of the 
corners, the arrangement of the jointing, the elongating: 



of the principal panels which, cartouche like, occupy the 
most conspicuous part of the scheme, all tend to accent 
and stimulate the upward movement. This is all the more 
clever because, as a matter of fact, the chamber is long, 
and would be dreary but for skilfully devised lighting:, 
wherein countersunk panels alternatingly circular and 
oblongf appear in the central arch panel. The side lights 
are useful and so are the little personal table lights. 
Thanks to the shining linen, their light is thrown upward, 
a valuable ilhimination, which does serviceable work in a 
quiet way. 

The shaping of the paneling is unquestionably the 
cleverest part of the composition. For a moment I am 

vaulting panels, as the ground of the conventional border 
to the narrative stories of the walling. It is the red of the 
scarlet geranium, of the japonica and the nasturtium, that 
trailing, ])ungent plant which madcap-like turns up every- 
where in the garden, climbing the walls, setting everything 
on fire with its brilliancy. It is the red of the coral of the 
South Pacific Islands, of the laccjuer of the Orient. It is the 
red of the sealing wax, that great vitalizer of important 
legal documents, and for many years the distinguishing 
color note of ' ' Tommy Atkins ' ' ! 

The general tone of the chamber is golden brown ; per- 
hai)s it had better be termed " burned ivory." In certain 
lights it resembles somewhat the dull brown of " camel's 


Fred. Dana Marsh, Designer. 

tempted to say it is the most important decorative section 
of the whole building. Of course the plain .surfaces do 
much by accenting the bands and the ornament, giving an 
agreeable contrast, a play of light and of shade, and again 
introducing that subtle quality of scale. Although pre- 
eminently serious in idea, the ornament is full of energetic 
action at times. There is a movement in the leaves, stalks, 
tendrils, and flowers that is fascinating. They arc tied here 
and there, caught back and restrained in their proper 
places. These little whimsicalities give to the sturdiness 
of the design an agreeable relaxation and chance for color. 
And here it is that the glorious red is to be found. It 
appears as the background to the ornament of all the main 

hair," it is so sedate and serious. At times it is trans- 
l^arent, changing every few inches. It is an excellent tone 
to live with, one of which we rarely tire. It brings out 
vividly the whites and the apple greens and emerald of the 
rosettes which appear at the mitered intersections, cornering 
the panels, and of the shell-like ornaments which appear 
elsewhere. It gives new life to the open flowers in the 
main ornament. It is soft and soothing, adding mysteri- 
ously to the values of the distance, making possible the 
introduction of strong contrasts. See how welcome the 
black marble wainscoting and black iron gates and 
the rich red of the Welsh cjuarry pavement become in the 



o t 

Z ir 


2 i^ 

u z 
(r < 

-! s 



Ti.KK.v c«)l lA I'ANELS — GRILL ROOM, .Mt^Ai-l'lN iliiii.i., MtVV YORK CITY. 
Fred. Dana Marsh, Designer. 

The narratiYC stories of the tymi)aniini or hinette panels 
which appear at certain academic centers of the wallins?, 
one to each bay, invite individual notice. The panels were 
designed by Fred. Dana Marsh, and the close rejiro- 
duction of water color tone values in faience is quite 
remarkable. In all, there are six stories of the maritime 
history of New York. There is the threat story of the dis- 
covery of the Hudson River, where Hudson's Half Moon 
appears in the lower bay, the placid waters alive with 
canoes of native Indians. The quaint outline of the boat 
with its curious ri.tvgfing is graphically illustrated by low 
coloring-, by dark bottle greens and silver grays, transpar- 
ent and occasionally iridescent. There is the British 
frigate firing upon New Amsterdam, and here the red of 
the ensign waves a momentary triumph ! There is the 
pathetic tragedy of a hanging in the Old Fort. The river 
scene changes, and the majestic Maiirctauia is seen, dwarf- 
ing even the sky scrapers and blanketing the lower portion 
of the city ; its hull and reflection a quaint symphony in 
greens shimmering upon the surface of the river ; its upper 
cabins white and gray ; the sky a transparent ochre ; the 
funnels the wonderful red. Then follows a night scene of 
the Commomvcalth leaving its dock, the searchlight 
vividly contrasting with the hazy outline of the city. The 
statelv silhouette gives welcome scale to the picture. 

There is the occasion when Fulton's Clermont made 
her first voyage up the riv-er. 

There is unusual individuality in the panels ; an unaf- 
fected bubbling over of color in places ; a certain modu- 
lating of surface, conventional, but natural at the same 
time. The full water color value is retained with the 
added value of a texture, neither lustrous nor dull, that 
has a warmth and light possible only in faience. 

The craftsman of the sleepy Orient, for years familiar 
with many mysteries, once in a while produced small 
vases, purchasable at great prices. They are classed 
among the " Lost Arts," and generally of paste or porce- 
lain body. 

Hut for the stimulating enthusiasm of the architect, and 
his persistency with an unusual form of treatment, both 
as regards structure and color, these metal-bearing clays 
might still be sleeping in the deep bosom of Mother Earth, 
in the clay beds of a neighboring state. Innate love of 
color, api^licd to decorative motifs, after the fashion of the 
Italian sculptors Donatello and the Delia Robbias, led to 
experimenting:, and finally produced a building material 
of unprecedented amenability to the most critical taste for 
texture and color, adapted to the inclemency of weather, 
and without limitation as to size, shape, or proportion, yet 
sensitive to the most delicate modeling. 




I — ii II — » 1 * 






1 r 





-="0/^ s-5PlR,TO- SIENA- 

> I 






St. Patrick's Church, Philadelphia. 




TO one looking for the interesting- in architecture, 
few cities offer more delightful surprises than Phila- 
delphia, and one of the most delightful glimpses to be 
found in that city is the view of the new church of St. 
Patrick from the corner of 19th street and Rittenhouse 
Square . 

I first discovered it one spring morning, months before 
the church was com])leted ; but even then the play of 
shadow behind the tall columns and the carefully studied 
slope of the gable against the blue of the sky at once 
brought to my mind pictures of Italy, especially of Verona, 
where the Lombard style is at its best. 

The church stands on the corner of 20th and Rittenhouse 
streets, but owing to the fact that the latter street does 
not cross 20th street in a straight line, but drops a few 
feet to the south, the portico of the church is almost on 
axis with Rittenhouse street east of 20th street. 

The materials of the building are a warm faun-colored 
brick, quite rough in texture and almost the color of Tra- 
vertine Stone, terra cotta to match the brick, with columns, 
pilasters, and steps of warm gray granite. The spandrels 
of the three great arches on the south side are inlaid in 
color, rich blues and greens, which at first sight seem 
almost too startling, but have already toned into the brick, 
and now the effect is quite charming. All of the orna- 
mental details are of terra cotta, and are carefully carried 
out in the best spirit of the North Italian work, but are in 
no sense copies of any ancient models. The capitals of the 
great columns, the ornamentation of the frieze, and the 
corbels supporting the crown moulding of the main gable 
are particularly worthy of study. From the exterior, the 
great rose window is not so satisfactory and seems almost 
lost behind the parapet of the portico, and too small in 
scale. When one sees it from the interior, however, the 
architects are justified in its size, for there it is perfect in 
scale and beautifully placed. The gilt cross at the apex 
of the gable is, however, too small from every point of 
view, and looks as if it were made of wood and tempo- 
rarily placed for the purpose of study in scale. 

The building is rectangular in plan and consists of two 
stories. The interior walls in both crypt and main church 
above are of the same brick as the exterior. The crypt is 
exceedingly interesting with its faun-colored walls and 
ceiling of the same tone. The columns supporting the 
vaults are of a delicately veined white marble. The main 
church, raised about twelve steps above the sidewalk, 
is a basilica in plan, covered with three great domes. 
Everywhere the construction is frankly and hiMiestly 
shown, as it always should be in a building dedicated to 
the worship of God. The predominant color is the same 
as the exterior, but marbles have been carefully and 
beautifully introduced in the pilasters, supporting the 
ribs of the ceiling vaults, in the apsidal-shaped chancel 
and around the doorways. As the church is dedicated to 
St. Patrick, much of the ornamentation is Celtic in char- 
acter, and the architraves of the three main doors and the 
sill courses of the great windows arc beautifully modeled. 
The marble walls of the chancel and the panels in the 

pilasters are of a delicate green Cippolin(j marble which 
harmonizes perfectly with the faun-colored walls. 

The design of the high altar is particularly beautiful, 
the marble being white Vermont with serpentine panels. 
The steps to this altar have white marble treads with ser- 
pentine risers, and the effect of the chancel from the nave is 
one of great simplicity and almost austere purity, which 
is unusual in Roman Catholic churches in America. The 
architects have realized most fully the value of the floor 
as an architectural feature, a thing too often neglected. 
In this church the floors of nave and of chancel are of 
tile of a rich reddish brown color lightened up with occa- 
sional spots of greenish tone. In the center of the chan- 
cel floor directly in front of the high altar is a carpet of 
green tile very soft in tone and symbolical in design. One 
must not overlook too the risers of the chancel steps of 
green tile stamped with a St. Andrew's cross. One unus- 
ual feature of the chancel wall is the frieze above the high 
altar. At first sight this frieze, of a deep golden vSiena 
marble, looks as if it were carved, but on closer inspection 
one finds that these festoons are but portions in the veining 
of the marble, a legitimate use of material which adds 
greatly to the richness and lightness of the wall treatment 
and carries the eye to the organ and choir galleries high 
up on either side of the chancel. The balconies of these 
galleries, which project slightly from the chancel walls, 
are of white terra cotta and the detail of the balustrades 
and supporting corbels is almost Venetian in delicacy of 
treatment ; and this same detail of balustrade is carried 
across the top of the reredos, which thus forms a gallery 
above the altar for processionals. wSo much for the chan- 
cel, which is, as it should be, the focal point of interest in 
the church, and which the photograi:)hs show far more 
jilainly than can any written words. 

Let us turn again to the nave, which contains so much of 
interest. The pews are of dark oak, dignified and archi- 
tectural, and, what is equally important, comfortable to sit 
in and placed sufficiently far apart to allow one to kneel 
reverently without being troubled by the feet of the one in 
front of him. One should not leave tiic church without 
examining very carefully the hol\- water fonts at the east- 
ern doors, which were designed and given by Mr. Henry 
Thouron. These fonts are thoroughly Celtic in design 
and beautifully executed. One must also notice the iron 
gates to the bai)tistry and the iron doors on the north side 
of the church. These are hand wrought and i)articularly 
well executed. 

The mosaic i)ancls let into the walls of the church i)clow 
the great windows and illustrating the Stations of the 
Cross are the only jarring features in an otherwise wliolly 
harmonious interior. They are too harsh in color and 
project slightly from the wall, which is very unfortunate 
as now they look as if they had been tacked onto tlic wall 
surface. Had they been slightly recessed into tlie walls, 
just enough to have a shadow cast along the upper edge, 
the effect would have been much better. 

Thus far I have spoken only of the architectural side of 
the church, its design, but in a building of this character 


one must notice the construction. It is the keynote of the 
desig-n. Nothing- is false, nothing hidden. Here is a 
temple of God built to stand the test of time and so honest 
that all men can feel the honesty. 

One of the most interesting portions of the building is 
up in the attic space between the domes and the roof. 
Here one can see and understand the construction of the 
vault and in this ease the roof itself is also of the same con- 
struction. Here is a structure that is essentially modern 
but preserves all the beauty of tradition, that great tradi- 

tion which the Roman Church, more than any other known 
org-anism, has cherished and handed down from ag-e to 
age. In this country of ours, until quite recently, it has 
seemed as if Rome were neglecting her architectural 
traditions, but St. Patrick's Church is a sure proof 
that she never forgets but onlj- bides her time, and we 
can surely, with this building as a precedent, look for- 
ward to the time when the churches of Rome in this 
country, as in Europe, shall be the delight and insi)ira- 
tion of all men. 

3S^S?SSS ^ii<i<<^l^i' ( << ^£SiiSS^&<<<<<Kim'^lX(i^^ 



AN DiU O T E S ^ * 


HAVING spoken last month about the advantag-es of 
the suggested methods of computing architectural 
fees, it here becomes necessary to discuss the defects of 
same and to conclude by asking our readers for their expe- 
rience and views upon this subject. 

If a statesman were to receive as a yearly salary an 
amount equal to four times the salary of his private secre- 
tary, would it not be difficult to persuade the jniblic, no 
matter how stable a reputation for integrity the statesman 
might have, that he was impartial to the idea of overpay- 
ing his secretary. Yet, is there not a marked similarity 
between the financial arrangement of the statesman and 
his secretary and that of the architect who receives fnjm 
his client four times the amount of the salaries of the 
draftsmen employed on his work as the gross profits for his 
professional services ? Isn't the architect in the position 
where the more he pays his draftsmen the larger becomes 
his gfross profit on the work^? The architect, then, without 
increasing his overhead expenses, can easily increase his 
profits by overpaying his draftsmen. The situation is one 
in which the client, having no chance whatever of control- 
ling the cost of architectural services, must have implicit 
faith in his architect's discretion, and if at any time dur- 
ing the i)rogress of the work he should feel that the bills 
for drafting were unwarrantably large, he would imme- 
diately place his architect in the embarrassing position of 
having his business efficiency doubted. It seems, then, 
that this method of charging four times the drafting serv- 
ices might be most unsatisfactory for the client finan- 
cially, and disagreeably embarrassing for the architect in 
the case of a dispute. 

Let us then consider the "twice the draftsmen's sala- 
ries plus a professional fee" basis of charg-ing. If an 
architect is receiving a definite amount for his services 
and is charging his client twice the drafting salaries of the 
men employed on his work, to cover drafting and overhead 
expenses, doesn't he stand to gain by overpaying his men? 
The answer to this is of course " Yes," but the amount he 
gains is so small that " the game is hardly worth the 
candle." If the work warranted the services of a thirty 
dcjllar a week man, the overhead expenses would be nor- 

mally in the neighborhood of the same amount, and by 
putting a forty dollar a week man on the work, the architect 
would be gaining only ten dollars a week. Besides, it is to 
be supposed that any reputable architect would not consci- 
entiously run his client into excessive drafting exj^enses. 
He has a bookkeeping system in his office, and in case of a 
dispute he would be the first to suggest that the client's 
ledger be opened to his client's inspection. Any startling 
financial discrepancies would immediately show them- 
selves. And certainly the majority of architects value 
their reputation to such an extent that, if it ever came to a 
point where the books were examined, it would be foimd 
that the greatest care had been taken to carr.\- on the client's 
work in the most efficient and economical manner. 

There are, however, those in the general public who 
feel that an architect is a peculiar type of person who has 
absolutely no idea of business principles. Such men really 
appreciate good business methods more than they do good 
architecture, and it is the architect's problem to give them 
both. Many business men feel that they must see in black 
and white where every dollar of their expenditure goes. 
They are satisfied to pay a man a good i)rofit for his work, 
but they must know that their work is carried on in a thor- 
oughly business-like manner. To pay an architect in addi- 
tion to his just net profit double his draftsmen's salaries, 
taking the architect's word for the fact that overhead 
charges and drafting expenses run equal, would not be 
likely to appeal to a cut and dried business man. He will 
say, " If my architect is running a ])ortion of his office 
for me and me only, it is only right that I shcnild know 
where every cent goes." Theoretically his statement 
sounds logical, but is such a scheme practical, when rent, 
stenographic services, and research work enter into the 
expenses of a job? It is not. Some overhead exj^enses 
must be distributed among many jobs, a ]M-oi)ortion of 
them prorated to each piece of work. It would not be 
possible to charge a client for a definite number of sciuare 
feet of floor space for his rent. To the architect the 
amount of work in the office governs the overhead rent, 
and he endeavors to keep the size of his office in pro])ortion 
to the size of his business. 

But it is possible to go even farther with the " twice the 



draftsmen's salaries plus the professional fee " basis than 
we have yet gone, and a log-ical solution of the whole 
problem, a practical alternative for the six per cent com- 
mission basis, one satisfactory to both the client and the 
architect, is briefly sketched as follows. 

Again let us take the example of a one hundred thousand 
dollar enterprise. On the six per cent commission basis, 
three thousand dollars would represent fifty per cent of 
the gross commission, a sum just for the architect to take 
as his professional fee. The other fifty per cent would 
go to drafting and overhead expenses. Let the architect 
say to his client it is reasonable to suppose that the draft- 
ing and overhead expenses will be approximately equal. 
That would mean that i^ractically fifteen hundred dollars 
would go to drafting salaries and fifteen hundred dollars 
to sundry overhead charges. The client, therefore, shall 
pay the architect three thousand dollars for his professional 
fee, fifteen hundred dollars for his overhead expenses, and 
also the cost of the draftsmen's salaries employed by the 
architect on his work, and the architect shall render to the 
client monthly statements showing the cost of drafting 
expenses incurred during the previous month on the job. 

This arrangement would have equal advantage for 
client and architect. The architect would receive his pro- 
fessional fee, the client would pay for the exact cost of 
producing the work. The system would be simple to run, 
as weekly time sheets would show the amount of time the 
men had worked for the client, and the bookkeeper would 
keep the overhead accounts. The professional fee could 
be paid in instalments as the work progressed, and the 
architect's monthly statement to the client of the cost of 
the work could be treated as a bill and paid like any 
monthly account. 

Such a method of charging for architectural compensa- 
tion as is above outlined is merely a suggestion founded 
on study of the problem. If the per cent commission basis 
has been found unsatisfactory, it is time for it to be im- 
proved. That the systems suggested in these editorials 
are theoretical and not practical is the criticism that many 
may offer. However, those who have experimented with 
them claim to have used them successfully and it seems 
hardly unfair to answer those skeptical persons who criti- 
cize them as theoretical with the question, " Is the ' percen- 
tage of the cost of the work complete ' system of basing 
charges the last word ? " 


AS a feature of the movement which has for its object- 
ive the establishment of a French Institute and 
Museum in New York, a lecture on French Architecture 
was given by Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin, Thursday evening, 
February 27, in the Avery Library. 

At the same time there was initiated a fine exhibition of 
material related to French architecture selected by Mr. 
Whitney Warren from his abundant collections, and loaned 
by him to the Avery Library for two months or more. 

The chief feature of this exhibition is a series of French 
architectural engravings of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. Four of these are large plates ; two rei)resent- 

ing the Galerie des Glaces, and the grand stairway at 
Versailles, and two representing the decorative architecture 
of extensive fetes at Versailles. The remaining forty- 
eight plates are smaller and represent various decorative 
motives. These are arranged so that similar subjects are 
brou.ght together, and only one or two by the same master 
are exhibited. In this manner an extraordinary variety 
of stylistic effect is secured. 

The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in France 
were prodigiously fertile in these inventions, which were 
frequently engraved directh- upon the copper with great 

In addition to these engravings Mr. Warren exhibits 
several drawings from his unique collections of designs for 
ships made in the same period, when ships, like everything 
else, were expected to carry as much magnificence as pos- 
sible. His collection of ships was made to assist in the 
design for the Yacht Club Building in New York. 

Mr. Warren has also placed upon easels a rather com- 
plete series of the brilliant sketches for the decorative 
sculpture of the Grand Central Station, by Sylvan Salieres, 
vSecond, Grand Prix de Rome, originally from Toulouse, 
and now in New York Citv. 


MR. H. HEATHCOTE STATHAM, in his book, en- 
titled "A Short Critical History of Architecture," 
undertakes, with his comments on the merits and weak- 
nesses of the architectural styles he describes, to put his 
readers in the way of knowing what influences and what 
treatment of design produce good and bad architectures ; 
he endeavors, he says, to make his history of architecture 
a lesson in architecture. He treats architecture as a con- 
tinuous development. "There is not a building in the 
world," he remarks, " on which the historian can put his 
finger and say : ' Here such a style of architecture 
be.gan.' " 


MR. MARCH PHILLIPPS in his book tells us that 
what distinguishes Greek architecture from all 
other styles is that they are based on additions, while 
Greek art is based on subtraction, or, in other words, the 
resolute and determined elimination of what is not abso- 
lutely required for the attainment of the end sought. We 
feel that in many cases, like other able gifted writers, 
Mr. Phillipps ]nishes his theories to an extreme, but we 
are absolutely with him in thinking that among the (piali- 
tics which go to make architecture there is hardly any one 
so important as reticence. Although many of our modern 
buildings are most blameable in this particular, redun- 
dancy of features and ornament are frequently to be met 
with in the past. To express one's meaning in few and 
simple words is often to make it forcible, and in design tlie 
same holds good. A building's function is not to show 
the universality of the designer's knowledge of architec- 
tural forms, but his judgment in using wisely, l()gically, 
and well wliat is really necessary. — The Builder. 



THE frontispiece for this number continues the series 
of Greek Churches started in January. We spoke 
about the general size of these buildingfs last month. It 
remains to further discuss the plan and constructive 

The typical arrangement retained nothing of the old 
basilican plan ; it was in the form of a cross with equal 
arms, inscribed in a square, and crowned with five domes. 
The subsidiary domes were not placed over the arms of the 
cross, as in the churches of the sixth century by which 
vSt. Mark's was inspired, however, but over the spaces left 
between the arms and the corners of the sciuare. The plan 
seems indeed to have been rather the logical outcome of 
buttressing the central dome by four barrel vaults than an 
adaptation primarily symbolic. The form of the cross still 
aj^pears, of course, in the ujjper part of the walls and in 
the roofs covering the barrel vaults. The whole mass 
assumes a pyramidal form, frequently of the most pleasing 
proportions and silhouette. From the tenth century this 
form of church, for which we find only remote protot3-pes 
in the period of Justinian, was used almost exclusively. 

The dominating principle of its development during the 
subsequent centuries was a striving for lightness and ele- 
gance. The drum on which the exterior dome was inva- 
riably raised, itself an innovation beside the low swelling 
of St. Sophia, became higher as time went on and was 
made polygonal instead of circular, so that the multiplied 
lines of the angles increased its vertical movement. This 
was furthur accentuated by the height and narrowness of 
the windows and by the employment of slender colonnettes 
at the angles, with window enframements in several orders. 
The external domes themselves were multiplied, both over 
the marthex and at the corners of the plan ; indeed in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the builders seem often 
to have sought how many they could use. 

Under the Latin emperors whom the Crusades raised to 
the throne in the thirteenth century, and under the decrepit 
Paleologians who succeeded them, Constantinople itself 
almost ceased to produce important works of art. In the 
new nations which were springing up on the ruins of the 
empire, however, and in certain provinces which still 
remained tributary, a surprising activity continued. 
Byzantine art, in a supreme final effort, seemed bent on 
putting forth some of its fairest flowers before the coming 
of Islam with its new and beautiful hybrids. In (ireece, 
the newly founded city of Mistra, capital of the Prankish 
vassals of the Peloponnesus, and the despotate of Arta on 
the Ionian Sea, i)reserve a series of churches in which this 
development is seen at its best. The characteristic ten- 
dencies of the earlier centuries are accentuated, with a 
result even more livelj' and picturesque, a gayer poly- 
chromy, at once luminous and mellow. 

Through all these centuries the materials used were 
much the same, common brick alternating with ashlar, 
and colored faience for occasional enlivenment. At the 
simplest a single or double course of brick alternates with 
one of stone, ])erhaps with single bricks placed vertically 
between the blocks of stone, or small panels of brick laid 
horizontally. The beds of mortar, which are very thick, 
are often slightly raked out, giving an outline of shadow. 
The archivolts are constructed of brick with their long 
faces showing, and rich label-mouldings, string-courses, 
and cornices are made of common brick set with a corner 

Hush with the face of the wall. Common brick are also 
employed to fill the spandrels, sometimes in simple pat- 
terns, sometimes with the introduction of the cross or some 
other symbol ; and at Merbaka a very effective frieze is 
made of a fret of the same material. Another series of 
effects is gained by patterns of brick embedded flush with 
the mortar, which in this case becomes a field on which 
the pattern seems to be traced. One of the best cxamjiles 
of this method is the church of Hagia Theodora at Arta, 
where an entire wall is covered with a herringbone diaper 
pattern floating in the mortar, to the greater attainment of 
decorative effect, it nnist be confessed, than of an appear- 
ance of stability. The most original device of the Byzan- 
tine masons was clipping the edges of common brick so 
embedded, in order to obtain, by the simplest means, the 
richest variety of free designs. The edge was simply 
splayed back in ])laces by strokes of the trowel, so that 
wlicn the mortar was brought flush with its face it might 
show any shape desired. Brick thus cut were used in 
friezes, especially of a guilloche design very easily made, 
occasionally in inscriptions, and often in small panels 
which are introduced between the stones of the horizontal 
courses. The best example of this treatment, showing 
both a frieze and panels, is the east end of the smaller 
church at the mtniastery cjf St. Luke in Phocis. The 
variety of designs it makes possible is well indicated by the 
figure, which shows a selection of the panels. A final 
resource of the builders was polychrome faience, at first 
modestly introduced, as in the scattered plaques at Mer- 
baka, later, especially at Arta, lavishly mingled with the 
brick in belts and diaper patterns. No single group of 
colors i^redominates, but red, yellow, green, blue, and 
white are all used, harmonized by the surrounding tone of 
the brick. In the richer examples carved stone is not 
lacking, in the string-courses and in the parapets which 
fill the lower part of many windows. As time goes on, 
however, carving becomes more and more confined to the 
capitals alone, and the rich j^lay of materials is alone relied 
on for decorative effect. Seldom indeed has such reliance 
been more successful. These unknown builders of the 
East, with no other elements than those of the most com- 
monplace structure, have by ingenuity and fantasy pro- 
duced an architecture of the rarest charm. 

A MISTAKE was made on page IX of the January issue 
in crediting the authorship of the building at 14-18 
West 46th street. New York City. This should have been 
given as Hazzard, Erskine & Blagden, architects ; the 
builders as Thomas I . vSteen & Co. 

Announcement is made that the architectural practice of 
the late John S. Duckworth will be continued under the 
supervision of his son, John .S. Duckworth, Jr., at 405 
Coal Exchange Building, Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. D. W. F. Nichols and Mr. J. Pender West have 
formed a partnershij) under the name of Nichols and Pen- 
der West. The address will be 911 Somerset Building, 

Mr. J. R. Gieske annotmces that he has opened an office 
at 503 Vinson-Thompson Building, Huntington, W. Va. 



Architect Plate 


BANK, THE WEST HUDSON TRUST CO., HARRISON, N. J._Ow(', Lewis & Wickenhoefer 49-51 

HOUSE, MILTON, MASS. Bi^elow & Wadsivorth 55-57 

HOUSE, CLEVELAND, OHIO Abram Carfield 61 

HOUSE, ORANGE, N. J Mann & McNeille 64 

HOUSE, BUFFALO, N. Y. Charles A. Plait 58,59 

SCHOOL, THE CLEVELAND, NEWARK, N. J. Ernest F. Guilbert 52-54 






Illustrations from photoRiaphs Dr. John N. E. Brown 73 


Part II The Theory of the Plan (Continued) Louis Allen Adranison 77 

Illustrations from plans and photographs. Associate of Louis E. Jallade 


III. Details of Design Charles L. Hubbard 81 

Illustrations from drawings. 
AN OLD ENGLISH HOUSE - THE VYNE A'. Randal Phillips 85 

Illustrations from photographs. 

I. An Architect's compensation and liabilities. 

Brick House and Chapel of Plazzo del Diavolo at Siena. 

COMPANY Kilham& Hopkins, Architects 93-96 




PftlSIOtNT fcN[)TReASU«.Ea 






B O .r T O N 



For the United States, its insular possessions and Cuba. $5.00 per year 

For Canada. $5.50 per year For Foreign Countries in the Postal Un.on, $6.00 per year 

All copies mailed flat 
Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 


One of the richest examples of pattern- 
ing, built in the early fourteenth cen- 
tury. Friezes of polychrome faience 
and cut brick. 

Photo by Royal I'liissian I'liulometiu Insiiluk. 


APRIL, I913 



A Comparison Between German and American 

Hospital Construction. 

Superintciidenl ol Delroil General Hospital, a)td Secretary , American Hospital Association. 

IN Germany a g-eneral hospital is properly so called. All 
sorts of patients are received, — acute mental cases, 
tuberculosis, and the ordinary contag-ious diseases; pro- 
vision is also made for epidemics of cholera and plagfue. 
This permits medical students, resident medical officers, 
and nurses to procure an all-around training-. We know 
of no such hospital in this country. 

The hospitals of Germany are constructed by the state 
or municipality. The amount of money needed is asked 
for and can be counted on. In America we are mainly 
dependent as yet on the voluntary system of support ; 
though a few of our larg-e cities are undertaking: the build- 
ing: of hospitals as a proper part of civic work, making- 
appropriations in their annual budget for this public serv- 
ice, just as they do for their water works, street cleaning, 
etc. In America, hospi- 
tals start in a small 
way and are enlarg:ed, 
so that some of our older 
and larger institutions 
present a conglomera- 
tion of buildings such as 
are never found in Ger- 
many. The German 
hospitals are planned by 
the municipality or 
state arch it ect , an 
official of much dig-nity. 
The office is the g:oal 
after a long: and rigor- 
ous experience and thorough technical training. This 
official also plans the city hall, the court house, the schools, 
and other publicly owned buildings. 

Before beginning- to build a German hospital, careful 
inquiry is made by the authorities as to what number of 
patients they will provide for ; what amount of room will 
be requii'ed for males and females respectively ; what 
space will be g-iven over to medical, surg:ical, and other 
sorts of cases ; what space for kitchen, how much for 
laundry and other services. A study is made of institu- 
tions already built, and statistics relating to all services 
carefully investig-ated. The building must conform to cer- 
tain governmental regulations, such as the space allowed 
for day rooms for convalescent patients, the construction 
of stairways, etc. 


Usual Custom Among 

Architects and medical men in Germany have not the 
freedom they have in America to carry out novel ideas. A 
close observer will find fewer mistakes and fewer over- 
sig-hts than he discovers in this country. This may be 
explained by the fact that the Germans follow precedent 
more, and the architect and director have had advantages 
both in the matter of special training- and extensive 
observation in this particular field of practise which few 
American architects seem to have enjoyed. It is more 
customary in Germany than in America for architects to 
construct a model of the hospital they propose to erect. 
The advantag-es of doing this are many ; we can strongly 
commend this custom. 

German hospitals are built on extensive grounds, those 
of the pavilion type covering- sometimes eighty or ninety 

acres. These grounds 
are beautifully parked ; 
trees and g:ardens sur- 
roi:nd the pavilions. 
There is a fine sense of 
space all about. The 
air is clean and fresh, 
and sunshine floods the 
whole place. The build- 
ings are remote from 
the dust and din of 
traffic. Convalescent 
patients are seen on the 
lawns, sunning- them- 
selves or resting- beneath 
the shade of the low trees. Throughout the largest hospital 
sites run driveways or walks which divide the grounds into 
rectangular blocks. On each of these blocks stand groups 
which correspond to a general classification of jxitients. 
One does not find as many balconies (or balcony sjKice) or 
roof gardens as in America. The patients are taken out 
on the lawns. 

The ward buildings are not high, cliiefl\- one and two 
stories. The architectural effect, both of tlie groujis and 
of the individual building, in this natural setting, gives a 
sense of pleasure to the visitor, and must be attractive to 
the patients. 

In many instances the visitor arrives first at a lodge, — a 
lMctures<|ue little structure, the residence of the Pfortncr, 
or at his office off tlic main carriage eiitrancc, wliicli runs 

German Architects. 




m v'A Siii 


Typical ward building, showing day rooms and balconies for out-door 

treatment and doorway for wheeling patients to grounds. 

through the administration building-. This official receives 
him, learns his business, and 
directs him what to do and 
where to go. Frequently the 
Pfortner is detailed to accom- 
pany the visitor throughout the 

The newer hospitals are of 
the most thorough masonry con- 
struction. The general finish 
of the exterior is cement on 
common brickwork, applied in 
many simple and charming 
forms. Much well designed 
brickwork is also seen. The 
roofs of red tile tone pleas- 
antly with the green foliage. 

Ward floors are generally of 
tile or terrazzo. There has been 
some effort to obtain a more 
comfortable floor through the 
use of battleship linoleum. As 
in America, the use of linoleum 
and of plastic monolithic floor- 
in.g seems to be still in the 
experimental stage. 

Windows are usually of the 
casement type, some having 
transoms at the top. One type 
has a double transom which 
upon being operated oj^ens the 

Pfortner's lodge, showing entrance to hospital grounds (at right). 

outer sash 


Entrance to grounds through .\dministration Building, 
showing Pfortner's oHice. 

at the bottom and the inner one at the top. 
There is now coming into favor 
in England and America a type 
of window with several cross 
sashes ])i voted at the bottom 
similar to a transom. Either 
style of window gives practically 
one hundred per cent natural 
window ventilation. The latter 
type has the advantage of direct- 
ing the air currents u]nvard ; 
the former are more (juickly 
and more easily mani]nilated. 
The German windows generally 
extend close to the ceiling, and 
the sills are low to give 
the patients a view out of doors. 
We seldom see casement win- 
dows in the hospitals of this 

The accessory rooms of the 
ward are grouped separately at 
opposite ends of the ward. This 
arrangement, we consider, 
makes for the convenience of 
the nurses. In America we 
seek to give two sides anfl one 
end of the ward to the air 
and sun. 

The Germans make fine pro- 
vision for natural treatment of 

One-story pavilion. 

Administration Building from center court. 



patients on the medical 
side by providing', in 
their bathhouse, baths 
of all sorts, — mud, 
sand, carbonic acid, 
steam, electric, hot and 
cold water, in vaiious 
forms. The private 
sanitariums jirovide 
special baths, such as 
sun baths and open-air 
baths. This bathhouse 
of the hospital is gen- 
erally placed near the 
medical group of pavil- 
ions, and is related to 
this group much as the 
operation house is related to the surgical group. 

It is common in Germany to see mechanico-therapy 
rooms — Zander rooms. These are very rarely found in 
America. The various apparatus in this department 
are most valuable in the treatment of deformities, con- 
tractures, and similar afflictions. 

The o]3eration house contains all the operation rooms 
with their annexes. These subsidiary rooms are fewer in 
number than one sees in some of the newer American 
hospitals. The surgeons' washup bowls are often found 
in the operation room proper. There does not seem to be 
the same accommodation for operating room ni:rses as is 
provided on this side of the water. Nurses there, how- 
ever, are apparently not so numerous in attendance at 
operations as they are with us. Provision for sterilization 
is most complete, and in the room provided for this 
purpose you will often see apparatus for distilling water 
and supplying- salt solution. 

At the St. Georg: Hospital, Hamburg, the air is filtered 
through g-ravel and sand before being' forced, on the 
plenum plan, into the operating room. Following: each 
operation the room is disinfected by steam. We have not 


Bathhouse and two-story ward from center conrt 

noted such complete 
precautions anywhere in 
the United States. 

In this country we are 
beginning' to manufac- 
ture for our operating- 
plants copious sujiplics 
of sterile water for sur- 
geons' and nurses' 
washup ; for example, 
the Gary Hospital, 
Gary, Ind.; St. Luke's, 
Presbyterian, and the 
Augustana Hosi)itals, 
Chicago ; the German, 
Philadelphia ; the Ger- 
man Deaconess Hospi- 
tal at Buffalo, and the Harper Hospital, at Detroit. 

The Germans seem to agree with our latest conclusions 
in regard to simplicity in the matter of ventilation and 
heating'. We have not heard of such failures of mechan- 
ical ventilation in German hospitals as we have in some 
of the leading hospitals in America where the plenum 
system seems to have proved a failure. The only place in 
which we saw this system working efficiently was at the 
Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Ireland; even there in the 
nurses' residence it was discarded. When on duty, nurses, 
like patients, submit to it, — an even temperature of about 
sixty-six degrees with all windows and doors tightly 

The Virchow Hospital, in Berlin, is ventilated in the 
following manner : 

In the underground floor of each of the pavilions are 
placed one or more ventilating' fans, according to the 
requirements. These draw in fresh air from little vertical 
air houses standing amid the shrubbery a few yards from 
the pavilions. The air passes through a chamber for 
straining out the dust, a cotton wool filter being used. 
The air is then driven into a steam-heated chamber, and 

Wards and corridors along central court. Note parking. 



from here throu.crh distributing'channcls,and hence through 
wall channels into the different rooms. As the local cli- 
mate is sufficiently himiid, the air is not moistened, as is 
done in some places. The foul air is withdrawn from each 
room by sufficient outlet channels, which extend to the 
roof story and terminate in a chamber in front of an exhaust 
fan. It is sucked from here and driven through ridge tur- 
rets into the open. In addition 
to this mechanical system, pro- 
vision is made for natural ven- 
tilation through trap windows. 
The ventilating apparatus of the 
lavatories, kitchens, and sink- 
rooms is made particularly effect- 
ive in order to cjuickly carry off 
the va])()rs and mal-odors which 
form there. 

(Tcrmans have their heating 
and power plant placed in a 
service building, which building 
usually contains the kitchen, 
laimdry, and emi^loyees' dormi- 
tories. The medium of heating 
is by means of steam or hot 
water. The pipes may terminate 
in radiators located along the 

center line of the room or along the walls. In the wards of 
the Virchow there are two four-inch hot water pipes running 
the whole length of the ward. These can be more easily 
cleaned than the ordinary radiators, and can be inspected 
very readily. A sensible type of radiator is the one now 
being put in the new measles building of the Willard 
Parker Hospital, New York City, there being- room be- 
tween the sections to allow for easy cleaning. 

German laimdries and kitchens are spacious. One sel- 
dom finds hoods over ranges and mangles. The black, 
dirty-looking stockpots of the American hospital kitchen 
are nowhci'e in evidence in (iermany. Stockpots are cov- 
ered with nickel, enamel, 
or white metal, and set 
on a neat, round, central 
foot. Some of the pots 
are provided with a water 
jacket as well as with a 
steam jacket, which per- 
mits their being used for 
a variety of purposes. Both 
kitchens and laundries are 
divided into separate rooms 
for the separate duties ; 
sometimes these subsidiarx- 
rooms are merely alcoved 
off. In America we more 
often find nearly every- 
thing done, both in laundry and kitchen, in one large ro(jm. 

The Germans provide in their hospitals more laboratory 
accommodation than we do. This is especially true of 
their teaching hospitals. In one of the medical or surgical 
units of the Charity Hospital, Berlin, for instance, you will 
find commodious laboratories adjoining the ward unit, — 
for bacteriology, for chemical pathology, for surgical pathol- 
ogy, for X-ray work, etc., and other special rooms for 
original research. Our laboratories are remote from our 
wards, which probably corresponds to the scientific status 
of our medical organization. Our clinicians are not pathol- 


STi;KII.IZATIn.\ \I'r,\KATr> IN WAi 

ogists ; many of theirs have arrived at the kingdom of 
clinical medicine after a prolonged period in the realm of 
pathology, hence can combine the work of the two in one 
in a grreat measure. 

Disinfection receives much more attention in Germany 
than in America. Disinfection houses are seen in connec- 
tion with all large German institutions. In America the 

writer has not seen any. In 
a typical German disinfection- 
house, belonging to a large hos- 
pital, you will sec provision 
made for disinfecting various 
types of material in various 
sized sterilizers. These steril- 
izers are set through a wall — 
the soiled or infected material 
being brought to the room on 
the "unclean side," placed in 
the sterilizers, and withdrawn in 
a room on the clean side. Off 
this clean room may be found 
the store room for the disin- 
fected clothing. Provision is 
also made for tlie disinfection of 
doctors, nurses, patients, and 
employees. There is a room 
for the removal of infected clothing ; adjoining this is the 
bath room, and beyond a clean room in which fresh cloth- 
ing is ]nit on. 

Besides the complete disinfection plant in the disinfec- 
tion building there is, in many hospitals, provision made 
in the ward unit for the disinfection of ward linen. A 
vessel is placed in a wall between two rooms, one half of 
it projects into the room for the reception of the soiled 
linen, the other into a small room on the other side of the 
wall — the clean side. After the linen is first thoroughly 
soaked and the blood and jnis stains removed, it is 
disinfected by means of heat carefully api)lied, plus, 

in some instances, the 
use o{ an antiseptic solu- 

Sewage from wards is 
])iped to a cement cave- 
house — the sie/ gruben- 
haiis — and here disin- 
fected before being allowed 
to run off into the general 
sewage system of the city. 
This feature is absent in 
America, but should be in- 
troduced. Many hospitals 
here allow their typhoid 
stools to pass into the gen- 
eral sewage system, not 
disinfected, or only partially disinfected. And many 
cities secure their drinking- water from the lake into which 
this sewage is poured ! 

Basements are used in German hospitals for the pro- 
tection and carrying of piping reciuired for the heat- 
ing, ventilation, and other apparatus, and for storage. 
In America, too often, basements are used for laundry, 
kitchen service, or even as dormitories. 

For the illustrations accompanying this article the writer 
is indebted to Mr. W. B. Stratton, architect of the Detroit 
General Hospital. 



The Planning of a Young Men's Christian Association 

Building. —Part II. 


THE Young- Men's Christian Association as a power in 
a community reaches out beyond the zone of social 
and physical enterprise. It extends its co-operation in 
still another direction ; namely, educationally, both aca- 
demic and industrial, as its constituency demands. And so 
for a two-fold purpose. Firstly, for the benefits to be 
shared by the students, and secondly, by reason of the 
fact that the educational department forms a prolific 
channel through which to pro- 
create recruits to the other 
branches of association en- 

Albeit the existence of public 
evening schools where the op]wr- 
tunity of free tuition is offered, 
the association has invariably 
successfully and profitably car- 
ried on its own educational work 
on a fairly extensive scale. 
This it has been able to accom- 
plish by making- the instruction 
individual, thus necessitating- 
smaller class-units than woiild 
ordinarily be provided for school 

The class rooms, prefei-ably located on the story imme- 
diately above the social rooms, should be located farthest 
from the g-ymhasium, running- track, bowling- alleys, and 
other sources of disturbance. If the building is situated on 
a thoroughfare, not subjected to the noise of heavy traffic, 
the class rooms should be placed along the front of the 
building ; firstly, to take advantage of the permanent light, 
and secondly, so that by night their illumination will convey 
an impression of activeness. 

Two types of class rooms shoi;ld be provided : for those 
requiring special and permanent furniture, as for the study 
of typewriting, drafting, or laboratory work (Fig. I) ; and 
for those containing movable equipment, such as can be 
used for the study of language or stenography. The 
former type of class rooms should be enclosed with rigid 
noise-resisting partitions and used exclusively for its 
assigned purpose. 
Whereas the latter 
should be arranged in 
series, so that by opera- 
ting movable partitions 
two or more of the rooms 
can be thrown together 
to accommodate a class 
or conference that would 
otherwise overtax the 
capacity of one (Figs. 
II and III). This ar- 
rangement makes pos- 
sible the use of the 
entire group as a place 
for general assembly or 

FIG. I. 
Class Room for Laboratory Work. 

Showing relation of Kitclien to Bant|Uet Room. 

banquets. The class rooms should never exceed a width 
of 24 feet ; and if they are to be adapted for use as a 
banquet room, 18 feet should be the minimum width. It 
is advisable to vary the other dimensions of the rooms from 
between 12 and 18 feet to provide accommodations for 
classes of varied attendance. Manual training or other 
classes for mechanical trades which are sources of disturb- 
ance to other work should best be placed elsewhere. 

Toilets for both sexes should be 
provided on this floor. Access 
to them should be had directly 
from the corridor. 

The Association is assisted in 
certain work by a Ladies' Auxil- 
iary and for it an ample size 
meeting room with generous 
storage space should be pro- 
vided. The position of this 
room should be preferably be- 
tween the kitchen and ladies' 
toilet. However, its use will 
not be confined to the above- 
mentioned i)urpose ; and noth- 
ing should be included that 
would prohibit its use as a 
class or club room or meeting place for social purposes. 

Storeroom . At such times as the class rooms are in 
use for banciuet purposes the class-room furniture (student 
chairs, desks) should be removed to a conveniently located 
storeroom, which will at other times contain such furnish- 
ings (chairs, horses, etc.) as are used for banquets. 

Kitchen. The size and magnitude of the equipment of 
the kitchen depends entirely upon local requirements. In 
many Associations the kitchen is used principally as a 
serving room and where light refreshments can be pre- 
pared. If the banquet room is subject to rental for other 
than association purposes, then the usual kitchen comple- 
ment, including coffee urns, steam tables, etc., must be 

The service from the kitchen to banciuet room need not 
necessarily be direct. As the objective of the Association 

banquet is primarily the 
conference which fol- 
lows, the dishes must 
be served and removed 
rapidly and with facility. 
An arrangement similar 
to that shown in Fig. II 
is desirable. Obviously 
the corridor ordinarily 
used as a means of 
access to the class rooms 
is unnecessary and a 
single entrance to the 
banciuet hall is suffi- 
cient. By closing the 
door at ' ' A " the 



corridor is converted into a serving: room permitting rapid 
service througfh each class room door from the serving: 
tables arranged in the corridor. 


Manifestly, the number of dormitories to be provided 
must be determined by a convass of the local demands. It 
is well to remember, however, that in no community, to the 
author's knowledge, have dormitories been provided in 
excess of the need. Further, investigation has shown that 
seldom has it been necessary for an Association to con- 
vert dormitories into other rooms by reason of lack of 

The arrangement of the dormitory jilan itself should be 
given careful study and considered from many angles. 
As the dormitory rooms are more generally in use at 
night, while desirable, still the question of daylight, except 
to give the room a wholesome atmosphere, is not potent. 
But good natural ventilation is absolutely essential, as it is 
only in the very large Association buildings that a system 
of forced ventilation or even indirect heating can be 

vStairways and other means of egress should be liberally 

Meeting room divisible into class rooms. 

provided and cautiously distributed. Where dormitories 
occupy more than one story, and on one or more of which 
are other dei:>artments, a separate stair connecting the 
dormitory sections should be provided to make possible 
the circulation of men in negligee attire. Avoid an 
arrangement of corridors and rooms that compels the men 
attending classes or meetings to pass through a dormitf)ry 
corridor to reach their destination. 

Dormitory Room. The dimensions of the dormitory 
rooms vary with the types of men for whose occupancy 
they are provided. In a highly residential or educational 
community, where members acustomed to and who can 
afford to pay for convenience and luxury are to occupy the 
rooms, obviously they should be relatively large ; perhaps 
10 feet wide. In a manufacturing community the dormi- 
tories should be of the minimum size, between 7 feet and 
8 feet 6 inches wide, so that a minimum rental can be 
assessed, which will place the rooms within the possibili- 
ties of the men whom the Association is most anxious to 
serve. When both extremes in membership must be 
accommodated, no definite barrier must be established be- 
tween the two classes. Segregation is not desirable or 
wise. The depth of the room should never be less than 
12 feet ; it is wasteful if in excess of 15 feet. 

The built-in closet has been universally adopted on 
account of its superiority over the movable wardrobe. It is 
dust-proof and more tidy, and by reason of its larger 
dimensions can accommodate the suit cases, boxes, etc., 
which are usually the possession of the room's occupant. 

FIG. v. 
A model dormitory. 

It is a fallacy and indicative of a poor plan to be com- 
pelled to place closets between rooms (Fig. VI). From 
an economic viewpoint it is obviously wasteful, inasmuch 
as the periphery is of the greatest value and this arrange- 
ment decreases the jiossible number of rooms facing on 
exterior walls. Fig. \' represents the model dormitory. 
This arrangement is by far the better, allowing a maximum 
number of rooms. The width of the closet should be 
sufficient so that the head of the bed can be placed against 
it. The splayed face imparts the impression of a greatly 
larger room than if the closet were built right-angular. 
The door should be hinged so that when swung open 
the window light will be admitted. The room door 
itself is placed directly opposite the window so that the 
circulation of air can be had without a draft over the 
cot. The door should be unglazed, but a transom must 
invariably be provided. A glazed transom is not desira- 
ble; preferably, one of wire mesh or louvres, both of 
which render the rooms less seclusive. Infractions of the 
rules can be easily detected and warning given of ill- 
ness or accident. In Associations such as for armv or 


A wasteful use of dormitory space. 

navy or industrial work, where the membership is such 
that gross violation of the rules is frequent, in addition 
to the open transoms the doors should be raised several 
inches from the floor. It has been the experience of the 
author that wash basins should not be provided within the 
dormitory rooms. Their use has been abused and the 




3tC0/Vn f-LOOB PLAyV 

^f^/J^D tLooE pla/v 

stcoA'n nooepiA/v 



(basement and first floor of these buildings illustrated in march issue) 




existence of vermin has been attributed to this indifferent 

Perhaps twenty-five per cent of the dormitories should 
be intercommunicating", preferably the corner rooms. In 
locating the connecting- doors, care should be taken that 
sufficient wall space is retained that the necessary furniture 
can be accommodated. 

General Lavatories . The position of the general lava- 
tory obviously should be central 
to the rooms, preferably at the 
intersection of corridors. If the 
plan is such that direct sun- 
light could only be had at one 
point, there the general lava- 
tory should be found, so impera- 
tive is it that this room be 
fresh with sunshine to vitalize 
the atmosphere and destroy 
virulent organism. However, 
during certain seasons it is both 
impractical and impossible to 
o])en windows, and it is there- 
fore necessary to here intro- 
duce a system of indirect or forced ventilation. The 
simplest method is to install a ventilator and fan imme- 
diately over the showers, dei)ending upon the rising steam 
to induce a circulation. 

Fig. VII indicates the usual arrangement. Fig. \'III 
represents the proper plan. 

The number of fixtures to be provided can be safely 

assumed in the following proportions : 

1 shower For 8 men 

1 water-clo.set ,, 12 

1 wash basin ,, 6 

1 urinal ^^ 12 

The shower room must be so situated that it will be un- 
necessary to pass through it in reaching the toilet or 
lavatory, otherwise 
water would be drag- 
gled through the cor- 
ridors. Similarly, the 
toilet should not be in 
close proximity to the 
lavatory, as otherwise it 
would constitute a xy\\\- 
sance. The lavatory 
itself must be of gener- 
ous size, with the basins 
placed directly in front 
of the source of light. 
Numerous mirrors 
should be arranged 
around the walls and 
not above the basins. This precaution should be taken, 
as otherwise men while shaving would prevent others 
from using the basins. 

Usual Arrangement fi)r General Lavatories. 

Proper Plan for General Lavatories 

The general lavatory is taxed to capacity at times, and 
circulating space should not be cramped in either the 
lav-atory or shower room. Men will stand around rubbing 
down after a bath, and when shaving require elbow 
room. In the former case, the individual after drying 
should not be rubbing shoulders with others just emerg- 
ing from a shower. While in the latter, freedom from 
possible interference is essential. 

JauHor' s Closet. As it is pos- 
sible that at some period female 
help be employed, the janitor's 
closet should not be entered 
from the lavatory. Provision 
must be made for a toilet and 
slop sink and for the accommo- 
dation of the usual janitor's 

Trunk Room. The trunk 
room should be placed imme- 
diately opposite the stairs or the 
lift, if provided. Entrance 
should be through a wide door 
opening, and sufficient wall 
space should be provided to accommodate at least one trunk 
for each dormitory. It is obvious that ventilation for this 
room is extremely desirable. At least several registers 
should be installed in partitions close to floor and ceiling. 

Linen Closet. A linen closet lined with cedar must be 
provided on each dormitory floor, in which will be kept the 
clean dormitory laundry sui)i)lies. The shelves should be 
of sufficient depth and width to comfortably store the 
largest pieces, as the blankets, etc., and space must be 
prov'ided f<jr a laundry hamper. 


When the acquisition of ground area for athletic or play- 
ground purposes is 
impractical, recourse 
should be had to the 
roofs, which can be 
utilized to good advan- 
tage by the construction 
of cinder tracks, tennis, 
hand and basket ball 
courts. Again, the roof 
over the gymnasium 
can be constructed so 
that it can be used as a 
roller skating rink in 
the summer and inun- 
dated for ice skating. 
Caution should be exer- 
cised not to provide any of the above exjiensive 
features to satisfy the passing fancy of an inconstant 

Editor's Note. — The first article in this series on the Planning of a Young Men's Christian Association Build- 
ing was published in the March issue of The Brickhuilder. The series will be continued in the June issue, 
being omitted from the May number. The author has asked for additional time in which to collect important 
data. This break in the continuity of the articles is regretted but we feel will be justified by the added value 

of the third paper. 


The Unit Power Plant for Isolated Buildings and 

Small Groups. — Part III. 






AFTER having- determined the total power of boilers, 
eng-ines, and g-enerators, the next step is to decide 
upon the number of units to employ. In plants of any 
considerable size a spare boiler should always be provided, 
not only for use in case of accident, but as a relay when 
cleaning- or inspecting-. In small plants, where power is 
simply required for lighting- during the evening:, it may be 
sufficient to provide a pair of boilers 
having a combined capacity just equal 
to that required, and depend upon the 
non-lighting- period, when one of the 
boilers will be out of service, for 
cleaning and repairs. It is safer, 
however, to provide a spare boiler 
and just as economical in the long 
run. A g-ood arrangement is to pro- 
vide three boilers, of such size that 
two will easily do the work, as this 

always gives a spare unit to fall back upon in case it is 
needed. When the maximum load is recjuired for only a 
short time, and it is desired to keep both space and cost at 
the lowest point, a boiler capacity some thirty per cent 
below the normal may be installed, and if there is a g-ood 
chimney draft, the plant may be easily forced up to the 
normal capacity without serious loss of efficiency. This, 
however, should not be done unless the period of forcing- 
is short and the boilers of the best design. 

It is almost universal practice at the present time to con- 
nect both engine and dynamo to the same shaft, thus doing: 
away with belts and econo- 
mizing space. Such an out- 
fit is called a unit or genera- 
ting set. As the efficiencies 
of both engines and genera- 
tors are greatest at full load, 
it is desirable to have several 
units so arranged that as 
the load increases their 
power may be added as re- 
quired. While g:reater 
economy may be secured by 
using machines of different 
sizes and operating them at 
or near full load, there are 
certain ]:)ractical considera- 
tions which must also be 
taken into account. A 
method which has gfiven 

satisfaction in many cases is to divide the total capacity 
into three units, of such size that two of them, by being 
overloaded twenty-five per cent, will do the maximum 
work. The first cost in this arrang:ement is less, the 
machines are interchangeable in case it is desired to cut 
one out, and only one size of parts need be kept on hand 
for repairs. 

The distribution of the load throughout the day has an 





/^/{■O/i^ ^-v<?. 


important bearing upon this matter and should be carefully 
considered in each particular case. 

General Arrangemott . In electric power plants of large 
size the arrangements of the boilers and engines usually 
follow certain general schemes which experience has finuid 
to be desirable. When the plant is located in the 
ment of an office building, or forms part of the power and 
heating- system of some public build- 
ing or institution, these arrang-ements 
cannot be carried out to any extent 
on account of the location or limited 
amount of available space. This 
makes it necessary to work out the 
g-eneral scheme of each plant by itself, 
according- to local conditions, taking 
care to make it as compact as pos- 
FiG. I. sible, and so arranged as to simplify 

the handling: of coal and ashes. 
While the boiler and eng-ine rooms should be adjacent, 
it is best to separate them by a heavy wall and tig:ht closing- 
door for keeping both dust and steam from the engine 
room. In g-eneral, all equipment having moving parts 
should be kept out of the boiler room on account of dust 
and grit. Exception is often made to this in case of the 
feed pump, which should be conveniently located with 
reference to the g-aug-e glasses upon the boilers. 

Foundations. These are usually constructed of concrete, 
both for boilers and engines. For tubular boilers, the 
foundations should extend from 8 to 12 inches on each side 

of the walls which they siip- 
port. If a substantial foot- 
ing is not available, a solid 
bed of concrete should be 
provided, of sufficient size 
to accommodate the entire 
setting. The depth will com- 
monly run from 2 to 3 feet, 
according to the nature of 
the soil and size of boilers. 
Detail drawings of engine 
foundations are usually 
furnished by the builder. 
Care should be taken not 
only to make the founda- 
tions stable, but also to pro- 
vide against vibration being 
transmitted to the building. 
This uiay be largely pre- 
vented l)y the construction sliown in Fig. I, where the 
main foundation is surrounded by a wall of brick or 
concrete from 12 to 18 inches away, and the space be- 
tween filled with closely packed sand. .Sometimes, wlien 
the soil is firm, the wall is done a\va\- witli and the sand 
simply placed in a trench around the foundation. The 
area and depth of foundation will depend largely upon tlie 
nature of the soil and weight of the machine, and must 

V\V,. 11 



be worked out for a live load according: to local conditions. 

Arrangement of Pipitiff. When la\-in,G: out a system of 
piping one should provide pipes of sufficient size to main- 
tain boiler pressure ; reasonable compactness to prevent 
excessive condensation ; provision for expansion ; freedom 
from pockets for the collection of water ; and a system of 
drainage which shall keep the pipes free from condensa- 
tion. While valves should not be provided too freely, on 
account of complicating the system and adding to the 
expense, they should be placed in such a manner that all 
important pieces of apparatus may be cut out for repairs, 
by-pass connections being provided for use at such times. 

Another important matter is flexibility of the heavy 
piping, so that the movements due to expansion and con- 
traction will be taken up without bringing heavy strains 
upon the pipe and fittings. This is usually accomplished 
by the use of offsets, sweep bends, and swivel joints. 

Piping Material. " Wrought-iron " pipe, so called, is 
made standard weight, extra strong, and double extra strong. 
The standard weight is commonly used for all pressures 
up to 125 pounds per square inch, and tests show it to be 
amply strong for pressures considerably higher than this. 
Nearly all of what is commonly known as wrought-iron 
pipe is mild steel. There seems to be no special advan- 
tage in using wrought iron, unless for very large and heavy 
work, where it is desired to weld the flanges directly to the 
pipe. It is more expensive and is not generally kept in 
stock by the ordinary dealer. Cast-iron fittings, both 
screwed and flanged, are used for all classes of steam 
work. They are made in three weights, the lightest for 
low pressures, such as exhaust and condenser work ; stand- 
ard weight, for pressures up to 100 or 125 pounds per 
square inch ; and extra heav\' for higher pressures up to 
250 poimds. 

When pipes are to be joined permanently, couplings are 
iised, but for all work around boilers, engines, pumps, 
and heaters, where it may be necessary to disconnect the 
piping occasionally, the joints should be made up with 
flanges or unions, according to the size. Pipe bends of 
large radius are largely used in making boiler and engine 
connections on accoimt of their greater flexibility. An- 
other important point is the method of making up the 
flanged joints in high-pressure work to prevent leakage. 

A good type of joint for pressures around 100 to 125 
pounds is made by screwing the flanges solidly to the pipe, 
facing off the projecting ends in a lathe, and packing the 
joint with a corrugated copper gasket. The type and 
quality of the valves is an important detail in connection 
with a system of piping. In general, gate valves are best 
for high-pressure work, and for the larger sizes, say 4-inch 
and above, the " outside screw " or " yoke " pattern is to 
be preferred, because it is not only easier to pack and oil, 
but also shows at a glance whether it is o]K'n or closed. 
For sizes 8-inch and above, the by-pass type should be 
employed, on account of greater ease in operation and less 
liability of scoring the seat when opening and closing. 
By first opening the small by-pass and equalizing the pres- 
sures on each side of the valve, these difficulties are 
avoided. The seats should be renewable, and either of 
bronze or of some special material adapted to high tempera- 
tures and pressures. Gate valves should not be placed 
with the stem in a vertical position with the wheel at the 
bottom, as they form an obstruction to the flow of conden- 

sation if not fully open. For the same reason globe valves 
should always be placed with the stem in a horizontal 
position when used in a horizontal pipe. 

Expansion. Pipes fitted at a temperature of 60 degrees 
expand about 2% inches per 100 feet in length when filled 
with steam at 100 pounds pressure. For this reason great 
care must be taken to so arrange the piping that this 
increase will be taken up without producing strains. As 
previously stated, this may usually be done in engine and 
boiler rooms by the use of off.sets and bends, but in 
straight runs of considerable len.gth, as in conduit work, 
slip joints are commonly used. 

Insulation. Steam pipes, seimrators, heaters, etc., 
should be covered with some good insulating material to 
reduce the amount of condensation, and also to prevent 
overheating the engine and boiler rooms. 

The best makes of sectional covering should be used for 
high-pressure piping, and among these may be mentioned 
— " ei.ghty-five per cent carbonate of magnesia," certain 
brands of "fire felt," and "cork" coverings. Certain 
grades of asbestos fiber also make an efficient material. 
\'alves and fittings may be provided either with moulded or 
plastic covering, according to whether or not it is to be re- 
movable. Smoke connections, large heaters, tanks, etc., 
are commonly covered with block insulation, finished with 
a coat of plastic material. 

Pipe Connections. The typical methods employed in 
connecting up the different pieces of apparatus are best 
shown by a series of diagrams. Fig. II illustrates in 
detail some of the pipe connections in a non-condensing 
plant where the exhaust steam is used for heating pur- 
poses. The exhaust main from the engines is carried 
beneath the floor and is so valved that the steam can be 
passed either outboard through a back-pressure valve, or 
into the heating system through an oil separator. A closed 
feed-water heater is connected with the main so that either 
a part or the whole of the exhaust can be made to flow 
through it. This afrangement allows the heater to be cut 
out, in case of repairs, and also makes it possible to pass 
all of the exhaust through it in the summer time when the 
heating system is not in use. A cross-connection is made 
with the high-pressure main for automatically supplying 
live steam to the heating system through a pressure- 
reducing valve in case the exhaust should prove insuffi- 
cient at any time. The return from the heating system 
is trapped into a vented receiver and pumped back to the 
boilers automatically when the water line in the tank rises 
above a given point. 

A typical boiler and engine room layout for a medium 
sized plant is shown in Fig. IV. The outfit consists of 
two water-tube boilers, two generating sets, duplicate feed 
pumps, receiver, and feed-water heater. This forms part 
of a combined power and heating plant, and therefore has 
connections with the heating main through an oil separator 
and pressure-reducing valve, as indicated. 

Fig. III. — In this particular case the discharge water is 
turned into the sewer and therefore no oil separator is re- 
quired. The connections are such that the feed-water 
heater may be by-passed and the exhaust turned directly 
outboard; also a relief valve is provided beyond the 
heater for the same purpose. When working regularly, 
all of the steam passes into the condensing cone where it 
is mixed with the cooling water and condensed. 



The feed connections for 
a non-condensing- plant are 
shown in Fig-. V. The sup- 
ply main branches into two 
lines, one leading to the 
receiving- tank and the other 
to an injector near the front 
of the boilers. The dis- 
charg-e from the feed pump 
is passed through a closed 
heater on its way to the 
boilers. The arrangement 
for a condensing: system is 
shown in Fig. VI, and is 
practically the same, except 
for the introduction of a 
second heater. In this case 
" B " takes steam from the 
main engines at condenser 
pressure, while 
" A " is supplied 
with exhaust 
from the pumps 
at a pressure of 
1 or 2 pounds 

Pipe Sizes. The 
pipe sizes in 
boiler and engine 
rooms are largely 
fixed by the out- 
lets provided on 
the different 
pieces of appa- 

A simple 
method which 
gives pipes of 
ample size for 
average condi- 
tions is to allow 
0.12 square fig. iv. 

inches per indi- 
cated horse power for supply pipes to engines, and 0.18 

square inches for ex- 


haust. For under- 
ground heating mains 
of considerable length, 
the following table may 
be used, based on a drop 
in pressure of 1 pound 
in 1,000 feet of run : 

cording to size. The life 
upon the quality of the 
timber, and the thor- 
oughness of water- 
proofing and under- 
draining, the average 
being from fifteen to 
twenty-five years. The 
sections of tile are 


Pipe Conduits. In heating 
a group of buildings from^a 
central plant, the distribu- 
ting mains and conduits form 
an in-iportant part of the 

In selecting the best type 
of conduit, it is necessary 
to consider the insulation, 
the initial cost, and dura- 

The materials in most 
common use are wood, vitri- 
fied tile, and concrete, while 
brick is used to a consider- 
able extent in the construc- 
tion of manholes. While 
wooden conduits are the 
cheapest to construct, they 
are not so durable 
as either tile or 
concrete, hence 
the problem 
should be con- 
sidered from all 
sides when decid- 
ing upon the 
material to be 
used for a per- 
manent installa- 

A common 
form of wooden 
conduit is shown 
in Fig. VII. 
Solid turned logs 
are used for pipe 
sizes up to 6 
inches, and staves 
for larger sizes . 
The shell varies 
from 2 to 4 inches 
in thickness ac- 
of a wooden conduit de])ends 

FIG. V. 

Size of Pipe. Square Feet of 

Direct Radiation 
Supply. Return. Supplied. 

21/2" 2" 700 

3" ly-z" 1,000 

31/2' IV-i" 1,600 

4" 3" 2,300 

5" 3" 4,000 

6" 3'/2" 6,500 

7" 3J/2" 10,000 

8" 4" - -- 14,000 




usuallj- split lengfthwise, the lower half being laid first, 
and after the steam pipes are run and tested, the upper 
half is put in place and the joints made water-tight with 

The pipe supports and anchors are placed in inverted 
tees and the lower part embedded in cement. Insulation 
is provided by filling the space around the pipes with 
specially prepared asbestos or other 
suitable material. 

A concrete conduit is shown in 
Fig. VIII. By making the cover in 
sections and cementing the joints, 
it is more easily opened for pipe 
repairs than if made solid. When 
the distances are short and a num- 
ber of pipes and electric cables are 
to be accommodated, a tunnel simi- 
lar to that shown in Fig. X is much 
to be preferred, although consider- 
ably more exjiensive . This arrange- 
ment gives ample room for inspec- 
tion and repairs without opening 
up the conduit. Fig. IX shows two 
methods of arranging the expan- 
sion joints and anchors. In the upper line, "A A" 
represent anchors, and "B" a combined anchor and 
double expansion joint. The direction of movement due 
to expansion is indicated by the arrows. In the second 
line, " C C " are anchors combined with single expansion 
joints. These special fittings consist of a heavy casting 
with a foot or standard which is anchor-bolted to a con- 
crete pier embedded in the earth. This casting also forms 

y^jf///Fi r 

the body of the expansion joint, which may be either 
single or double as desired. While slip joints arc com- 
monly used, they are liable to work loose, and if tightened 
up too much, to stick, thus causing the pipe to buckle 
when it expands. 

This condition has been overcome by the use of specially 
designed devices where the movement is taken up by 
means of flexible cojiper diaphragms 
instead of sliding joints. The dis- 
tance between the joints will depend 
upon the type iised and the amount 
of movement they are designed to 
take up. In general, this should 
not exceed 5 or 6 inches, which will 
limit the distance to 200 or 300 feet 
imder average conditions. 

Cost of Construction. In work as 
imjiortant as the laying of under- 
ground mains the type of conduit 
should be selected and estimates ob- 
tained by contractors familiar with 
local conditions. For approximate 
I'lG. \'ii. work the following table may be 

used, which is based on the average 
cost of four different kinds of conduits, and includes 
excavating and filling (exclusive of rock excavation), con- 
duit, supply and return ]M])ing, and insulation : 


Size of 
Supply Main. 





Per Foot. 

- fl-70 

. 2.00 

. 3.00 

. 3.40 

. 4.50 

1"IG. VIII. 








FIG. X. 


VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 49. 




VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 50. 







VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 51. 


^ ' ^'^ ■' J'^.'^J.*^.' .A.Jll^ 










VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 52. 



VOL. 22. NO. 4. PLATE 53. 


VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 54. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 55. 

"■(•w»awi^55f~-~ imnjuuuJMia l •mmmmmmmm^^^^mSm 





VOL. 22. NO. 4 

PLATE 56. 








VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 57. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 58. 



THE B R I C K 13 U 1 L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 59. 


PLAN at C-D 

^tTicAir. DE-DMLS or 



/^/eST fLOOe PLA/\f 



stcoNO rtjyoB pl/i^ 

i { 


VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 60. 





riesT rtooe flaa 



VOL. 22. NO. 4. PLATE 61. 

eacoND r-Loon plan 






i_. I 


P0£C/1 * 







VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 62. 


THE R R I C K R IT I L I) E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 4. PLATE 63. 

THE B R I c K B U I L 1) E R 

VOL. 22. NO. 4. 

PLATE 64. 



An Old Endish House— The Vvne. 


A FEW miles from the town of Basing'stoke, in Hamp- 
shire, is an old brick house which takes us back 
throug-h different periods to Tudor days, a house interest- 
ing- alike for its architecture and its historical associations. 
Henry VHI and his g-reat Cardinal are commemorated 
on the panels of its Oak Gallery ; Anne Boleyn and Eliza- 
beth were among its royal g-uests ; while in Stuart times 
it was the meeting--place of many notabilities, brought 
together by its then owner, Chaloner Chute, Speaker of 
the House of Commons, under Richard Cromwell. This 
triple historical connection is displayed in the house itself, 
which offers us successive periods of building. First in 
order is the Tudor work of the early sixteenth century, 
then comes the Elizabethan and Jacobean, followed by the 
later Renaissance, and finally the early Georgian. 

Having been altered extensively over so long a period, 
it is difficult now to say exactly what was the original 
disposition of The Vyne, but it would seem to have been 
roughly I I shaped. Early Tudor work is seen on 

the garden front — more especially on the chai)el which 
juts out from one end of the house — and later Tudor 
work on the entrance front, with its dia]:)er in the brick- 
work. On the entrance front the alterations made in suc- 
cessive years are clearly apparent, as in the sash windows 
which have taken the place of the original mullioned win- 
dows, and on this front, too, we see the doorways, which 
are among the chief work that was carried out by 
John Webb — who was Inigo Jones's nephew, and his 
right-hand man. The latest work of all is the imposing 

hall which Chute, as one of the dilettanti of the mid- 
eighteenth century, is credited with. 

The original house was built for Lord, who 
lived during the reigns of Henry VH and Henry VHI, 
and of this the Oak Gallery is a delightful relic. It is 
particularly interesting as being a very early exami^le of 
what became so familiar a feature of the old EngJisli house. 
In length about 82 feet, it is lined with linen-fold paneling 
enriched with carved monograms, mottoes, and badges. 
Altogether there are more than four hundred imnels, in- 
cluding one, of excei)ti<)nal interest, with two amorini su])- 
porting the arms of ICngland. On another are the arms of 
Wol.sey, with his cardinal's hat, and on another the arms of 
Catharine of Aragon : all showing the new Italian influence, 
which was then making its way into England. The date 
of this gallery would ai)iiear to be aliout 1520, so that it 
ranks among the earliest of its kind. Of about tlie same 
date is the work in the chapel. 

A large chimney-i:)ieee in the Tai)estry Room brings us 
to the Elizabethan period, and there are other similar relics 
about the house, while in the dining-room we see Jacobean 
work : in which connection it may be noted that the architec- 
ture of the hundred years from 1520 to 1620 was tentative 
in character. As Professor Klomfield remarks, the builders 
were losing their old tradition and had not yet replaced it 
by a new one, and on the other hand a certain sense of 
exjxmsion and intellectual enfranchisement in the air at 
the time tempted them to bold experiments for which they 
were ill-equipped. 




As it stands to- 
day the main part 
of The Vyne belongs 
to the period of 
John Webb, by 
whom the interior 
was extensively re- 
modeled. He also 
added the large 
portico which rather 
overpowers the gar- 
den front of the 
house, and designed 
the elegant brick 
pigeon-cote and the 
lodge. Webb hav- 
ing based his work 
so much on his 
master's, it is now 
impossible to deter- 
mine precisely the 
authorship of many 

designs, and, as a consequence, great con- 
fusion exists as to whether it was Webb or 
Inigo Jones who made them ; but in the 
case of The Vyne there is little doubt that 
Webb was solely responsible for the work. 
In some of its details there is noticeable a lack 
of refinement which Inigo Jones would not have 
been guilty of, and the great portico on the 
garden front could never be attributed to ' ' the 
father of English architecture." Webb was a 
conscientious architect, intelligent, but not pro- 
foundly original. He worked in the manner he 
had learned from Inigo Jones, a manner ad- 
mirable in itself, but most difficult to handle, 
and there is little trace in his work of the learn- 
ing and consummate reticence of his master. 
Yet he came of a splendid school, and nowhere 
is the saving influence of tradition more clearly 
seen than in the work of pupils of great expo- 
nents of architectural design. 

Tiiii OAK (;.\lli;kv 

Webb, as already pointed out, made extensive 
alterations to the interior of The Vyne, but its 
most prominent feature belongs to a later date : 
the pillared staircase hall having been added in 
the middle years of the eighteenth century. It 
is very typical of its period — a time when the 
nobleman was taking up architecture as a polite 
part of his education, a time also of unreality 
and theatrical effect. Nevertheless, there is no 
denying the impressiveness of this staircase hall 
which John Chute added about 1760. Whether 
he was the actual designer cannot now be stated, 
but we know that he was a man of parts, and, 
with the help of some practical hand, it is very 
l)robable that he did produce this design. The 
Corinthian columns are very elegant, and the 
enrichment on the frieze and the coffered ceiling 
displays a nice taste in ornament ; but, bearing 
in mind that The Vyne is not a very preten- 
tious house, one feels that the staircase hall 

is too stately, and 
Horace Walpole's cri- 
ticism of it, as be- 
ing too "theatric," 
has much to warrant 

Here then we have 
an old house of much 
interest, a mellow 
piece of brick build- 
ing over -grown in 
part with ivy and 
creeper, a house 
which has lasted out 
the i:)ageant of nearly 
four hundred years, 
yet still offers us its 
ancient record as a 
lasting testimony to 
the work of men's 









Architectural Jurisprudence. — Part I. 


Error of opinion may be tolerated wliere reason is left free to combat it. — Jefferson. 

UNLIKE the laws of Nature and of her forces which The contract between the architect and an owner should 

are constant and concurring, the statute and common always be in writinjj and complete in all its details. If 
laws of man, as made and applied'in the various States of our 
Union, are as diverse as the points of the compass, and they 
are often interpreted directly contrary in adjoining juris- 
dictions. It is for this reason that it is imwise and unsatis- 
factory to attempt to make general statements concerning 
our laws or to give general advice as to personal conduct and 
procedure. Added to this diflficulty, arising from such 
diversity of laws and its api^lications, is the fact that almost 
no differences between men arise but have their distinc- 
tions from similar situations that have previously arisen ; 
hence one can realize that the best of general opinions will 
be of little use for application to any specific case. How- 
ever, a study of the laws and of the decisions under various 
circumstances furnishes certain landmarks, as it were, 
which are helpful in guiding the layman. It is the object 
of this article to point out to the architect some of these 
"landmarks" pertaining to his demands for compensa- 
tion, the statutory protection of his compensation, and his 
probable liability to the owner and others. It is hoped 
that by the use of these suggestions some disputes and 
consequent law-suits may be avoided, esi:)ecially as such 
troubles are destructive of that peace of mind and mental 
condition which permit a proper artistic atmosphere and 
truly expressive conceptions. 

the writing is complete in itself it is important to remember 
that there is a rule of evidence which in such cases re- 
jects all consideration of what was talked about or agreed 
upon previous to the making of the writing. In determin- 
ing what the writing means it is considered as a whole, but 
at the same time each phrase or word is given its proper 
attention and significance. A good example showing the 
way a contract will be interpreted involved the following 
facts. In a letter the architect proposed to prepare plans, 
specifications, and supervise certain construction work for 
a three per cent commission. To the letter was added as 
a postscript, ' ' Payments to be made on monthly estimates. ' ' 
When the plans and specifications were completed, the 
architect demanded two i)er cent as then due him under 
the usual custom of pa_\'ments to architects. The coui^t 
decided that he was not entitled to any pay until monthl\- 
estimates were made ; hence the suit was dismissed with 
costs against the architect. 

There was no question but that the architect had meant 
to make the contract so that he would get the usual com- 
pensation for the plans and specifications and then his per- 
centage for the supervision on each monthly estimate ; but 
he did not state it clearly, and consequently did not receive 
his pay for the plans and specifications at the time expected. 




Full consideration of this simple case teaches us three 
fundamental lessons : first, that a contract is strictly con- 
strued as it reads ; second, that no custom of architects 
can changre or modify a definite agrreement ; and third, 
that legal action to try and g-et a partial ])ayment is jioor 
business policy, often resulting-, as it did in this case, in tlie 
loss of the supervision work, and in having- to pay attor- 
ney's fees and court costs out of the " reasonable value " 
which the architect later received for the work done. 

Throughout this discussion we shall assume that the 
architect has a contract for employment and that he has 
faithfully complied with his part of such ag"reement. 

Where the contract is merely for preliminary sketches 
and specifications or even for detailed plans and specifica- 
tions, it is customary to state that the compensation of the 
architect shall be a certain percentag:e upon the " esti- 
mated cost " of the work. These important words were 
considered as follows in an architect's case: "The esti- 
mated cost we understand in this case to mean the reason- 
able cost of building-s erected in accordance with the plans 
and specifications referred to and not necessarily the 
amount of some actual estimate made by a builder, nor an 
estimate ag-reed upon by the parties, nor yet an estimate or 
bid accepted by the defendant (owner> . ' ' 

This opinion then shows that under certain circum- 
stances, and especially if technical objections are not 
made, builders' estimates are some evidence of reason- 
able value. There are so many conditions and motives 
that enter into builders' estimates that, as a matter of fact, 
these estimates rarely represent what they should, namely, 
the cost as determined by a reasonable man who is callable 
of making- such determination. It is recommended, there- 
fore, that when an architect renders his bill for such ser- 
vices under such a contract the ' ' estimated cost ' ' be 
a ' ' reasonable cost ' ' which can easily be supported and 
approved by impartial experts having- no interest in either 
the architect or the owner. 

Where there is a limit of expense fixed by the owner, 
and where as is usual the lowest bid to do the work is 
hig-her than the cost limit, there are two questions in- 
volved : Can the architect recover anything- for his work, 
and if so, how much ? The first question dejx'nds on 
whether the lowest bid is the " reasonable cost " as just 
discussed, and also whether there has been a "substan- 
tial performance," or such performance by the architect 
of his agfreement with the owner as should recjuire the 
owner in justice and equity to pay for the work. No 
general rule can be g-iven as to what will be considered a 
substantial performance by the architect in such cases, but 
as a working- rule it is sug:gested that for cost limits less 
than $5,000 the excess of the "reasonable cost" should 
be kept under fifteen per cent ; while for cost limits above 
$5,000 such excess should be kept under seven and one 
half per cent. Where these percentages arc exceeded it is 
questionable whether the architect can ever recover any- 
thing for his work unless the owner accepts the work and 
waives his contract right to keep the architect within the 
cost limit imposed. Architects doing i)ul)lic work are all 
familiar with the rule that public contracts must be kept 
within the appropriation for the work; otherwise there may 
be no pay for work done in excess of the appropriation. In 
private work the same rule should govern the action of tlie 
architect in making his plans and specifications, thus leaving 

the excess cost allowed in such work to become available in 
cases where there are increases in the cost of materials and 
of labor between the time of drawing the plans and the 
letting of the building contract. Naturally, if the cost 
limit is materially exceeded the architect should at once 
oticr to make the changes necessary to bring the plans 
and specifications within the limit. In rendering his bill 
the architect is always safe if he only demands his percent- 
age on the cost limit, and that should be the practice where 
there is not much difference to him. Some courts, and 
especially in competitive work, restrict the compensation 
to a percentage on just that figure. This suggestion would 
seem to be good also in the case where the architect in- 
tended to sui^ervise, because many an architect has lost his 
sujiervision by demanding his percentage on sonic builder's 
bid which mayor may not have been a reasonable estimate. 

In cases where there is no contract or agreement cither 
written or oral as to the amount to be paid for the archi- 
tect's services, the law implies that the owner shall jiay 
tile reasonable value of the work done. In such cases it 
is usual for the architect to charge in accordance with 
the schedule of the American Institute of Architects. 
Those charges, however, are not binding upon the owner 
unless it can be shown that he was familiar with them or 
with the usual and customary practice of architects to 
make such charges where there is nothing said as to com- 
pensation. In defense, the owner can show and is entitled 
to know the amount of time spent on the work by the 
architect and his assistants, his exjienses, etc., so as to 
sec whether the charges made are reasonable. It is there- 
fore advisable before rendering bills under these circum- 
stances to consider what hourly or daily charge is being 
made, and if found excessive it is good legal as well as 
business policy to make a reasonable bill for the services 
actually rendered. 

In cases where orders for plans and specifications are 
countermanded soon after being ordered, or in fact at any 
time prior to the completion of the work, there is great 
difference of oi)inion as to what compensation the architect 
is entitled to. vSome states seem to hold, contrary to their 
usual rule in ordinary breaches of c(mtracts, that the archi- 
tect can only recover for the work done prior to the receipt 
of the countermanding order. Of course no architect 
should do any work after receiving such an order. The 
usual rule of law ajiplicable to a breach f)f contract of this 
kind states that the architect is entitled to his full contract 
price less what it would have cost him to fully iK-rform and 
also less what he might in the meantime have earned else- 
where. The changing and shortening of the manner of 
expressing this rule is probably largely due to the fact 
that it is seldom that the architect can show that he was 
unable to get other work to take the place of that counter- 
manded, and since he cannot show any damage suffered 
by such countermand he is left with only his claim and 
right to receive and recover the reasonable value o( the 
work actually done with the outlay of exi)enses made. 
This same rule of law is also applicable where the architect as well as draws the j^lans. Under these con- 
ditions a bill rendered reasonable in its demand and solely 
for the work actually done will often save time and trouble 
for all concerned. 

The chief difficulty which is likely to arise in such a 
contract comes from the common exiiression " actual cost." 



What does it mean ? Strange to say, judicial definitions 
are rare, but in one case it was decided to mean the total 
cost of the completed buildings including permanent appli- 
ances and fixtures. In another case it was held not to 
include damages given in a law-suit to the contractors for 
delay caused by the owner even though the damages were 
measured by extra expense in the construction caused by 
increase in cost of materials and in the cost of labor. Under 
the Revenue Laws, " actual cost " is defined as the actual 
price paid in a bona fide purchase and not the market value. 
Again it is defined in another similar case as ' ' mone\- 
actually paid out. ' ' These definitions applied to a building 
operation would exclude from the " actual cost " those 
materials which the owner does not actually pay for in 
money. By the schedule of the American Institute 
of Architects they use the term "total cost" instead 
of ' ' actual cost ' ' and then state that ' ' the total 
cost is to be interpreted as the cost of materials and labor 
necessary to complete the work, plus contractors' profits 
and expenses, as such cost would be if all materials were 
new and all labor fully paid at market prices current when 
the work was ordered." Where this schedule is called to 
the attention of the owner, then it becomes applicable and 
solves this opportunity for great difference of opinion. 
The term ' ' total cost ' ' does not seem to have as yet 
received wide and common usage and no judicial defini- 
tion has been made of it. 

Suppose the owner by advice of the architect gives the 
construction work to several parties and thus dispenses 
with the services of a general contractor ; after starting 
work one of these contractors quits the job and a new 
contract for the same work has to be made at a much 
higher price on account of new conditions discovered 
underground ; the financial irresponsibility of the default- 
ing contractor prevents the owner recovering the excess 
cost from him : is the architect entitled to charge his per- 
centage on the " actual cost " which includes this excess 
cost caused by this combination of circumstances ? There 
seem to be no decisions on such a case, but from analogy 
to somewhat similar conditions passed upon by some courts 
an architect's fee should i^ot be based upon such excess 
cost. It is only fair to say that slight modification of the 
facts given for this suijpositive case would ]:)robably recjuire 
the contrary decision and it is practically impossible to say, 
what a court would find if required to pass directly upon 
that <|uestion or modifications of it. 

vStrange to say, there is one state where there seems to 
be no definition for "actual cost," although there are 
numerous decisions that the architect's compensation must 
be paid upon that basis. They also hold that such 

actual cost ' ' must be proven and therefore reject any 
evidence as to statements of the estimated cost, amounts 
of probable cost filed with a building deiiartment, or 
expert opinions by architects or builders. 

In this condition of the law on this subject, the cmly 
advice that can be given is that only those items or ele- 
ments of the construction as are set forth and specified in 
the plans and specifications should be considered, and 
their actual cost should be taken unless it is excessive, due 
to some unexpected and uncontrollable circumstances as 
heretofore mentioned, or due to mistakes of the architect 
himself. Hence it is very evident that some judgment has 
to be used in determining just what items the architect will 

take when making up the "actual cost" upon which to 
base his compensation. It often becomes more a matter 
of business policy than of technical legality. 

Since the architect deals with the owner of real estate, 
he does not ordinarily have the same diiificulties as other 
people in collecting his pay for his services. In the every- 
day business life the first inquiry of a seller is as to the 
financial condition of the purchaser. The architect usually 
foregoes that inquiry. Still there are many chances taken 
to-day by an architect with the numerous notoriously crooked 
and insolvent real estate companies, corporations, etc., seek- 
ing his services for the improvement of heavily mortgaged 
lands. Then it is that the architect appreciates whatever 
statutory protection is given him. The best protection, when 
it is granted, is given by the right to put a lien on the prop- 
erty improved, or about to be improved. Another protec- 
tion is sometimes afforded by the means <jf legal processes 
called "attachment" and "garnishment." 

Most of us are familiar with the protection given con- 
tractors, sub-contractors, material men, and laborers by 
statutes which are commonly called lien laws. By them 
the property which is increased in value by buildings, etc., 
is itself held by the law to pay for such increase of value, 
at least to the extent of the owner's contract with the con- 
tractor. Is an architect entitled to that ])rotection for his 
services in preparing the plans and specifications and in 
suix;rintending the construction of the work ? No general 
answer can be given to this question as the different 
statutes are differently worded, and often when similarly 
worded are interpreted differently. All such statutes can 
usually be divided into two general classes : one which 
protects "any ])erson performing labor " upon building 
construction, and the other which specifies, for protection, 
certain persons as " mechanics, laborers, etc." This clas- 
sification is helpful in our inquiry since, under the first class, 
architects are protected, and under the second they are 
not. Thus it would seem from the recorded cases that 
at ]3resent where the architect has an entire contract both 
for preparation of plans and si)ecifications and also for 
superintendence, and fulfils both of these services,- he is 
entitled to a mechanics lien in fifteen states. On the 
other hand, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, 
North Carolina, and Tennessee deny an architect the help 
of the lien law under such circumstances. 

Suppose the architect merely prepares plans and speci- 
fications, is he protected by the lien law for such services? 
It would be expected that if the buildings are not erected 
there should be no lien, but Wisconsin seems to allow a 
lien even then. Where the construction work is completed 
according to the plans and specifications there is about an 
equal difference of opinion in the reported cases. 

Where the architect merely superintends the construc- 
tion work it is certain that he would be protected in those 
states where he is benefited when he draws the plans and 
superintends. New York, Rhode Island, and Oregon seem 
to help the architect in such a case, upon the theory that 
such services are actually performed upon the construction 
work in contradistinction to the work done in making the 
plans and specifications which is all i^ierformed in his 
office . 

These considerations oi the various lien laws show that 
for definite and safe advice concerning one's rights there- 
under the architect must consult local counsel. 






B iS JJi agSSifiiwaiwiiii*iMWiiL i L i !yiUk. i ii» aBg^ 





SC A LE ■ 

. i-L. 



I I 





F^'-Q^'-Ji fjj-(^l 

''■f^-r-;^^ -"4Sf (£ 

'■ E" * r^^^^^iii' ii^'iii'i];.-*3j 


I I I 

g^jL^'g^g.x'gL/^.^^' g^^^^^ix' g^ "^^gi -^'gi,-lj;,xe^/g^ ^'g g^-^'- e^? 'g^-^g/?. 






Two Groups of Houses Built for the Boston Dwelling 

House Company. 


THE shabby and neg-lected appearance of the outlying 
parts of our larg^e cities always causes wondering 
comment from foreigners whose eyes, accustomed to the 
thrift and neatness of the Continent, are shocked by the 
ugly architecture and general lack of neatness which char- 
acterize too many of our suburbs. Even what is con- 
sidered one of the best of Boston's industrial suburbs 
drew forth the exclamation " A/t, que c est trisfe," from a 
Frenchman whose perceptions had not been dulled by too 
long residence in America. 
Since last year, however, 
the suburbs of Boston have 
witnessed the inauguration 
of an intelligently directed 
attempt to create an addi- 
tion to their number which 
shall, while providing at- 
tractive habitations for a 
respectable class of citi- 
zens, prove an object lesson 
to the real estate promoters 
whose slovenly develop- 
ments have, by their cheap 
and meretricious appear- 
ance and early deteriora- 
tion, ruined so much of the 




permitted by the local ordinances to be built as near as 
6 feet apart and, by juggling the lot line, have in some 
cases approached each other even nearer. When new they 
are sometimes convenient and comfortable, but are subject 
to early depreciation, soon grow shabby and form vast 
areas of construction as combustible as a Philippine village. 
Their insidious march, like a fell disease, has ruined most 
of the real estate around tlie city. 

To combat this unhealthy state of affairs and to provide, 

as an example for inves- 
tors, a suburb which should 
be charming, i^icturesque, 
practical, and a real asset 
to the city, improving and 
holding up values in its 
vicinity instead of depre- 
ciating them, a company 
of some of the most far- 
seeing and public-si)irited 
men and women of Boston 
organized last year a strong 
eori)oration known as the 
Boston Dwelling House 
Company and actiuired a 
property of some thirty 
acres near the Forest Hills 

charming country which originally surrounded the city. 
In common with many other American cities, Boston has 
suffered from thoughtless and ill-ordered expansion of its 
cheaper residential districts, but in one way its exi)erience 
has been peculiarly painful, for instead of housing its 
people in individually owned cottages, its suburbs have 
been built up with miles on miles of wooden three-story 
apartment houses, containing one apartment on each floor. 
These buildings, which are generally of the flimsiest con- 
struction, are known locally as " three-deckers " and are 

Terminal of the Elevated system, which had been known 
as the Minot Estate. This property is high, with gravelly 
soil, well drained, and was largelv covered with a splendid 
growth of old pines and other ornamental trees, as many 
as possible of which have lx;en ]>reserved. 

Prettily winding roads were laid out and the " lotisse- 
ment " was designed in such a way as to ])rovide for 
groups of cottages — single, double, and in blocks, each 
having its own garden plot of rather limited size but with 
rights in large oiien squares or playgrounds which assure 




not only plenty of air and sunli.uht but ample ])laying' 
space for children. The site for each house was carefully 
gone over in advance, not only by the 
architects and en.i;ineers, but by real 
estate experts as well , and the orienta- 
tion of each separate house received 
thoughtful and expert study. 

The ends of the com])any would 
not be attained if philanthropy were 
its only object. Unless a reasonable 
return were shown on the investment, 
the promoters could not hope for imi- 
tation. This has been fully provided 
for, and its financial success is 
assured . 

A portion of the property abuts on 

houses which have met and concpiered the three-decker on 
its own ground, both in cost, convenience, and appearance. 
An entire article might be written on this subject alone, 
but one fact alone will be of interest here. A little intelli- 
gent study showed that instead of 
crowding- the building's tog^ether with 
only 6 feet between, exactly the same 
number of suites could be g-otten on 
the same land with 25-foot intervals 
between the buildingfs if a new tyjie 
of plan were used. Althougdi the new 
type conflicted with the building law, 
to the credit of Boston's Board of 
Appeal, be it said that it was warmly 
ai^proved and its success was shown 
by the fact that every one of the 

tlALr riPiT TLoou Plan tlAur 5tcoND Vlooo Plan 

Hyde Park avenue, one of the main thoroug:hfares leading: seventy-two suites was apj^lied for before they could be 

south from Boston, and as the front land here was con- finished. 

sidered unsuitable for cottag-e development it was utilized Back of the apartments, on rising" g-round sheltered 

for the erection of a new t\pe (jf low-priced ajjartment among the great trees, a considerable number of cottages, 

Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 




both of brick and of hollow tile construction, have been 
built, of which the two groups herewith illustrated form 
the subject of this article. An interestinjf fact in connec- 
tion with their construction was the investiffation of plans 
and costs in England, where so many model villages have 
been built. It was found that a Letchworth house without 
cellar, hallway, closets, bath room, electricity, or furnace 
cost iy2d. or 15 cents per cubic foot, while the Boston 
houses, also built of brick and with slated roof, containing 
all these things, cost no more and were better. 

These twenty-four brick houses are built in two groups 

this article, consist on the first floor of a good-sized parlor 
and a somewhat smaller dining: room which are joined 
together by a large doorway, each one helping the other to 
give the ai)pearance of an ample suite of rooms. The 
dining room has a high batten dado with plate rail and 
ornamental glass buffets. Oi)ening from the dining room, 
with pantries between, is the kitchen with its own ])antry 
and back entry for refrigerator, etc. In front of the 
kitchen is the front hall which contains the staircase to 
second floor, an ample coat closet, and opens directly into 
the living room. The second story consists of three cham- 

Kilham & Hopkin.s, Architects. 

around separate courts ; both groups, however, are tied 
together and related by a common service driveway. The 
houses are so placed that the views from any side of the 
houses clear the next adjoining house, giving an uninter- 
rupted view of the trees and planting around the courts, 
and, in fact, throughout the rest of the property, as the 
houses are situated on one 
of the highest terraces and 
over look the surrounding 
country for miles. The 
view obtained by the 
special placing of the 
houses, while very satis- 
factory, also is very im- 
portant as to the question 
of the uninterrupted sun- 
light and air. 

Each group of twelve 
houses is made up of two 
single houses and two 
double houses and one six- 
family semi-detached 
house. All these houses are 
built with 8-inch brick walls. 
The roofs are covered with 
the outside flashings are of copper, and the finish is the 
best obtainable. Porches to each house are provided both 
at the front and in connection with the kitchen. 

The single houses, as shown by the views accompanying 

-KlLnAM" nOPMINS A0C/fT5' 

bers with large closets opening off each one, a bath room 
fitted up with a wood dado and up-to-date white steel 
medicine closet with mirror. Off the corridor is a well- 
equipped linen closet consisting of shelves, drawers, and 
cupboards. Above in the g'arret is a space for storage. 
The living room is provided with a fireplace, the fac- 
ing of which is built of 

Dlock or 3IJC nooDt^ Ibc i . | 

TMc Oos-rtyiDtetLLirtCflouacco- uriCK. 


The double houses have 

laid up in wide white joints, 
a light sea-green slate, and 

an am])Ie porch which is in- 
cluded under the main r(X)f 
of the house. On entering 
the house from the porch, 
the front hall contains the 
staircase, coat closets, and 
oi>ens directly into the 
living room. The general 
layout of kitchen and 
dining room is similar to 
that of the single house 
with the exceiition of the 
i,^,, ,;,„ kitchen, which is somc- 

""^^ what larger. The second 

story of these houses also contains three chambers and 
bath rooms with fittings similar to the single The 
living room in these also contains a fireplace 
similar to that in the single house. The six block is 
laid around a small court very much in the form of those 
built in England to-day, and consist in general of the same 



arrangfcnient as those in the previous mentioned single and 
double house type, with the exeeption that on two of the 
second floors four chambers are provided instead of three 
as in the other houses. 

All of these houses are provided with liffht, ample 
cellars, with a hot air furnace and store closets and bulk- 
heads leading out to the back yard. 

The courts are i)rovided with brick walks running- around 
and connected with each separate dwelling, while in the 
center is a largfe open space 150 feet square for lig-ht and 
air, benefiting- all the houses, giving- them the same out- 
look that a much larger piece of land would give if owned 
separately. These courts are already planted with a 
variety of hardy shrubs and trees which, tog-ether with the 
vines now planted against the brick walls of all the houses, 
will next spring undoubtedly give as pleasing an effect as 
can be seen in any high-class residential suburb in America. 

Between the groups of houses and at the opposite ends 
of same are driveways, over which all the teaming and 
delivery of supplies will pass. In the middle of these 
driveways are open sjjaces which are used for i^laygrounds 
for the children, and may be used in common by all 
of them. 

The service and clothes yards are all located along these 
service driveways, and will not spoil in any way the effect 
of the fronts of any of the houses. Also, as these groups 
of houses are built on rising terraces, even the windows 
on the service drivewaj^s will look over and beyond the 
houses next below. 

In locating these houses, the g-reatest care has been 
taken to ])reserve the wonderful old trees that occupied 
the ground before the buildings were started. Most of 

these trees have been preserved and give the whole coni- 
nninity the age and dignity which is only obtained after 
years of patient waiting on most tracts of lands ;ised for 
similar houses. 

All the houses are connected with underground electric 
and telejihone service in conduits. The gas, sewerage, 
and water supply are an integral part of the carefully 
developed sanitation of the entire estate. 

The cost of the buildings is one of the most interesting 
and instructive parts of the whole proposition. It was 
found that these substantial brick houses which, with their 
slate roofs, are practically fire])roof, can be built under 
proper ujvto-date business management on the jiart of the 
contractoi — where a largfe number are built at the same 
time — for no more per unit than the isolated single or 
double wooden houses of the san-ie cai:)acity which have 
been built on the nearby properties. 

These attractive houses with from 2,300 to 3,300 square 
feet of land, all graded and with shrubbery and lawns com- 
plete, with the added value of rights in the ample restricted 
areas all around them, can be bought for the small cost of 
from $4,800 to $5,400. And not only that, but an easy 
form of payment has been drawn up bj' the comininy, 
whereby a inirchaser can buy his house with very small 
first payment and successive small yearly payments, which 
are applied annually towards the final complete owner- 
ship of the building. Moreover, properties in the settle- 
ment are not subjected to depreciation of values owing to 
deterioration of the character of the neighborhood, for the 
estate is so large that it automatically guarantees itself 
against injury by the possible lowering of the character of 
the oiuside surroundings. 


SINGLE HOUSE, FOREST HILLS, M.A.SS. Kilham & Hopkins, Architects. 



^SiSSSSSS^S^S^3S^2E^iSS^^^^^^S^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^f^»^^^ ^ 

AN D<fN OTES ^ * 




MR. (tUY LOWELL, in his comiK-titivc i)lans for tin- 
New York Court House, has undoubtc(ll\' surjirisud 
tlie public by clioosint^" a round form. He makes no 
attempt to justify his choice on .t^rounds of beauty alone. 
He modestly rests his \v.)rk on use and convenience ; 
on imperative demands for liyhl and air and inner (juiet 
and easy passag'c from apartment to apartment. Here- 
in he follows good precedent. For the ancients, to 
whom he frankly says he owes his inspiration, seem not 
to have used the circular g'round ]3lan instead of the 
rectangular unless they found it much better suited to 

heighten the unity of the space inclosed. lint these were 
not the reasons for Mr. Lowell's choice. His jilan ditTers 
from the earlier instances in one essential respect: while 
mausoleum, pantheon, and amphitheater enclose an openly 
continuous interior, the new court house packs within 
itself, tier on tier, a myriad of economically dovetailed 
rooms, offices, and passageways. Viewed from without, 
the vast building will be impressive for its mass ; but 
viewed from within it will be impressive for its ingeniously 
complicated contents. 

Having cliosen tlie round i)lan, Mr. Lowell had but little 
chance of making his c(nu-t house api)eal to popular tastes. 
The circle is a curve so rigorous and so simple in its law 

Guy Lowell, Architect. 

the building's main purpose. The (Greeks, except for 
hillside theaters and for tombs, did not use the rotunda ; 
they had not developed the allied arch and dome ; the 
Romans used the roimd plan as means to an end, rarely if 
ever as an end in itself. vSo, too, the older Italians, for 
church and baptistry, adopted the eight-sided, the len- 
sided, or the smooth circular plan for reasons like those 
that led the Druids to set the gray monoliths of Stonehenge 
in concentric circles, or that led the French to choose the 
round plan for their Pantheon at Paris and for Na!)oleon's 
tomb. For circles, whether of rude stone or of i^olished 
columns, and the unbroken wall recurving into itself, give 
a strong central emphasis on altar or font or memorial. 
The radial arrangement also, and the simple lighting, 

as to harden any form into which it enters. Avoided by 
the (ireek architects, it was taken up uncritically by the 
Roman engineers. But even the Romans, fond as they 
were of stilHy-rounded arch and vault, would not wall their 
noble Colosseum with a hard circle ; they softened the out- 
line into an ellipse. Moreover, the mechanically drawn 
circle is not only uninteresting in itself, it is intolerant 
of other forms. There never yet stood a circular building 
that could make a straight-lined portico a true ]iartof itself. 
We have no right to ask Mr. Lowell to regard the beauty 
of his elevations as more important than the convenience 
of his floor i)lans. And we must all applaud the high skill 
with which he has made his own the uncommonly severe 
conditions of the competition. 



THE time was, when the ordinary civilities of life 
would have made it a pleasant duty for one publisher 
or one publication in a g-iven field to extend the hand of 
good-fellowship and a cordial greeting: to a newcomer in 
that field. Lest we forget altogether this honored custom 
we take this opportunity, belated though it is, to welcome 
to the architectural jiublishing field, The Journal of the 
American Institute of Architects. Undoubtedly there exists 
in this field a lofty and vacant niche which needs to be 
filled, and it is our hope that the new Journal of the Insti- 
tute will fully meet its oportunity. Judged by the three 
numbers at hand, it will. 

If in commending we may be permitted to counsel ; if in 
bespeaking success for the new enterprise we may wish to 
point out briefly some of the pitfalls, we shall do it with 
malice toward no one, but rather with the hope that an 
uplifting influence in our midst may be helpful to all. 

While certain existing publications have striven to obtain 
a high standard of ethics that would give an inspiration to 
the architectural profession, there are those that have 
lamentably failed, either because of their wilful disregard 
of the best interests of the profession they claim to serve, 
or else because of an inherent weakness in their editorial 
policy. It is better always that scolding should give way 
to wholesome criticism, criticism that is honest and intelli- 
gent. It is not enough that a imblication which, is pre- 
sumed to be laboring in behalf of a dignified profession, 
should put forth repeatedly, as apparently its only claim 
for right of recognition, the hackneyed and inconsequential 
claim that " we' published it first." If they must hitch 
their existence to one single declaration of purpose, let it 
be, rather, " we published it best." 

That The Journal of The American Institute of Architects 
under its present editorial management will ably serve the 
best interests of the architectural profession along lines 
that have been too long neglected by those who have been 
blind to their opportunities, we feel assured. That it will 
bring a new dignity to the architectural publishing field is 
beyond doubt. It is for these reasons, particularly, that 
we bid it welcome. 

the company of a placid Madonna of Raphael and a deli- 
cate statuette by Donatello. There were two of Dona- 
tello's statuettes in his favorite corner. He loved them 
and was wont to say they reminded him of his own 

Mr. Morgan was easily the greatest art collector of his 
time. Was it the mere pleasure of possession, the ambi- 
tion to have and be known to have the choicest objects of 
art, which attracted him ? No, not primarily, though such 
pleasure and such ambition there must have been. He 
loved art for art's sake. His taste was hig-hly cultivated 
and rarely erred. He trusted his own judgment in selec- 
tion, and his mental operation was as intuitive and instan- 
taneous when applied to the purchase of a picture as to a 
business transaction. 

For a long time past Mr. Morgan has been a great help 
and inspiration in matters architectural. His patronage 
and material financial help have aided in building up the 
American Academv in Rome. 


MR. ROBERT W. DE FOREST, in speaking at the 
Morgan Memorial Meeting of the New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce, said, among other things : 

To those who only looked at Mr. Morgan from a single 
angle, whatever that angle might be, he bulked so large 
that they thought they saw his whole stature. But from 
whatever point he was viewed there could only be seen a 
small fraction of his great personality. 

To the world of business he seemed the embodiment of 
some Titanic force, whether it operated to save the credit 
of a nation or to re-create a great enterprise. 

To such a world it must have seemed inconceivable that 
this same person could halt his great business projects to 
admire some small work of art, and could lay aside both 
business and art to play with his grandchildren, or to 
caress his favorite dog. 

But such was the real Mr. Morgan. To him it was not 
incongruous to assemble the forces which stayed the panic 
of 1907 for that famous all-night session at his library in 

IN an address just given by Dudley McGrath, architect 
of Brooklyn, before the Architectural Department of 
Pratt Institute, being' one of a series of lectures arranged 
by the Brooklyn Chapter, A. I. A. on subjects pertinent 
to architecture and building, he added this to his practical 
remarks concerning superintendence ; 

"In performing your work, whenever it is possible to 
do so, compliment the workman or contractor uj^on the 
work being done. We all like to hear nice things said 
about ourselves, and one who only finds fault and never 
anything to commend is much disliked. You will find that 
by kind words, when it is possible to gfive them, you will, 
in the long run, obtain much the better results." 

THE Twenty-sixth Annual Exhibition of the Chicago 
Architectural Club will be held in the galleries of 
the Art Institute from May 6 to June 11, inclusive, and 
will contain works of architecture, sculpture, decoration, 
and interior furnishings. 

THE Illinois Chapter of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects has re-established a gold medal of honor for 
award to designers of buildings represented in the Annual 
Exhibition of the Chicago Architectural Club, the condi- 
tions accompanying the proposed award being as follows : 

That any architectural work in the State of Illinois, if 
completed within five years previous to the date of exhibi- 
tion, may be offered for consideration. 

That the architect or architects who design the work, in 
order to be eligible to award must present for exhibition 
one or more photographs of the executed work, also one or 
more drawings, including a small scale plan, and shall 
submit to the jury such work in drawings of the structure 
as they may desire to examine. Any work represented in 
the exhibit may be eligible for consideration by the jury, 
provided that at least a plan and also a photograph of the 
executed work shall be brought before the jury on their 
request. Only architects or firms of architects maintaining 
offices in the State of Illinois will be eligible to the award. 


MAY 1913 




Architect Plate 


CLUB, THE UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, I). C Ceo. Oakley Toilcu 77, 78 


Horace Trumbaiier and Waireti & U'ciiiiorc, Associated 72-75 


HOUSE, LINCOLN, MASS /.ya„k Chouteau lirowu 76 

HOUSE, CLEVELAND, OHIO Frank B. Meade and James I lamilto,, 80 





Illustrations from drawinjjs ..//. ]'an Buren Magonigle 99 


Illustrations from photographs. 


Illustrations from photographs and drawings. 


IV. Water Supply bv Mechanical Mhan.s Charles /,. Iluhhard 109 

Illustrations from drawingsT 

MEASURED DRAWINGS— ITALIAN SERIES ....U'illS. Aldrich, Del. 113, 114 

Apse — S. M. Delle Grazie and Campanile of San Gottardo, Milan. 

TECTS .:... ..., Editorial 115 

Illustrations from photographs and construction details. 

AN ARCHITECT'S FEES . i Letter/row A'. Clipslon Stur^is 119 

Form oi' Agreement Between Architect and Owner. 


• :• ■. ..-:.•.,..•-■.■.. ..-,,-. . .•'. -• > »•..•>. ^»■.• r.-v'J'TTVn'"'. 









For the United States, its insular possessions and Cuba, $3.00 per year 

For Canada, $5.50 per year For Foreign Countries in the Postal Union, $6.00 per year 

AD copies mailed flat 
Trade supplied by (he Amencnn News Company and its branches 

riioto by tke Royal Prussian J'liolonicti u Insliliilf. 


Thirteenth Century. I'uusually wide 
joints. Brick in panels and symbolic 


MAY, 1913 



Some Suggestions as to the Making of Working Drawings. 


THE practice of building- has become so complicated 
that the working- drawing is of vastly more impor- 
tance than it used to be. Moreover, more and more, owing 
to the complexity and magnitude of present-day building- 
operations, the architect is forced out of the old intimate 
contact with the work he had in earlier times — a general 
plan with a few important dimensions, elevations and sec- 
tion of a summary character, and the rest of the time spent 
on the job itself, laying out the work, making templates or 
drawing profiles on the stone. Plumbing, heating, ven- 
tilating-, refrigerating or electrical installations were 
unknown . 

Even within the present writer's experience, it was the 
custom to make a set of working- drawings on cloth-backed 
Whatman or eggshell, inked in with black ink ground in a 
china saucer, and colored — crimson lake for brick, yellow 
ochre or lemon yellow for wood, prussian blue for stone. 
One copy of these was made on cloth and given to the con- 
tractor — I cannot remember a blue print in that first 
office nor, until a couple of years later, in another. And the 
typewriter not having been invented, all specifications 
were written and copied in long-hand. Droll leg-ends of 
one's infancy. 

But the invention of sun printing effected a revolution 
in the whole physical process. The tracing-cloth or paper 
drawing has come to to be the original drawing. And this 
article is to describe some of these physical as 
they are manag-ed in the writer's office. After a pretty 
long- experience in a number of offices, as well as in my 
own, I have arrived at some definite conclusions and state 
them for what they may be worth . 

To many architects the word "system" is anathema; 
most offices are run without it ; and it is a ccjmmon ex])e- 
rience that elaborate systems go to pieces on the rock of 
temperament. The moment any system is burdensome or 
troublesome or costs more to maintain than the labor it is 
supposed to save, it is time to dispense with that system, 
or to modify it. The object of any system is to increase 
efficiency, to save time, money, and annoyance. When a 
drawing is lost it loses time, which costs money, and both 
breed annoyance. And so I have gradually evolved a sys- 
tem of making and filing drawings which works satisfac- 
torily and discounts temi)erament as far as I have found 
it possible to reckon with that element. 

The first jwint to consider is not what goes on the draw- 
ing, but what is to be done with it after it is made. How- 
ls it to be filed for daily reference ? How is it to be in- 
stantly found? How, when the job is done, is it to be 

filed? How, when so filed, is one to lay hands on it at 
once ? 

The answers to these ([uestions I find in the following 

First. All drawings, small- and large-scale and full 
sizes, are made on sheets uniform in size for each job. 

Second. All cloth originals as soon as i)rinted, and the 
office set of prints, are bound uj) in numerical order in a 
binder consisting of two maple slats with three brass 
thumb-screws. The slats are notched at the ends and the 
notches rest on two gas-pipe bars running lengthwise of 
the filing closet. The job number and name is on a label 
on the outer end of the binder. Hence, the drawing is 
bounfl in a set in numerical order, and cannot be lost, and 
the set itself has its own numerical order on the rack. 

Third and Fourth. When the job is completed, the draw- 
ing:s for that job are merely transferred to an upper rack, 
out of the way for the present but precisely as accessible 
fifty years hence. 

This is the best and most compact method of filing draw- 
ings I have yet discovered. It is the practice in many 
offices to roll old drawings u]> and store them in tin or 
cardboard tubes. This wastes a great deal of room and 
makes the drawings hard to handle after they have been 
rolled \\\) for a year or more. In theory I never permit a 
drawing to be rolled up and jnit away ; in practice it some- 
times hapi)ens. 

And I prefer this way to the " clothes dryer " system, 
among- other reasons because a clear space equal to the 
depth of the drying rack must be maintained so that the 
racks may be i)ulled out, and this again wastes room, be- 
sides that wasted in the rack itself. 

I have eliminated drawers for filing, or keeping drawings 
in, except for cloth and paper originals of g-cneral drawings 
while they are being worked ui)on. As soon as the prints 
are issued to bidders, the originals are taken out of the 
drawer, bound up and put in the rack to wait till the cuts 

When the contract is signed there is always one office 
coi)y printed, usually on cloth, and the draftsmen use 
this set for reference. Behind each man, in his alcove, are 
two hooks jilaced so as to take the notches at the ends of the 
binders, and the office set of the job he is in charge of is 
hung on these hooks every morning and put away in a 
fireproof vault every night. They arc thus available for 
reference for other men working on the same job and are 
where the man in charge may be consulted most readily. 
They are alsrj kei^t off of the tables which are left free for 



work. The old way is to take an individual drawing out 
of a drawer and leave it kicking- around in the way indefi- 
nitely. I have seen a mound of such drawing's on a 
draftsman's table, with the drawing- some one else needed 
at the bottom of the heap. 

When drawings are kept loose in a drawer, the last 
drawing- put away is put on top and the process repeated 
until they are all thorougfhly shuffled and no one knows 
where any one of them is. They also slip down behind — 
familiar phrase. 

Another point in favor of binding- current drawing's in a 
set is, that frequently more than one drawing: has to be 
referred to, to settle some gfiven point, and the advantagfe 
of having: them all together is obvious. 

So much for what happens to them after they are made. 
But in order to get the full benefit of this very simple sys- 
tem the drawings must be made uniform in size for each 
job. This is done very simply. It is easy to determine 
from the sketches, by a very little pains and forethought, 
the size the largest general drawing should be, and this 
establishes the size for the set. I have found it to work 
out that the sheet space required for scale and full size 
details is in a very direct ratio to the size of a building at 
quarter scale. For small buildings, such as small country 
houses, two or more plans and elevations can go on a sheet 
and thus establish a size that will be adequate for the large 
scales and full sizes. 

The size of the sheet being established, the size is laid 
out on manila, with border line, cut-off line, binding space 
and spaces for titles ; these are traced by a junior drafts- 
man on sheets of cloth or tough bond paper, the manila 
sheet always being traced from to ensure accuracy. When- 
ever possible one dimension of a sheet is made that of a 
standard width of tracing cloth (30, 36, 42 or 48 inches) 
with the selvage torn off, to avoid wastage. A number of 
these sheets (similar to the two illustrations) are always 
kept on hand so that when a man starts a drawing he has 
only to go to the drawer and get one. 

The small blocks of lettering in the bottom margin, and 
for a large job the main title as well, are jjrinted in the 
office from zinc cuts in printer''s ink, on a simple but 
ingenious frame (devised by Mr. Frank M. Snyder, who is 
responsible for many of the methods I use). This not 
only ensures uniformity and a ship-shape appearance to 
each sheet, but saves a stupendous amount of time in the 
course of a year in general lettering. 

As to what goes inside the border lines and how it is put 
there, it is of course very simple as regards general draw- 
ings at quarter scale. The principal plan and elevation 
are made on stretched paper and the other plans, eleva- 
tions and sections worked over them on tough bond paper 
and are not traced till they are nearly complete with every- 
thing essential shown. It is folly to rush drawings on 
to the cloth too soon. Changes are bound to be made 
which are tiresome and expensive to make on cloth. It 
pays to hold off until the chief is about through changing 
his mind. And when they are traced, they are traced in 
diluted ink, the thicknesses of lines being varied to bring 
out salient facts or keep subordinate facts in their proper 
subordinate relation ; diluted ink is almost as easy to rub 
out as pencil. All notes and lettering, piping and steel, 
in plan, etc., and a silhouette representing the plaster 
thickness are drawn in pure black ink, but not until every- 

thing is supposed to be settled ; this black line on the 
cloth and the corresponding strong white line on the irrint 
clears up a plan or section and makes it easily read. 

The indication of material in plan or section is always 
drawn in a thinner line than, for instance, the lines indi- 
cating the wall itself. Originally, we used two grades of 
diluted ink ; but we find that the variation in the thickness 
of the line gives the difference in value and makes a better 
print, especially for black or cloth prints. It is well to 
have the ink pretty dark, for the lines always get worn off 
a bit on a large drawing, and they lose something when 
the dirt and pencil marks are washed off with gasoline — 
a far better way to clean cloth tracings than with a rubber. 

It used to be the custom in my office to run a wash over 
interior partitions, using alcohol instead of water to avoid 
puckering and shrinking the cloth. This has to be done 
carefully and run pretty dry and even then it blisters 
slightly. Recently we have been using yellow pencil, 
which prints very well, avoids shrinkage, is easily rubbed 
out and leaves no mark. It is far from handsome on the 
cloth, but looks perfectly well on the print. And just here 
I would emphasize the importance of that. It must be 
remembered that the print is what the contractor gets and 
what the building is built by ; so that at every step in the 
process of making the cloth original, one must bear in 
mind the effect on the print. 

In the case of large scale drawings, these are usually 
studied on tracing paper, and almost always the various 
parts such as plans or sections to explain a detail elevation 
are made on separate pieces of tracing paper, it being 
much quicker and easier to study them in this way. Thej^ 
are then assembled on a standard sheet in an orderly and 
readable manner. I find this takes less time and the final 
result is clearer — for it is difficult to plan out the sheet 
when the drawing is begun on the final cloth or paper so 
that everything will fall into a proper relation. And it is 
possible to condense the final drawing materially without 
losing clearness, and give the builder only what he needs. 
For purposes of study it is essential of course to draw out 
a doorway or window, for example, complete. But the 
builder only needs half of it. It is studied in full on tra- 
cing paper, and only half of it traced for him. 

A good working drawing of any kind is that one which 
gives the builder all that he needs — no more and no less. 
And an immense amount of paper, time, and money is 
wasted every day in this one particular. The ideal draw- 
ing is one which is so condensed, yet so clear and readable 
that it is only necessary to hand it over to the contractor 
and tell him to build it. If it is a perfect drawing he 
should not have to ask one ciuestion ; especially if explana- 
tory notes arc copious and really explain. I like to be 
able to look at a drawing either in the office or in the field 
and find everything I want to know on it without the 
necessity of referring to the specifications ; I will go so 
far as to say that the chief uses of specifications are, to 
enable the bidders to submit a figure before the detail 
drawings are begun, as a subsequent guide to the drafts- 
man who must know what has been contracted for, and 
that the contractor may order certain materials in bulk, 
such as brick and plaster, beforehand. But beyond this 
the drawings should render reference to the specifications 

Very much of what has been said about large scale 







drawings applies to full size details. In fact, more time 
and paper are wasted on full sizes than for any other class 
of drawings. In my office, full sizes of a large cornice, 
let us say, are roug-hed out in full on manila for purposes 
of study. When completely studied it is broken up, large 
plain surfaces such as fascias and large projections reduced 
and the correct dimensions figured. Bearing in mind that 
the drawing will be printed and will therefore shrink, it is 
essential to figure it completely — but since this should be 
done anj'vvay it is no extra labor. The illustration shows a 
full size detail of a cornice, 7 feet 10 inches high, con- 
densed for the builder on a sheet 29 x 42 inches, and far 
easier to handle and work from than if shown /;/ extetiso. 

Usually full size details are carried on simultaneously 
with the scale details, so that the ?4-inch scale drawings 
agree absolutely with the full sizes. There are many cases 
where it is essential to rough out full sizes to see that some 
corner works out properly, and I prefer to carrj^ this 
principle out fully. Working back from the full size to 
^-inch scale has the further advantage of assuring one 
that he is getting" things in scale. And by the time the 
%-inch scale detail is done the full sizes are ready to 
assemble and g'ive out. 

Of course all this doesn't do for those offices where all 
general drawing^s are made by one set of men, all scale 
details by another, and all full sizes by a third. I am 
addressing- artists, not manufacturers. 

Another practice I have found convenient is to make 
most drawings of ornament at one-quarter full size, espe- 
cially if it is a larg-e composition. To illustrate I gfive the 
inner lunette of a bronze doorway, which is 12 feet across. 
It would have been out of the question to draw it in full 
size and entirely unnecessary. At three inches to the foot 

the drawing can be scaled to a very small fraction of an 
inch. I know that it is not considered essential in many 
offices to study ornamental detail so carefully ; a small 
rough sketch, a note " ornament here," and the modeler 
does the rest. I have tried that method — that is why I 
never did it but once. 

There are two pitfalls to guard against in this method of 
working. One is that some men are ])rone to go too far in 
their tracing paper studies and finish them \\\t to too great 
an extent and then trace them all over again on the final 
sheet ; at least a third and often half of the drawing can 
be done once and for all on the final. The other is that 
some men miss the point about condensation and condense 
to such an extent that the devil himself wouldn't know 
what the drawing represented and how the parts fit to- 

There are a few maxims current in my office that helj) to 
keep things straight ; they are : 

1. Be thorough. 

2. Take nothing for granted ; look it up- 

3. When in doubt don't leave out anything ; too nnich 
information is better than not enough. 

4. Every drawing must be finished complete before it 
leaves the office. 

5- It takes less time to do a thing right in the first 
place than to correct mistakes. 

6. A working drawing is not a picture. 

7. Don't be sloppy. 

8. Use your head. 

And in this last is the whole secret. 






iyi-'l!'il*B!ULL!l!L!iiL« ILiU!!. 

































H " 







ID * 


THE B R I C K B U I L D P: R . 


Lattice- Its Use as an Architectural Embellishment.- Part I. 


WE are returning- to the country. The snug- city- 
dweller no longer points the finger of scorn at 
Mr. Suburbanite, bundle-laden. The newspaper humorist 
and magfazine wit less and less often shoots his darts at 
the painfiil joys of g-rass-cutting, snow-shoveling and 
other bucolic pastimes. He probably lives in some green- 
embowered villag^e himself and gets up early these spring 
morning's to see if the sweet peas have sprouted yet. Let- 
tuce leaves are of deadly import to him and ambition germi- 
nates with the growing- g-arden. The proud proprietor of 
the one-bath-power bungalow will some 
day graduate into the twelve -room -two- 
bath -parquet- floor-thirty -minutes-from- 
Broadway dwelling with lawn in front, 
veg-etables at the back, and a whirligig- to 
hang- the clothes on, while the former 
owner of such magnificences flies farther 
afield, chug--chugging- in his miniature 
motor three or four miles to the station 
which is nearest his real farm ! Back to 
the land ! is the cry of the young-er g-en- 
erations. Thus we have come to take an 
interest in gardens and their products. 
We pass beyond the simple axiomatic 
knowledge conveyed by that priceless 
volume and first aid to naturalists, " How 
to Tell the Birds from the Wild Flowers. ' ' 
We actually grow things, and boast aboiit 
them and match cabbage-heads with our 

This turning of the present generation 
to green fields and pastures both new and 
old has resulted in a remarkable renais- 
sance in the country architecture of 
America. Happily too, as the life has 
been more real and answered to a dis- 
tinct economic impulse the result in 
design has been both happy and inter- 
esting. It is the connection with this 
big- wave impulse that I should like at 
the outset to emphasize in this article. 
The observation of any particular detail 
of a general scheme can never be pos- 
sessed of the slightest interest unless it 
is carefully and logically correlated to the great whole of 
which it is a part. So with the subject of lattice and 
garden furniture, the charm of such an out-of-door field 
for speculation and discussion should never lead us into 
the pernicious habit of forgetting the real object of these 
dehghtful adjuncts to country house design. 

We have been misled from the start. One has only to 
turn the pages of vSchoy's Epoqiic Louis XVI to see to 
what extreme ends cleverness may be carried by a mis- 
taken basic idea as to the functions of a method and a 
material. In the illustrated annuals of this period of 
highly developed artificiality how clearly are reflected the 
unreasoning quest of pleasure, the half rational, half 
freakish outbursts of spoiled children always hungering 
for a new toy. The classic outlines of the garden pavil- 

The round column becomes a 
wicker basket — " 

ions SO popular in the latter eighteenth century under- 
went little or no change in their translation from stone to 
the delicate Fracerr of " Treillage." In this lamentable 
lack of imagination we .see theniind wearied by excess, an 
artistic sensitiveness unaroused by any real need turning 
to the latticed arbor, not as a moral necessity but as one 
more adjunct to a life of gaiety and pleasure. The round 
column becomes a tall wicker basket, the more formal 
details of cornice and capital yield not at all to the particu- 
lar expression of the new material. The total result 
seems to me to be one of elaborate hard- 
ness sadly lacking in originality. Formal 
architecture will always have its reason 
for being as long as it represents real 
formality of mental life, a logical spirit 
of mind and a reasonableness which is 
to-day and always has been distinctively 
characteristic of the Latin mind. It may 
be, therefore, that these sophisticated 
bouquets of the old court gardeners are 
of historical value and not without charm 
in the prim setting of Versailles and Com- 
piegne. However, one can not but be 
thankful that the turn of American mind, 
in country architecture at least, has been 
away from the hard-and-fast rules which 
governed the great masters of the classic 

Nowhere, indeed, do we find the use of 
lattice developed with the simple direct- 
ness and success which characterizes it in 
American country architecture from its 
earliest days. It was a need, not a lux- 
ury. The latticed porches and arbors of 
our New England forefathers touch the 
highwater mark in this particular branch 
of design, and, as with greater problems, 
seem to conform to the imivcrsal stand- 
ards of simplicity and beauty. How true 
it is, the so obvious remark, that a ma- 
terial must be used suitably. Of nothing 
is this more true than of lattice, and 
yet how often we find it distorted and 
strained to express shapes and forms 
entirely foreign to its nature. In the beginning we have, 
if you ]ilease, a collection of small flat sticks and the simple 
jn-oblem to construct from them a support for vines. It 
was this ])lain need and these plain materials which were 
at the hand of the colonial carpenter. He went at the 
task with refreshing directness. One of the famous exam- 
ples of the simplest kind of lattice work is the old ( ierman- 
town house known as "Wyck." This old mansion was 
built in 1690. Two separate buildings between which 
IKissed a wagon-road were joined, making a single structure 
of unusual length. It is an interesting link with the past 
to know that the wagon-road itself followed the line of an 
original Indian trail, and surely nothing could be further 
removed fnim the savagery of Indians than the dim quiet 
of the old hallway to-day, with the spacious rooms on 




either side where the graceful shapes of Chippendale furni- 
ture and the dull luster of old silver voice the refinement 
of years of culture. Both longf sides of the house are 
covered as to wall surfaces with ladder-like arrangements 
of lattice. It is lapped at all joints, the horizontal mem- 
bers projecting usually about four inches beyond the 
vertical supports. Here perhaps it would be well to say 
that almost invariably the early work is put together in the 
easiest way, that is, by simply crossing the pieces of ma- 
terial and nailing them at the joint. It is only in later and 
less honest work that one finds the habit growing to halve 
the joints and to build up a sort of grillage which is expen- 
sive to build and troublesome to maintain, as the close 
joint, exposed to the rigor of our changing seasons, almost 
invariably si)lits or opens. Yet the average carpenter will 
admire the halved joint because of the additional workman- 
ship necessary. It is a pretty safe rule to follow in build- 
ing — that the best way is the simplest and vice versa. The 
lapped joint touching at only one surface allows of an 
almost free passage of rain-water around the assembled 
parts. At Wyck the material used measures one by two 
inches and is laid the flat way.- It is beaded at the edges 
and this has resulted in part of the charm of the treatment, 
for the woodwork, in common with the masonry back of 
it, has been so frequently whitewashed that a wonderful 
scale encrusts its surface, through which the fine line of 
beading counts with subtle delicacy. This result, as with 
that of the whitewashed texture, is undoubtedly entirely 
accidental, one of those happy results of time which are the 
despair of the designers of to-day, but does it not suggest 
that there may be some simpler method of finishing our 
lattice material, some less mechanical and smooth process 
than our regular mill finish? In the old Logan homestead 
" Stenton," which is also in Germantown, we find a treat- 
ment similar to Wyck with interesting variations and the 
same lovely simplicity. Here the horizontal members are 
considerably lighter than the vertical lines, and the whole 
eifect is remarkably graceful contrasted with the solid 
masonry background and heavy masses of foliage. Attract- 
ive variations in the use of lattice are found in both early 
and later examples. Again, the best type of colonial work 
seems to come most near perfection in the innocent frank- 
ness with which various problems are solved, as for in- 
stance, in the two bits of detail shown of isolated vine and 

shrubbery supports from the wonderful old Osgood garden 
in .Salem, Mass. Nothing could be more graceful than the 
fan-shaped design with the amusing links of scroll work 
which show that the designer was not wholly absorbed in 
the strictly utilitarian. In connection with porches alone 
we find a surprising variety in the early colonial work, 
frequently in the simple squares or diamonds, but often 
combined with flanking seats or ingeniously arranged to 
frame generous openings which serve as windows through 
the vines. In many instances the entire porch is of lattice 
with round or elliptical arched supports over which the rose 
and honeysuckle form the only roof. 

It has remained for our architects of to-day to extend 
the field which the colonists hardly explored. Here of 
course lay the danger line. We have gone beyond the 
use of a combination of small flat pieces of wood for defi- 
nite ends to the employment of such bits of carpentry as 
an inherent part of the design itself aside from their prac- 
tical reason for being. Along formal lines this has been 
done with conspicuous success in the Gambrill house at 
Newport. Here the architects, Carr^re and Hastings, 
frankly went to the old French models, which in this in- 
stance are peculiarly appropriate. The house itself and 
its dependencies, pergolas, arbors and wall-lattices, are 
formal and decorative. But such a purely decorative aim 
is infrequently so well carried out and the result is apt to 
look affected and illogical. A few years ago there was a 
craze for lattice decoration. Every country householder, 
every architect, every draftsman working on competition 
drawings cross-hatched every available bit of interior wall 
space with amazing gridirons, bare prison gates nailed 
against stucco and brickwork often at an altitude high 
enough to discourage even the most hardy vine. In my 








early youth I iised to be shown, for my artistic education, 
oil paintinffs from the hand of a well-known character in 
my native New England town. 
She was the wife of an old sea 
captain and the lonely vigrils of 
this patient Penelope turned to 
the artistic jiortrayal of polar 
scenes painted, naturally, entirely 
from data derived from winter- 
nisht descriptions furnished by 
her husband durinjjf his infre- 
(juent sojourns at home. They 
were rare visions of the North- 
land, glitterint? in all the bravery 
that powdered mica and gilt paper 
stars could bestow. But the 
crowning- flight of fancy was in 
the icebergs, which were gor- 
geous towering affairs studded 
with most comfortable looking 
balconies upon which sat or re- 
clined entire families of jiolar 
bears, like box parties at the 
opera. The sides of the bergs 
were sheer and smooth, indeed 
smoothness of finish was one of 
the old lady's canons of excel- 
lence in painting, and I could 
never gaze upon one of those 
cozy bear gatherings without 
wondering with all my young 
soul how in the world they all 
got up there and how in the 
world they would ever get down. 
So with these isolated barnyard 
gates flung upon the outer wall 
—the only reasonable explanation 
of their presence is a cyclone which may have plucked 
them from their natural surroundings and left them as a 
matter of record. 

Happily, the first outburst of ill-directed enthusiasm has 
been short-lived and we now find in the work of manv of 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 

our younger men extremely attractive arrangements in a 
wide range of uses, both in the closer relations of porches, 
piazzas, sun-rooms, and laundry 
enclosures and the more de- 
tached designs of summer 
houses, arbors, and pergolas. I 
almost hesitate to mention per- 
golas, this poetic word has been 
so much taken in vain. The 
pergola disease was even more 
virulent than the lattice fever 
and even infected some of our 
best city buildings. Most of 
them have recovered but still 
show the scars in the shape of 
moldering beam ends projecting 
above some two hundred feet 
of masonry. If anything can be 
more depressing than the aspect 
of- one of these city-bred pergolas 
during a February snow-storm I 
have yet to see it. After gazing 
at some of these aberrations it 
is refreshing to turn to the old 
colonial houses where the lattice 
was used because it was a real 
need, and to some of the work 
being done to-day along the same 
lines. If I might quote a single 
name as pre-eminently typical of 
great artistic sensitiveness in the 
modern uses of this graceful 
garden accompaniment, I should 
name Mr. Howard vShaw of 
Chicago, whose work in all de- 
partments of country house archi- 
tecture has made him an authority 
never to be neglected. The forms employed by Mr. Shaw 
are almost invariably extremely simple ; the use he makes 
of them is imiformly exquisite and appropriate. He is 
one of the men who is using lattice as it should be used 
• — as an adjunct and an element, not as an end in itself. 

R. I. 


VOL. 22, NO. 5. 

I. I) KR. 





VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 66. 




Trdat ri,Lrv*.-ria"< 




VOL. 22, NO. 5. PLATE 67. 



THE B R I C K B U 1 I. D K R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 68. 




lU o 

z r 


w < 
z > 

u s 

< 2 

I « 

>- 5 
li. o 
n -I 



VOL. 22, NO. 5. 

PLATE 69. 




THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 70. 




VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 72. 




Til E BR ICK Br I L I) H R. 

VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 73. 


I U I- 

UJ < UJ 

< O I 

U) O 

< < 


3 O 

< 5 

(D ^ 


3 ? 



_l u z 

[£ U IJ 
< < J 

V < 

N I S 




T — 1 — I — I — I — I r 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 74. 


VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 75. 


VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 76. 




< 111 

Ul I- 






tf» . 

UJ <rt 



u z 





VOL. 22. NO. 5. PLATE 77. 

•^ ■ I . r 



' ' r SERVICE BAR . ^j 

' com.T.r, ** f ^-j^.^'^^ r 1 I 

fRT r u , '-, I 

^ li PRIVATE I ^ ■ 

U /111 'MAI |;,v r „,,LL 5M0KM0 m 



r 1 WlAt ROOM I I 








VOL. 22, NO. 5. PLATE 78. 








^ i 





' 11 


mm ^ 












THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 5. PLATE 79. 

/> fill II II I 

u u El If ri h 

mtmr run 

nil HL 

nil nil 

irr rrr 

■rr '"'"'' 

nil nil 

II II !! !! 
nil nil 





VOL. 22, NO. 5. PLATE 





The Unit Power Plant for Isolated Buildings and 

Small Groups.— Part IV. 



THLS article deals principally with systems of water 
supply requiring- mechanical means in some form, 
for bring-ing: the water from its source to the point where 
it is to be utilized. In addition to this, certain other 
matters relating- to water supply, althoug-h not strictly 
mechanical, will be touched upon briefly in order to make 
the article more complete. 

Qjcaiitity of Water Required. The quantity of water re- 
quired will of course depend entirely upon the type and 
size of building or plant to be supplied. In approximating- 
this, we will take up a few specific cases, such as dwellings, 
stock farms, hotels, power plants, and general fire pro- 

In the case of dwelling houses and similar buildings it is 
customary to provide a tank or cistern holding perhaps a 
day's supply, and making the mechanical equipment of 
such capacity that it will only have to be operated a com- 
paratively short time, say two or three hoiirs, for providing 
a supply for the entire day. This gives ample leeway for 
any special demand, such as laundry work, etc., when the 
plant may be run for a longer period. In the case of an 
ordinary dwelling the supply may be based upon an aver- 
age of about 30 gallons per day per occupant. Laundry 
work, lawn sprinkling, etc., must be provided for in addi- 
tion to this, and may usually be cared for as noted above. 

For country estates and stock farms, the above will 
apply to house requirements, while about 10 or 12 gallons 
additional should be provided for each head of stock kept 
upon the place. In cases of this kind, the quantity of 
water required for sprinkling lawns and gardens is quite 
an important item, and must be estimated in each particu- 
lar instance according to local conditions. 

This may be estimated roughly by assuming that a yi- 
inch hose nozzle will discharge about 120 to 150 gallons 
per hour under a pressure of 30 pounds per square inch at 
the hydrant or sill cock. The heavy demands for water 
in a hotel are for baths and laundry purposes. The first 
of these occurs largely between the hours of seven and 
nine, while the requirements for dome.stic and laimdry 
purposes are likely to come later in the day, to a consider- 
able extent, and to be more evenly distributed. 

In estimating for baths it is customary to count on 20 
to 30 gallons per bath, and from 2 to 3 per hour during 
the rising period. Buildings of this kind are usually pro- 
vided with storage tanks both for hot and cold water, espe- 
cially when supplied from a private source, so that here, 
as in case of a dwelling house, the capacity of the pumping 
outfit will depend both upon the size of the storage tank and 
the proportion of the time it is desired to run the inmip. 
As a general thing, it may be operated iox a greater length 
of time, because there will be other machinery to care for 
and the same attendant may look after the pumping equip- 
ment also. If the pump has sufficient capacity to furnish 
the entire day's supply by six or eight hours' work, any 
extra demand may usually be cared for by the storage 
tank. If the water is supplied by a hydraulic ram, working 

continuously, then larger tanks should be provided, as the 
ram cannot be speeded up to meet any sudden demand. 

In case of power plants, water is required for boiler 
feeding and, in some cases, condenser service also. For 
ordinary conditions 4 gallons per hour per boiler horse- 
power will be sufficient when the steam is exhausted out- 
board by the engines. If the steam is condensed in. a heat- 
ing system or surface condenser, and pumped back to the 
boilers, only ten per cent of the above will be required. 

In case a condensing outfit is used in the summer time, 
in connection with reciprocating engines, 30 and 35 pounds 
of cooling water will be required per pound of steam con- 
densed for jet and surface condensers, respectively. The 
amount of steam to be condensed per hour may be ob- 
tained from Table III given in a previous article. 

In systems of fire protection, allow 250 gallons per min- 
ute for each \yk inch standard fire sti^eam, and the same 
amount for each fifty sprinkler heads. For industrial 
plants of various kinds the water requirements will vary 
so widely that they must be estimated from data furnished 
by the owners or engineers in charge. 

Sources of Stipply. The source of supply will depend 
upon the quantity required and the purpose for which it is 
to be used ; also upon the available sources in the vicinity 
of the building. 

For dwelling houses and country estates, natural springs, 
mountain brooks, deep wells, and artesian wells give the 
best quality of water for domestic purposes. Where the 
water is to be used for laundry purposes and in power and 
industrial plants, rivers and ponds may be added to the 
above sources. When large quantities are required, natu- 
ral ponds and lakes, of such size as not to be seriously 
affected by the dry seasons, form a valuable source of sup- 
ply. Running streams which never fall below the maxi- 
mum requirements are also a desirable source of supply, 
provided they are conveniently located and the water is of 
fairly good quality. 

The value of artificial reservoirs fed by springs and 
brooks depends largely upon the stability of supply, and 
can only be determined by looking carefully into their 
past history for several seasons back. By deep 7ce//s, are 
meant those which are excavated to a depth of 20 to 40 
feet, with diameters ranging from 6 to 10 feet, and which 
serve as storage reservoirs as well as sources of supply. 

When none of the above sources are availal)le, artesian 
wells are often resorted to, being ciuitc common in some 
l)arts of the country. 

The capacity of a well of this kind depends largely upon 
various local conditions and cannot well be predicted. 
Data based on a 6-inch well, sunk into a water-bearing 
stratum 10 feet in thickness, and having the water level 
lowered 1 foot by continuous pumping, gives the following 
cai)acities in gallons jK-r hour, according to the jxjrosity 
of the soil. Fine sand, 170; n-iediuni sand, 1,200; coarse 
gravel, 3,000; fine gravel, without sand, 20,000. 

These figures are much higher than arc commonly 

I lO 


obtained in New Engfland or other localities where the 
soil is more or less rocky. 

There is very little to be gained by increasing the diam- 
eter of an artesian well, as the flow depends largely upon 
the depth which the natural water level is lowered by 
pumping. If- more than one well is sunk, they should not 
be placed too near together, the distance ranging from 100 
to 400 feet, according to the lowering of the water level by 

Methods of Bringing Waler to Building. When the source 
is at a sufficient elevation above the building to give the 
required pressure it may be best to provide the reservoir 
at this point and simply connect with the various fixtures 
by means of a gravity pipe line; the arrangement being 
]:)ractically the same as when connecting with a street 
main . 

Table XI gives the gallons of water discharged per 
minute through pipes of different diameters for varioi:s 
friction heads, in pounds per square inch. To change 
pounds per square inch into feet head, multiply by LZ; 
and to change feet head into pounds per square inch, 
multiply by 0.43. The friction heads in the table are for 
100 feet length of run; for other distances, multiply by 

in which D is the total distance in feet. 





Friction head in pounds per square inch for 100 feet length 
of run, for different sizes of pipe. 












-. 3.3 





-- 13.0 





-. 28.7 

















48.00 16.10 



. - 















. _ 








_ - 












— - 


















500- .. 






Exatnple. The surface of a reservoir is 23 feet higher 
than a house tank, and the distance is 1,000 feet; how large 
a pipe will be required to discharge 15 gallons per minute? 
The friction head in pounds per square inch per 100 feet is 

23 X 0.43 X ^'^^^ = 0.99. Looking in Table XI, along 

the line for 15 gallons, we find that a l>2-inch pipe has a 
friction head of 0.97, which is slightly less than the avail- 
able head, and is therefore of ample size. If the water 
contains suspended matter, the pipe should be made of 
such size that the velocity of flow will not fall below 2 or 3 
feet per second, else sediment will collect at the low points. 
Galvanized steel pipe is commonly used for sizes up to 2 >^ 
or 3 inches, and cast-iron pipe for the larger sizes, the 
latter material being more durable for underground work. 
When the source of supply is at a lower elevation than the 
point where it is to be used, the water must be forced into 
the storage tank by means of a pump, hydraulic ram, or 
air-lift. If a pump is used, its location will depend upon 
the elevation to which the water is to be raised. The 

height from the surface of the supply to the pump, plus 
the friction head in the suction pipe, reduced to feet, 
should not exceed 20 feet at the most, and 15 feet is safer. 
If the total elevation is more than this, the pump should 
be located near the source of supply, and the water lifted 
by force instead of suction. In general, a short suction 
pipe is better than a long one, because there is less danger 
of the inleakage of air; and for the same reason, wrought 
iron is better than cast iron on account of tighter joints. 






Fig. XIII shows location of pump for lifts of less than 20 
feet (including friction), and Figs. XIV and XV where the 
total lift is more than this. In one case (Fig. XIV) , the con- 
tour is such that it is necessary to place the pump close to 
the source of supply, while in the other, it may be located 
nearer the building on account of convenience. Where a 



pump is used for forcing water through a pipe line, the 
proper size of pipe will be fixed by the relation between 
the saving in cost of pipe and the increased cost of pump- 
ing against a greater head. Under average conditions a 
velocity of 2 feet per second in the pipe gives about the 
best results. 


Capacity and Po-wer 0/ Pumps. The capacity of a piston 
or plun.ger pump is given by the formula id) 
_ A X L X N X S 
^ ~ 230 • '" '^'^'^^ 

G = gallons per minute. 

A= area of piston, in square inches. 

L = length of stroke, in inches. 

N = number of strokes per minute. 

S = a factor, depending upon the leakage around piston 
and valves, and which may be taken as .8 for small and 
medium sized pumps in good condition. 

When taking capacities from a catalogue, care should be 
taken to learn if this leakage, called " slippage," has been 
taken into account. 



The power required for driving a pump is given by the 

O X 1-T 

formula, (e) H.P. = -^'^^^^^^, in which 

H. P. = actual horse power required. 
G = gallons pumped per minute. 

H = total head, in feet, including height of lift and fric- 
tion head in pipe. 

E = efficiency of pump, which may be taken as follows : 

Triplex Power Pumps 0.6 to 0.7 

Small and Medium-Sized Centrifugal Pumps 0.5 to 0.6 

Deep Well Pumps 0.4 to 0.5 

When computing the cost of power for small and medium- 
sized direct-acting steam pumps, count on 100 to 120 
pounds of steam per delivered horse power. 

Types of Pumps a?id Method of Driving. The three 
classes of pumps commonly used under the conditions noted 
above are the direct-acting steam pump ; the power pump, 
of the simple, duplex, or triplex type, according to the 
number of cylinders ; and the turbine or centrifugal pump. 

The first of these, as its name implies, is driven by a 
direct-connected steam engine, the steam and water pis- 
tons being attached to the same rod. This pump is simple 
in construction, but wasteful in the use of steam. It has 
the advantage of being easily regulated, requires but little 
care, and is adapted to cases like that shown in Fig. XIII 
where it may be located in or near the boiler room. It is 
made in all sizes, both with single and duplex cylinders, 
and may be arranged to start and stop automatically by 
means of a float and balanced valve. 

The power plunger pump is made in different forms and 
sizes and is driven by an independent motor of some form. 

This may be a steam, gasoline, or hot-air engine, an 
electric motor, or it may be belt-driven from a convenient 
counter-shaft, if one is available. This type of pump may 
be usedunder any of the conditions shown in Figs. XI II, XIV 
and XV. In the last two cases it might be driven either by 
a gasoline engine or electric motor, as most convenient. 
If electric current were available, the latter would prob- 
ably be preferable, as the pump could be started and 
stopped from a distance without visiting the pump house. 
As a matter of fact, both motor and pump should be in- 
spected, oiled, and cleaned every day when starting up, 
but may be shut down by means of a switch located in the 
main bitilding. 

The centrifugal pump is a type which has come into 
quite general use of late years and is particularly adapted 
to this class of work, being free from valves and requiring 
practically no attention. It may be driven by a steam or 
gasoline engine, turbine, or electric motor, as best adapted 
to the location and conditions under which it is operated. 

Comparative Cost of Operation. The writer recently 
worked out in considerable detail a series of six problems 
to determine the comparative cost of pumping water by 
different methods. These problems, however, relate to a 
large power plant, requiring a total of 1,800 gallons per 
minute, for sixteen hours a day the year round. Where 
steam and electricity are required in these cases they are 
taken from the main plant and charged up at cost. The 
figures representing the cost of operation arc for a year, 
and include fuel charges and interest and depreciation on 
first cost of plant. This, of course, calls for a much larger 
equipment than is included within the scope of the present 

article, and the figures will only hold for the conditions 
actually assumed, but the relative costs of the diff'erent 
methods would probably not vary greatly if worked out on 
a smaller scale. The equipment and costs are as follows: 

1. Simple direct-acting duple.x pump $5,000 

2. Compound direct-acting duplex pump 3,800 

3. Engine driven triplex pump 3,800 

4. Motor driven triplex pump 2,500 

5. Motor driven centrifugal pump 2,000 

6. Steam turbine driven centrifugal pumji 3,300 

In comparing these results it should be borne in mind 
that the low cost of pumping by electricity is due to the 
fact that the current is generated on the premises. If it 
were purchased at usual rates from a central station, it 
would, in most cases, be considerably more. 



Hydratilic Rams. Hydraulic rams are used where there 
is a sufficient water supply and suitable grades. It is the 
cheapest method of pumping water, as there is practically 
no expense for power. They require a minimum of atten- 
tion and will last for years. The usual method of connecting 
a ram is shown in Fig. XVI. In practice it is custoiuary to 
make the length of the drive pipe equal approximately the 
height of lift from the ram to tank or reservoir. When 
it is necessary to locate the ram at a greater distance 
from the source of supply, a standpipe is introduced to 
shorten the length of the drive pipe. For large quantities 
of water the fall from source to ram should not be less than 
2 feet, and should not, in general, exceed 12 or 15 feet. 

The working formulas for the hydratilic ram are given 

, .. 2 X G X M , . ^ 3 X h X g 

ill) H 


3 X h X g 
2X G ' 

(/) h 

2 X II 

2 X G X H 
3Xg • 

in which 

g= gallons discharged by ram. 

G = gallons required for operating ram, including g. 

H = fall from source of supply to ram. 

h= height to which water is lifted above ram, including 
friction head. 

7-ty >h^Oi^^£- 


/^A'o/i^ ri^/Fj^c 




Hydraulic rams are built in all sizes, from those adapted ground or in a basement where there is no danger of 
to dwelling- house work up to plants for supplying large freezing. Another pneumatic system, adapted to deep 


Pneumatic Systems. As commonly 
spoken of, a pneumatic system of water 
supply means the substitution of a closed 
tank, either sunken or located in the base- 
ment, for the elevated tank or reservoir. 
A common arrangement is that shown in 
Fig. XVII, the storage tank being buried 
in the ground beside the building, with the 
end projecting into the basement in order 
to give easy access. In small plants the 
entire equipment is usually placed in the 

The i^ressure pump for filling the tank 
may be operated by hand, or by an electric 
motor or gasoline engine in case of the 
larger sizes. In using this arrangement, 
the tank is first allowed to fill with air 
under atmosjiheric pressure. The vent is 
then closed, and the water pumped in, 
which, as the tank fills, compresses the air 
and causes a pressure. Table XII shows 
the pressure in the tank with different 


y9//r /^/'-^ 

Volume of Water 
in Tank. 

Pressure per 
Square Inch. 

Volume o£ Water 
in Tank. 

KIC. . 

Pressure per 
Square Inch. 

1/4 full 
% ., 

% „ 

5 Ib.s. 
10 ,, 
15 ,, 
20 ,. 

% full 


25 lbs. 
30 ,, 
45 „ 
60 ,, 

wells, is shown in Fig. XVIII. This 
consists of an engine or motor, com- 
pressor, air reservoir, and pneumatic 
pump which is placed at the bottom of 
the well. 

In operation, the reservoir is charged 
with compressed air, which operates the 
pump, and is only used when water is 
drawn from the faucets. An even pres- 
sure is maintained on the system by 
means of a regulating valve, and the 
compressor need only be used when re- 
charging the reservoir. 

The air-lift, so called, is a pneumatic 

pum)) especially adapted to raising water 

from artesian wells. The compressing 

outfit is practically the same as in the 

system just described, while the lifting 

device is shown in Fig. XIX, and consists 

simply of a pipe carried down inside the 

well tubing for delivering compressed air 

near the bottom. The effect of this is 

to force successive "slugs" of water up 

the tube and into the discharge pipe leading to the tank. 

The height "A" is called the total head, "B" the 

distance from the bottom of the air pipe to the water level 

in the well, and " C " the distance from the water level to 

the discharge outlet. 

quantities of water when 
filled in this way. 

When it is desirable to 
carry a higher pressure for 
a given volume of water, a 
certain amount of air may 
be forced in when filling the 
tank by means of a special 
valve attached to the pump. 
The principal advantage of 
a system of this kind is its 
compactness and the ability 
to place the tank under 

In practice the ratio 7 runs from 

1.5 to 2.5 and should never be less than 1.5 if possible. 

For the best results, the 
area of the air pipe should 
be about one-sixth that of 
the water pipe under aver- 
age conditions. 

While this is a very 
simple method of raising 
water from artesian wells, 
it is more expensive than 
using the regular form of 
plunger ' pump on account 
of the cost of compressing 
the air for operating it. 






I / 


•PL/X.N thro' circle- 









u A n i M li 









The Croisic Building, New York City. 




Thls building- is one of the 
late additions to the tremendous 
number of tall loft buildingfs in 
New York City. It constitutes 
an excellent evidence of the 
general improvement in com- 
mercial architectural design, 
and demonstrates that owners of 
this type of building feel it nec- 
essary to build so well designed 
a building to attract the best 
class of clients. It is not of 
course such a notable contribu- 
tion to tall building architecture 
as the Bankers Trust Building- and other down-town 
structures, but of its type and for its purposes is excellent. 
The biggest feature of New York construction for the 
past few years has been the erection of a really g-reat num- 
ber of loft buildings, ranging- from twelve to twenty-five 
stories in height, constructed mostly on the side streets 
within a block on either side of Fifth avenue, and in many 
cases upon Fifth avenue itself. 

This particular building, which occupies the corner of 
26th street and Fifth avenue, is in a most excellent loca- 
tion, suited only to a high grade of tenants who are com- 
ing more and more to demand a 
suitable architectural expression 
of the needs and purposes of the 
buildings which they occupy. 

With the increasing number 
of these loft buildings, espe- 
cially in narrow streets, their 
designers are learning to exer- 
cise a little restraint in the 
matter of design out of consider- 
ation for their neighbors, and 
are endeavoring as far as pos- 
sible to suppress heavy projec- 
tions which tend materially to 
decrease the light area. This 
suppression of the cornices 
naturally involves the exclusion 
of Classic detail and the onjission 
of Classic orders, and since hori- 
zontal treatment of the building 
is eliminated from the possibili- 
ties, the vertical design which 
we associate with Gothic has oftentimes taken its place. 
The greatest difficulty with the use of a Gothic or semi- 
Gothic treament of the vertical lines is the upper termina- 
tion of the building in a manner which shall be reasonably 
economical, both of cost and space, and perhaps a genuine 
solution of this problem has not yet been found ; certainly 
none of the loft buildings with flat roofs have been entirely 
successful. The attempt to justify the strong vertical 
lines by means of finials rising above the coping wall has 



Browne & Aliniroty, Arcliitects. 

not been satisfactorily dealt with in any case that comes 
to mind. Where a treatment which is from an artistic 
point of view successful, that of a rather steep roof forming 
a background to the terminations of these lines, has been 
used, as in the West street Building, the Woolworth Build- 
ing, and this Croisic Building, among others, it can be 
imagined that the rental value of the stories in this roof is 
comparatively small. A similar type of roof in the 
Bankers Trust Building was very happily utilized for 
storage purposes, and, as in most tall buildings, basements 
are so terrifically expensive, it would seem that the .stor- 
age space in the upper floors may be in the end more eco- 
nomical than in any story below the street. On the other 
hand, rental values of top floors, especially when fully 
lighted by skylight, are far in excess of any other floor 
(except the street floor), and economically the peaked roof 
cannot be justified, although artistically it appears to be 
the only satisfactory method yet devised. 

The Croisic Building presents very few features of 
marked difference from the typical loft building, except 
that it is for the most part rather better designed, and is 
exceedingly well executed. It is a satisfaction to note that 
the owners were willing to give space enough to piers on 
the ground floor so that some reasonable amount of sta- 
bility in appearance is possible. While the designers of 

this building have not at- 
tempted to carry their vertical 
lines distinctly to the ground, 
the difference in material be- 
tween the two lower floors and 
the shaft of the building is 
not so great that the feeling 
that the vertical lines spring 
from the ground has been lost. 
The base is of granite, the shaft 
of a good quality of rough brick, 
and the crowning motives of 
well designed terra cotta, with 
the large openings filled in 
with iron. 

The growing use of terra cotta 
for structures of this character 
is interesting and noteworthy, 
and with the development of the 
vertical line has constantly in- 
creased. Cornices of wide pro- 
jection, such as that of the Gor- 
New York City, could not of course be 

ham Building, 
sensibly constructed in the small pieces possible to this 
material, and for a good many years, especially in the 
chL'ai)cr buildings, galvanized iron or copper cornices were 
almost universal. With the tendency to omit the cornices, 
or to reduce them to mere bands at the termination of the 
structures, the amount of terra cotta used naturally in- 
creased. This is true especially in such a structure as the 
Croisic Building where the details of the ornament are 


frankly copied from old 
Gothic work and a 
great number of repeti- 
tions of the same motive 
are required. Terra 
cotta is almost the in- 
evitable material, espe- 
cially since the Gothic 
ornament is rather com- 
plex and difficult to cut. 
The old question as 
to whether terra cotta 
used to imitate stone 
forms is a justifiable ex- 
pedient has been raised 


in the case of this build- 
ing: as in others, but 
when the uses of all 
building materials from 
the earliest days to the 
present time have been 
so frankly imitated from 
each other, until we 
begin to criticize the 
Egyptians for cutting 
and painting their stone 
columns to imitate 
bundles of reeds tied 
together, this question 
might better be left un- 




i J. 




53 55 5" 







Fill]] Hill 
fill]] iiiii 

liiii liiii 

iliii iiilUll 
Hw rim 



Architecture of to- 
day in the high building 
has been resolved 
almost into a question 
of an applied decorative 
treatment of a fireproof- 
ing covering to a steel 
structure, and it seems 
that any material, or 
combination of mate- 
rials, which satisfies the 
eye as to the inherent 
beauty of the design, 
and has besides a cer- 
tain comforting sense of 


Stability, is good legiti- 
mate work. It is im- 
possible to forget that 
any tall building is a 
steel structure, veneered 
with a mighty thin shell 
of masonry, and it is 
only when an architect 
consciously attempts to 
make this veneering 
heavy enough so that if 
it were solid it would 
take the place of the 
steel which it encloses, 
that we feel an incon- 







P/./!^ yIT /^" 




PlA/^ - AT ■ 3 






/^/^/Y ytr A 






An Architects' Fees. 



I have been much interested in your editorials on the 
subject of various methods of charging for professional 
services by architects. As I have had no work which I 
have charged for on a percentage basis for over five years, 
but have used successfully a scheme of charging a profes- 
sional fee plus twice the cost of drafting, which is one of 
the methods discussed in your editorials, I feel that per- 
haps my actual experience may help to make clear, and 
perhaps establish, a system which appears fair, business- 
like, and professional. The editorials in your January, 
February, and March issues refer to four different 
schemes : 

1. Percentage basis — being a fixed percentage of the final cost of 

the building. 

2. A method by which the charge is made a multiple of the total 

cost of drafting. 

3. A method by which a specific charge is made for a professional 

fee, to which is added a certain multiple of the cost of drafting. 

4. A method by which a specific charge is made for professional 

fee, a specific charge made for the general office expense, with 
the actual cost of drafting added. 

Of these four the first is the traditional method, and so 
far as I know everybody agrees that it is an entirely illogi- 
cal method, its use being justified solely by the fact that 
it approximates a reasonable charge, and averages up a 
fair return to the architect in the long run. It is a method 
which makes the good client, who ought to get bargain 
rates, give the architect a larger professional fee, in the 
matter of net profit, in order to even up on the architect's 
books for clients who, by the nature of their work, and the 
nature of their own personal exactions, cost the architect 
more, and so reduce the balance that is left for his profit. 

The second scheine makes the architect's professional 
fee dependent upon the amount of drafting which is en- 
tailed in the work, and there is no relation between these 
two factors which makes such a charge logical. 

The fourth method charges a fixed sum for general 
office expenses, to be based, according to the article, upon 
the cost of the work. This appears to me to be probably 
the outcome of theory rather than experience. It seems 
to me that the amount of general office expense, apart 
from drafting, that should be charged to any particular 
job depends more on the length of time that the work is 
in the office and the amount of draftsmen's services re- 
quired, than on the cost of the building. It represents the 
cost of maintaining the draftsman at his table, and it will 
continue as a charge against the particular work as long 
as the draftsman is engaged upon it. If the suggested 
system were applied to the three examples given below, 
I think that it would be clear that it is not a logical 

The third method is the one I have employed for several 
years, and on which I think some further information will 
be of interest. This method, then, to repeat, is one in- 

volving the charging of a professional fee for the archi- 
tect's personal, professional service, to which is added a 
charge covering the personal expenses of the architect in 
carrying the work through in his office ; this being deter- 
mined to be twice the actual cost of the drafting entailed 
in the work. 

In the articles under consideration it is stated that the 
fee is "determined in proportion to the cost." This, as 
far as my office is concerned, is but a half-truth, a quarter- 
truth one might say. The cost of the work is one deter- 
mining factor, its character another, the length of time to 
complete the work a third, and, in some ways, the most 
important. To take an example : Three pieces of work, 
each to cost $100,000 ; one a private house, one an office 
building, one a factory. The first will require the per- 
sonal service of the architect throughout, the plans, the 
exterior, the interior, shop and studio superintendence, 
and oversight on the building ; the second will require 
similar service for the plan, the exterior, and a small 
amount of the other personal service ; the third will re- 
quire the study of plan requirements and some suggestions 
to a good draftsman and little more. Roughly speaking, 
the first will take two years, the second will take a year 
and a half, the third a year. The professional fee would 
be in the form of an annual salary ; a proportion, not the 
full proportion, payable monthly, the balance on comple- 
tion. If $3,000 is a reasonable fee for the year's service 
on the factory, $6,000 is not unreasonable for the two 
years' service on the house. Perhaps both these are un- 
reasonable, but my point is that the fee should be fixed 
after consideration of cost and character of the work and 
length of the service required. It is a very simple thing 
to fix this at a sum that the owner will accept as reason- 
able, for he is used to salaries and is used to professional 
fees. The agreement between architect and owner should 
define the service contemplated, and as time is an essen- 
tial part of this agreement it will run for a definite time 
and therefore involve a fixed sum with provision for ex- 
tension if the work is prolonged. vSo much for the fee. 

The charge for drafting, that is. the actual cost of drafts- 
men's salaries engaged on the work, is doubled to cover 
other miscellaneous expenses, such as rent, heat, light, 
stenography, etc. This is done largely because of its con- 
venience in book-keeping, as experience has shown that, 
roughly speaking, the total of draftsmen's salaries repre- 
sents very closely the total of the other otlice expenses. 

Another method which is perliaps in some ways more 
logical is to iiro-ratc the other office expenses among the 
clients in proportion to the lime of the draftsmen spent on 
the work, instead of to the cosl of the salaries of the drafts- 
men engaged on the work. Tlie $10 man occui^ics the 
same space, uses about the same amount of material, and 
costs the architect to maintain in rent, light, etc., as much 
as the $60 man. On this basis, if a client has occupied 
forty-five per cent of the time of a draftsman during a 
month he would bear forty-five per cent of the office ex- 
pense of that monlii. This means more calculation, is 



perhaps no more absolutely accurate than the other method, 
and I believe that the owner prefers the simpler method of 
doubling- the drafting charge. The above does not of 
course cover such miscellaneous additional charges as 
travel, telegrams, long distance telephone calls, models, 
and other incidentals, representing definite outlay for a 
particular work, which are charged in addition to the 
above . 

In the last article a point was made that is significant to 
m\- mind of a very general error. Much is often said of 
the large amounts paid in commissions to the architects. 
In this article stress is laid on the fact that a fault in the 
system I have endorsed above is that the owner must rely 
on the architect not to employ overpaid or needlessly 
expensive draftsmen in the work so as to increase the 
amount obtained to cover the office expense. How much 
does an owner know of how the architect spends the large 
amounts of money involved in the building itself ; of the 
desirability of one material or type of construction over 
another ; of whether the roof could be made exactly as 
efficient with a much cheaper construction which would 
also involve less repair charges in the future ; of the rela- 
tive costs of interior marbles selected, to others of similar 
effect ; of the saving that could be made on his building 
by changing from eight cut granite to four cut, or from 
honed limestone to machine planed. How often does it 
occur to an owner to question on these points and deter- 
mine in his own mind where he prefers to spend his money. 
Does he not generally rely on his architect for proper 
advice on such points ? He generally does and certainly 
should. With all these opportunities, therefore, of making 
the work cost more or less by an amount that may easily 
exceed the architects' total commissions, any lack of con- 
fidence in the architects' judgment and good faith in the 
relatively small matter of draftsman's wages and share of 
office expense seem almost absurd. It is enough to start 
with the frank statement that " twice the drafting" is a 
reasonably close approximation to a fair charge for all office 
expenses, not including of course incidentals of travel, 
telegraph, etc., and any error there may be, is too small 

to worry about whichever side of the ledger it may be on. 
This slight question can well be overlooked after we have 
eliminated the vastly greater factor of uneasiness to all 
concerned, and that is the dependence of the architect's 
commission on the cost of material he decides to advise 
the owner to use, as in the case of the established per- 
centage basis. An owner who has trusted his architect 
on that basis can surely have no objections to trusting 
him on the basis of a fixed professional fee plus twice the 

A practical example may perhaps be of service to show 
just how the system works, and how readily it adjusts 
itself to and takes care of this vexed question of expert 
service. As the architect is paid for his own service as a 
thing by itself and the owner pays the cost of everything 
else, it is evident that he pays for any and all expert 
service ; the civil engineer sends in his bill for surveys or 
borings, the structural and domestic engineers are em- 
l^loyed if their services are to the advantage of the owner 
and he pays just the cost. There is then no question as to 
whether or no the owner is paying two commissions on the 
heating, as there is when he pays six per cent to the archi- 
tect, and again six per cent to the domestic engineer. 
The agreement between the architect and the owner 
rehearses all that the architect undertakes, what he is to 
receive for it, and what the other charges which the owner 
must imy will aj^proximately amount to. As some factors 
in the agreement may be doubtful, the agreement may con- 
tain provision for extension of time and increase in the 
sum named ; but if the owner desires a fixed outside limit 
and the work is straightforward, it is possible, but always 
hazardous, to make a fixed agreement. In this case it 
would naturally be a somewhat higher figure to cover just 
that risk. 

The following is an outline form of agreement which I 
am now using and which I suggest as covering the various 
items necessary in an agreement between architect and 
owner for work done on this basis. 

R. Clipston Sturgis. 

Form of Agreement 


Agreement made between 

owner on the one part and architect 

of on the other part. 


(1) The Work Contempl.\ted. The work for which 
the architect is to render professional services under this 
agreement consists of the planning and construction of a 


estimated by the architect at this time to cost about 

($ )^ ^vith 

an additional ^ ($ ; for 

furniture. This agreement, however, will not be affected 
by any change in these amounts. 

(2) Scope of Professional Service to be Rendered. 

(a) The architect shall render complete professional 
services ; consisting of such conferences, preliminary 
studies, working drawings, specifications, large scale and 
full size detail drawings as may be necessary, together 
with the supervision of the letting of all contracts and the 
general direction and supervision of the work, including 
purchase of furniture. The charges noted below under 

Architect's Salary" are for the personal professional 

service of (the architect) The 

expense of drafting, engineers, incidentals, and superin- 
tendence will be paid by the owner in addition to such 
salary, as noted below under " Additional Charges." 

ib) The architect shall provide five blue prints of each 
scale drawing and the original of each full size drawing. 



Any additional blue prints needed for the purpose of bid- 
ding- on the work shall be charged at cost under "Inci- 
dentals" noted below. Any further additional copies 
needed on the work will be charged to the contractor. 
The architect shall provide one set of copies of the con- 
tract drawings for the owner when the contract is let, and 
another set mounted on cloth corrected to embody all 
changes made during construction, at the completion of 
the work. 

The architect will furnish ten typewritten copies of the 
specifications, or copy for the printer, if printed. 

(c) The architect shall in person and by representatives 
give such superintendence to the work during construction 
as may be required to insure the work being executed in 
general conformity with the plans and specifications, and 
such further instructions as may be given from time to 
time. This sitperintendence cannot prevent poor work- 
manship or the use of poor materials, but can require the 
making good of such defects as appear in the work, so far 
as practicable. Complete supervision can be obtained only 
by the employment of a clerk of the works, which is pro- 
vided for as noted below C4) (d). 

(3) Architect's Salary, (a) If the work as contem- 
plated at this time is carried on steadily to completion it is 

estimated that the architect's services will terminate in 

months. On this basis the architect shall 

receive a total salary of .dollars ($ ). 

This amount shall be paid as follows, $ a month 

for months, with the final balance of $ 

to be paid on the issuance of the final certificate to the 

(i^) If for reasons beyond the control of the architect the 
work is delayed so as to extend over a period materially 
in excess of that contemplated as noted above, and so 
as to entail additional service on his part, then the total 
amount of the architect's salary shall be increased by an 
amount to be mutually agreed upon by the owner and 

(c) The owner may at any time abandon or suspend the 
work and the employment of the architect shall thereupon 
terminate if the work is abandoned, and be suspended if 
the work is suspended. 

(d) If the undertaking is abandoned and the employ- 
ment of the architect consequently terminated, he shall be 
paid in addition to his salary to the date of such termina- 
tion such proportion of the unpaid balance due at comple- 
tion as shall be mutually agreed upon by the owner and 

(e) If the work is suspended at any time so as to suspend 
also the work of the architect, the owner shall be at liberty 
to suspend payments on the architect's salary until his 
work is resumed, without affecting otherwise the terms of 
this agreement. 

(4) Additional Charges. In addition to the architect's 
salary determined above, there will be the following addi- 

tional items of expense to be paid by the owner through 
the architect: 

(a) Drafting. Strict account shall be kept by the archi- 
tect of the cost of the drafting, such cost to be the total of 
the salaries paid to draftsmen engaged on the drawings, 
including time spent in writing specifications, but no 
charge is to be made for time so spent by the architect, and 
all expenses of stenographic work on specifications or other- 
wise, done in the architect's office, are to be considered as 
" a regular office expense." No charge shall be made for 
superintendence on the part of the architect. 

The total amount of such drafting expense shall be mul- 
tiplied by two to cover the proportionate share of ' ' regular 
office expenses," and this resulting amount shall be paid 
monthly on statements in detail from the architect. The 
total expense under this item is estimated at $ 

(h) Engineers. The services of structural, domestic, and 
sanitary engineers shall be paid for through the architect 
at cost. The total under this item is estimated at 

(c) Incidentals. Incidental expenses in connection with 
the work, such as additional blue-printing, traveling ex- 
penses, models, long distance telephone, telegraph, express 
and other miscellaneous charges, including printing of 
specifications, shall be paid at cost on monthly statements 
from the architect. The total expense under this item is 
estimated at $ . 

(d) Clerk of the Works. The service of a clerk of the 
works will be required, and will be paid for by the owner 
through the architect at cost. The total expense under 

this item is estimated at $ He shall represent the 

interests of the owner and shall report each week to the 
owner through the architect. 

The above charges shall be paid monthly as they are 
incurred on detailed statements from the architect. 

(5) Payments. The above estimates are summarized 
as follows : 

{a) Salary $ 

(b ) Additional Charges — 

Drafting % 

Engineers $ 

Incidentals % 

Clerk of the works % % 

(6) Note. The estimated costs of the items under sec- 
tion (4), "Additional Charges," are understood to be 
apiiroximate estimates and the final costs under these 
items will vary from the amounts given, depending upon 
conditions developing during the progress of the work, 
and the architect does not guarantee the accuracy of these 



w?^ss?«fi «<i«^<^i<i<i 'ii^:^i<'Xi:i^j^^ 

AN Df N O TES ^ * 




The Church of the Ascension, Italian, New York 
City. Plates 65, 66, 67, and 68. The Presbyterian 
Church in New York City for some years has taken into 
its membership and work the Italian element as found on 
the upper east side of New York City. In order to interest 
and hold these people it seemed necessary to provide 
places of worship that would at once be suitable for the 
practical requirements of a semi-settlement work and 
appeal to the esthetic taste and relisious impulse of the 
Italian people. 

In the Church of the Ascension the endeavor has been 
made to give the building- architecturally a distinct idio- 
matic Italian feelinsf, — to desis^n a buildinij such as these 
people might find in their own home towns. The archi- 
tectural problem further involved the placing- of a parish 
house above an auditorium and providing abundance of 
light for both, and also preserving to the fai^ade of the 
building a dominance of the ecclesiastical note inherited 
by these warm, emotional people from their Roman 
traditions derived from their old Basilicas. 

Both the fagade and the interior of the auditorium have 
been treated in stucco overlaying brick and in such fashion 
as to give the feeling in many places of the stucco having 
worn off of the underbrick surface in spots. The brick 
used is deep red, of fairly rough texture, and with stucco 
and tile inserts forms a wainscot around the entire interior 
of the auditorium. The stucco is colored to a soft light 
reddish tone to harinonize with the general feeling of the 

The auditorium is entirely lighted by day through the 
skylight over the dome and is ventilated by louvre win- 
dows in this dome and by a very complete system of 
artificial air exhaust and supply. 

Meetings other than the regular religious services are 
provided for in the large basement room, special care 
having been taken in the artificial ventilation of this room. 

Kindergarten work is carried on in the second story 
directly over the front of the auditorium by the Kinder- 
garten Association of New York City, and for the present 
the roof over the remainder of the auditorium is used as 
a roof garden, being paved with tile and guarded by high 
wire fences. 

Three means of escape in case of fire have been provided 
for the kindergarten children in two interior fireproof 
stairways and exterior iron stairways leading to the 
adjacent roof. 

The cost of the building, exclusive of decoration, furnish- 
ings, etc., was approximately $42,000, or a cubic cost of 
$18 9/l0 ; — the vertical heights for the cube being taken 
from the basement floor to the mean height of the roofs. 

The Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Plates 72, 73, 74, and 75. A fourteen-story structure 

with basement and two sub-basements. Built of pink 
granite and limestone up to the third story. The shaft of 
the building is constructed of red brick laid up in Flemish 
bond. Terra-cotta ornamentations crown the upper stories. 

The building is fireproof throughout. All doors and 
trim are built of non-burnable materials. A fire tower is 
provided at the southwest corner running the entire height 
of building and opening directly upon the street. 

The cafe and entrance foyer occupy the ground floor. 
The second floor, a double story, is occupied by the res- 
taurant. The kitchen is located on the floor above. The 
position of the kitchen floor between the main restaurant 
and supper floors is intended to facilitate service and to 
combine a light and well-ventilated workroom. 

There are three supper rooms with an anteroom on the 
fourth floor. The ball room is on the next level. This 
room also extends through two stories. 

There are forty-nine suites located in the stories above. 
Each bedroom has an adjoining bath. Two parlors are 
provided for each floor. 

University Club, Wa.shington, D. C. Plates 77, 78. 
Designed in the early Italian Renaissance style, at once sim- 
ple and dignified. The building is 86 by 72 feet, with an 18- 
foot garden along the entire northern side to provide for 
light and air. The first two stories of the exterior are of 
gray limestone, heavily rusticated, while the upper stories 
are constructed of brick, matching in color as nearly as 
possible the stonework of the lower stories. A heavy 
projecting cornice, richly painted in colors, crowns the 

The main entrance hall has a tiled floor, with the walls 
treated in ornamental Caen stone. The ladies' entrance 
has adjacent to it a ladies' reception room and coat room, 
together with a private elevator to the ladies' dining room 
on the floor above. In the rear of the first floor is a service 
entrance . 

The main staircase leads to the second or main club 
floor. On this floor is the principal lounging room, extend- 
ing across the entire front of the building, two stories in 
height. The ceiling is richly vaulted, the walls paneled 
and decorated in colors. The library, the bar, committee 
rooms and toilet rooms are also on this floor. 

The main dining room is on the third floor. It is paneled 
in chestnut with ceiling beams and cornice in plaster. A 
unique feature of this room is the long row of windows, 
making the side one line of light. The main staircase 
extends up to this floor, but above this point a secondary 
staircase leads to the two bedroom floors. 

There are fifteen bedrooms, six private baths, and one 
general bath and toilet room on each floor. On each of 
these floors is also a trunk room. 

Ample provision is made in the basement for billiards 
and a barber shop, ventilating apparatus, boiler rooms, etc. 




Architect Plate 

GARAGE, THE CLINTON, BROOKLYN, N. Y ......^ Wrn. A. Boring 93 

HOUSE, SHORT HILLS, N. J Al/recl Busselle 87,88 

HOUSE, ATLANTA, GA EcfwarJ E,>nnea Do.,/,r>iy 91, 92 

HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY M.n A'uss.ll Pop. 81-84 

HOUSE, KANSAS CITY, MO ^,v<^,,^ ^^-^^^ ^^ 

HOUSES, GROUP OF, ROLAND PARK. MD Edward L. Pal,„er,Jr. 94 95 


SCHOOL, RIDGEFIELD PARK, N. J.___. Wm. W. Rasmussen and Ernest Sibley, Associated m, 90 


„ Page 



Part I. General Considerations M. E. McCalmont, R. N. 123 

Illustrations from photographs and plans. 


Part III. Physical Department Louis Allen A bramson 127 

Illustrations from plans. Associate of Louis E. Jallade 


Part II. An Architect's Compensation and Liabilities-.- W^;«. L. Bozvinan, LL.B. 132 


Part II. The Chateau of La Morinikre Sidney Fiske Kimball 135 

Illustrations from photographs and plans. 

Illustrations from photographs and drawings. 

Illustrations from photographs. 



Photo by the Royal Prussian Photometric Juslitule. 


Alternating courses of brick and stone, with panels of 
cut brick flush with mortar. Built about the four- 
teenth century. 



JUNE, 1913 


Practical Details in Hospital Planning and Equipment. 

- Part I. 



THE purpose of this series of articles, already an- 
nounced by the editors of The Brickbuilder, is to 
put before architects and others interested in hospital con- 
struction, not so much the technical details which can be 
found in abundance elsewhere, but the practical facts and 
ideas of which it is necessary to have an understanding- if 
our hospitals are to be something- more than delig"htful 
examples of architecture. 

Allusions to problems and details of organization and 
management may seem, at first thought, extraneous or 
irrelevant, but the close relationship of such subjects to 
successful hospital planning can best be determined by the 
results obtained in those institutions where such factors 
have been duly considered and those wherein they have 

We learn by error as well as by good example, conse- 
quently the unhappy mistakes of the past have been used 
by way of illustration, though just as great an effort has 
been made to exemplify the happier trend of the present. 

There is little virtue and less sense in clinging to the 
traditions and customs of the past, if we cannot, by so 
doing, satisfy the needs of the present. It is quite uni- 
versally acknowledged that our existing hospitals typify 
many glaring evidences of ignorance of actual hospital 
needs, viewed from the standpoint of patient and worker. 

Just as unmistakably as our hospital administrators are 
arriving at the conclusion that their duty to the patient is 
not fully discharged the moment he leaves the hospital 
roof, convalescent, just so surely are we coming to the 
conclusion that hospitals are not successfully planned and 
built until due consideration has been given to the physical 
comfort of the patient as well as to the convenience of the 
employee ; that an institution has not been economically or 
satisfactorily built unless it can be economically adminis- 

The future test of successful hospital planning will be, 
we believe, simple, artistic architecture ; sanitary and 
sound-proof construction ; but quite as important as these, 
practical planning which ensures the maximum of comfort 
and efficiency with the minimum of effort and waste. 

♦Hospital specialist and consultant, former superintendent Civil Hospi- 
tal, Manila, P. I., Chief, Division of Hospital Construction and Equip- 
ment, Bureau of Health, Philippine Islands. 


To successfully plan a hospital in these exacting days, 
when cost is no longer computed solely in dollars and 
cents, but more and more in terms of human efficiency, 
with conseivation of human energy as a measuring test, is 
a very different matter than in the easy days of not so long 
ago when hospital committees were content with a group 
of beautiful buildings not exceeding in cost the original 
sum specified, bothering their heads but little with cost of 
future maintenance, convenience of management, comfort 
of patients, or any of the other perplexities that to-day make 
hospital planning a science in itself far more comijlex than 
any other field in the architect's world. 

We know that for years to come hospitals will be con- 
structed as in the past, but we rejoice to see that there is 
an increasing number of persons in the field who are con- 
scientiously making a study of this work. We note with 
pleasure that the young architect, tackling his first hospi- 
tal commission, no longer goes at it with the assurance of 
inexperience, devoting his chief energies to covering up 
his ignorance of hospital matters, but is more and more 
inclined to confess his inexperience and welcome consulta- 
tion with, and assistance from, those who have made, or 
are making it, their life work and study. 

The architect with his first hospital commission has a 
rough way to travel. Generally his building committee is 
as igfnorant of hospital needs as he. The doctors will have 
fifty-seven different varieties of opinions on as many dift'er- 
ent problems, many of them conflicting, most of them im- 
jjractical, not a few unduly extravagant, yet to all he must 
lend a patient ear and ac(|uiesccnt mind, — or lose his 

There are two courses open — one, to please as many 
as possible, build as fine an architectural monument as 
is financially within reach, trusting to luck that it will 
"work"; the other, to proceed intelligently, studying 
conscientiously the past history of the hos]Mtal, the pres- 
ent needs and i\\c/ufi(re expansion ; insisting that as much 
as possible of the organization be determined before the 
j)lans arc begun, that a definite personnel be provided for ; 
asking that a tentative budget be considered, taking stock, 
as it were, of available maintenance funds, that a building 
or group of buildings be not erected so costly from the 
standpoint of operation and management tlial the future 



could not possibly be other than a weary striigfgrle with 
debts and annual deficits. 

To which the architect may answer, " That is no con- 
cern of ours. We have troubles enougfh. It is our busi- 
ness only to gfive the committee and doctors what they 
want, to build them as gfood a looking structure as is possi- 
ble for the money available, one that is fireproof and 
sanitary, one that is (if this be not his first experience) 
sound-proof, and one that is (this, if he has planned several 
or more) easy to keep clean." 

With such an attitude, we can only expect the usual 
result, an institution with a wonderful operating suite, but 
with inadequate eating and living quarters for the employ- 
ees ; with enough plumbing to take care of twice the 
number of patients, but with no sink closets for the proper 
care and accommodation of ordinary mops and brooms ; 
with an expensive ventilating system that makes a good 
talking point for the hospital, but fails to ventilate; 
vacuum cleaning systems that are not used ; miles of need- 
less steps to be traversed which could have been avoided 
by a little study of hospital management, and a consequent 
concentration of administrative area ; beautiful sun parlors 
for the patients, but not a spot in which to air and sun a 
mattress ; wonderfully equipped laundries, but without a 
facility for the proper washing and drying of blankets, 
and so on, and so on. These are the things that make a 
hospital worker heart-sick because of their needlessness. 
To be sure it is " the easiest way ' ' for the architect, and he 
may be able to repeat it indefinitely, but the man who is out 
for lasting reputation, particularly for him who expects to 
specialize in this sorely neglected field, the other way is 
preferable . 

A preliminary study of the situation is a necessity : 
The size and character of the community ; its rate of in- 
crease for the past two or three decades ; its probable 
future growth ; its industries and manufactures, wealth 
and poverty ; other hospitals in the community, their 
growth and patronage ; the political situation, how related, 
if at all. 

The foregoing are all-ipiportant factors in the subse- 
quent administration ; the connection between the planning 
and future management of an institution is too close to be 
ignored by the architect, provided he be working for an 
intelligent result. 

Other considerations are not only the funds available 
for building, but the funds available for maintenance, 
whether from endowments, donations, State aid, or from 

The initial construction, future expansion, cost of main- 
tenance, and earning capacity, are all so interdependent 
that to consider them separately, or not at all, can only 
spell future trouble for the hospital administrators. 

Did we not know it to be done so frequently we would 
think it impossible to plan such an institution without a 
fairly exact knowledge of the organization and personnel 
for which it is supposed to provide ; the nature of the 
cases to be cared for, and many other obviously pertinent 

To illustrate the first point, a new hospital known to the 
writer had been planned and built for three times the ca- 
pacity of the old one which was to be abandoned. Yet 
provision had not been made for other than the existing 
personnel. It would seem incredible that a committee 

could plan for an increase of three times the capacity of 
the hospital with no increase in staff, yet these, and like 
mistakes, are constantly being encountered in our new hos- 

In another recent construction, before the installation of 
plumbing fixtures, it was noted that no provision had been 
made for typhoid sterilizers. The architect had been told 
that typhoid cases were not to be admitted. The matter 
was at once referred to the directors, and after much vehe- 
ment discussion it was decided that the hospital could not 
consistently refuse to accept typhoid, and, therefore, pro- 
vision must be made for its proper care. 

There are few general hospitals which arc not required, 
sooner or later, to care for typhoid, venereal diseases, de- 
lirium tremens, mental cases, etc. Every hospital pre- 
tending to be general in character should be prepared to 
care for such. The actual cost of not being so prepared, 
and the serious menace involved to patients, nurses, and 
employees, is far out of proportion to the initial cost of 
construction and equipment. Adequate facilities for ster- 
ilization and disinfection in typhoid cases ; roof or open 
air accommodations for pneumonia ; sound-proof rooms 
with guarded windows for violent delirium or mental cases; 
special wards and rooms for venereal diseases, with linen 
and china distinctly marked and all utensils kept apart 
from other patients. It is folly for hospitals to say that 
they will not accept such cases. In many instances, ad- 
mittance is imperative ; in many others, these cases develop 
while in the hospital, though admitted for widely different 
reasons. It is obviously the duty of general hospitals to 
be so constructed and equipped, and wise is the architect 
who advocates such provision. 

In the building of every hospital there are three groups 
of persons who should be particularly considered: the 
patients, the official staff, and the doctors. It is believed 
that these groups are named in the proper, though per- 
haps unusual, order of precedence. Generally we find it 
reversed, and it is seldom that there is more than one 
grou]) represented on the building committee. Therefore, 
it behooves the architect to study the question indepen- 
dently ; first from the viewpoint of the patient. This can 
well be done by consultation with some of his friends who 
have one time or another been hospital patients. He will 
be surprised at the ideas which will be given him, probably 
in the way of complaints of unnecessary hardships pre- 
viously encountered, possibly in the way of praise of vari- 
ous excellent features which particularly appeal. Certain 
it is that no thinking person can leave a hospital as a con- 
valescent patient without some ideas that would be of value 
to the architect. From one he may learn that patients 
would greatly appreciate having the windows built low 
enough to enable them to see out when reclining in a chair 
during their first days of convalescence. From another 
he may learn that it is quite possible and altogether desir- 
able to so arrange corridor lights that they will not shine 
directly through a transom into the patients' eyes. Yet 
another may call his attention to the great comfort of the 
so-called bar-room door which makes possible perfect 
ventilation in the summer time, or at night, yet screens the 
private room from the curious gaze of those passing 
through the corridor. Another will warn him that eleva- 
tors should be built into sound-proofed shafts, — another 
that the kitchen must be so located as to absolutely keep 



the odors from the hospital proper. wSome of the sugges- 
tions may be irritatingly obvious, yet he will doubtless 
find most of them based upon actual and distressing ex- 

Every one has his or her viewpoint, and it is the busi- 
ness of the architect to study and analyze the ideas of all 
those ultimately concerned in the institution which he 
may be planning. 

As we have put the comfort of the patient as the most 
important consideration in the hospital plan, so have we 
made second the convenience of the hospital staff, the 
workers of the hospital, those who live day in and day out 
in the midst of its trials and exasperations, its joys and its 
griefs, its comedies and its tragedies. I sometimes wonder 
whether they should not be made first. 

Certainly everything should be done to facilitate the 
work of the busy superintendent. Living quarters cannot 
be made too livable for one whose life work is in the 
hospital field ; whose years are spent within hospital walls. 
And quite as true should this be of that terribly over- 
worked, self-sacrificing woman, the superintendent of 
nurses. It is curious and somewhat discouraging to note 
how often her comfort and convenience is overlooked. It 
is not yet the rule that she has a sitting room and bath of 
her own, while her office is, more often than not, a 
mere makeshift. Not long ago the writer was in one 

of the largest and most lauded of our Eastern hospitals 
and found the superintendent of nurses without a tele- 
phone in her office. Quite a considerable distance had 
to be traversed to the nearest available one. The in- 
stallation had been ' ' promised ' ' for over a year, but not 

Of all hospital officials, there is no one whose conven- 
ience or comfort should be more carefully considered than 
hers. There is perhaps no one from whom the architect 
should be able to get more practical ideas concerning 
almost every phase of hospital planning ; how comfort can 
be secured ; how human energy can be saved ; how 
general efficiency can be attained. Wise is he who avails 
himself of this " working " knowledge. 

So also the heads of each department. Their comfort 
and convenience means efficiency and economy for the 
hospital. It is therefore a matter of moment that the 
dietitian should have desk room near her diet kitchen and 
storeroom ; that the matron should have the sewing and 
mending room in the closest proximity to the laundry ; 
that the pharmacist should have his supply room adjoining 
his drug room, or directly beneath it, communicating with 
a circular staircase. 

These and similar details are of major importance to 
the individual heads of departments, but ultimately of 
equally as great importance to the hospital administrators. 

( To be continued in The Brickbuildek /i^r/K/j/.) 








riesT / 











The Planning of a Young Men's Christian Association 

Building. — Part III. 


THE activity that is being- manifested in educational 
and social circles to combine means for the physical 
with that for the mental development can be properly ac- 
credited to the Young- Men's Christian Association, for it 
realized, at its inception, the potency of exercise under 
wholesome environment, as a necessary accomplice to its 
religious and educational endeavors. And so, the physi- 
cal department of the Y. M. C. A. has within the past 
decade underg-one a complete revolution. As more and 
more serious analytical study is given by those to whom 
the work is entrusted, orthodox and trite theories are being- 
discarded, and more radical and efficient forms are 
observed. All this has come about since the leaders in 
the association work have made the architects cognizant 
of the fact that the ostensible purpose of the physical 
department, that is, the gymnasium and auxiliary rooms, 
natatorium, shower and locker rooms is not solely to g-ive 
physical training, but must serve as an efficient instru- 
ment for moral, educational, and physical culture. 

Standards have been adopted, and undoubtedly time 
and further thought will develop and perfect details, but 
the relative placement of the rooms as now adopted will 
remain until such times as the present system of adminis- 
tration will be altered. 

Unfortunately, however, we find comparatively too 
many recently completed association buildings of the type 
and magnitude of which these papers are treating in which 
the relationship of the different rooms comprising- the 
physical department have been devised, but with absolute 
disregard to the primary elements of association architec- 
ture. Such dereliction upon the part of the architect is 
impardonable, for good examples are abundant and are 
accessible to all. 

In the planning of the physical department the factor of 
" direct circulation " becomes the major consideration, and 
failure to take cognizance of this fundamental principle has 

been the pitfall of the architect and the failing of too 
numerous structures. Elsewhere within the building direct 
circulation is desirable only as a convenience and to avoid 
trespassing-. But here it means altogether something more 
serious, as will be seen. To better understand, let us 
digress from the "idea/" and consider the altogether 
too "common." Fig. I diagrammatically represents the 
physical relationship and indicates the line of circulation 
that frequently exists in otherwise commendable building-s. 
Member A (whether junior or senior) enters his locker 
room, dons his gymnasium suit and immediately goes to 
the gymnasium. After his exercising- he returns, un- 
dresses, has his " soap up " and the compulsory shower, 
and crosses the hall to the pool. In his circulation from 
the shower to the pool his dripping body leaves a trail 
behind him. He emerg-es from the pool, again enters the 
hall, water running from his body, not having taken care 
to dry himself, and makes for the locker room, and after 
dressing goes elsewhere in the building. Member B im- 
mediately follows and from his locker room retraces the 
line of circulation of Member A into the hall, ihe floor of 
which is quite naturally wet, and, in passing, the soles of 
his gymnasium shoes add dirt to the accumulation. And 
in reaching- the gymnasium, unavoidably, and with dam- 
aging results, draggles mud with him onto the floor. 
Finally, in crossing from the shower room to the pool, the 
soil is broug-ht into the natatorium and carried on the soles 
of his feet into the swimming: pool. Multiply the circula- 
tion of and effects caused by Members A and B by the 
attendance per day, and the cause of the damag-ed gym- 
nasium floor, untidy basement, and constantly dirty swim- 
ming pool, and the general dilapidated appearance of many 
buildings, is manifest. The remedy is a most simple one 
and, if study is given so as to make " cross circu/ation " 
impossible and not elective, the problem is solved. Note 
circulation in Fig;. II. 

■ R.^_0 M ■ IT 


cT H O V C P^ 
• P^ M 


D R,Y- 





'rf' 1/^ 


LC C IC_L R^ • K^a M 

riG. r. 

riG. II. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



































1 ~ 





















LOdCEP^ • 

B o;x. EtT 




The foregoing 
analysis iseqimlly 
important for 
both junior and 
senior depart- 
ments and is as 
necessary in one 
as it is vital to 
the other. 

In the moder- 
ately sized build- 
ing, it is seldom 
possible to as- 
semble the entire 
physical depart- 
ment on any one story; obviously the ideal arrangement, 
from the view-point of supervision and direct circulation. 
Assuming then that the rooms of the department must be 
divided among several stories, the distribution and rela- 
tionship of the rooms should be such that the circulation 
will be direct and the distance traversed reduced to a mini- 
mum. This should be especially so in the circulation from 
the locker room to the pool, via the shower room, at which 
time the member exposes his overheated body and makes 
himself susceptible to cold. 

The relationship of the units having been tentatively es- 
tablished, we shall consider them separately. 

LockerRooms. The direct accessibility of the locker rooms 
is a matter of serious consideration. Especially is this so 
in the case of juniors. For them, if it can be so planned, 
their locker room should be but a step from the point at 
which they leave the supervision of their secretary. 

Juniors and seniors should be segregated and it is advis- 
able to further subdivide the senior locker room so that the 
older men, whom we shall hereafter refer to as the busi- 
ness men, shall not be compelled to mingle with the less 
serious minded and at times mischievous youths, at the 
moment when the latter are most capricious. The entrance 
to the junior locker room should be from within their own 
department, but it is advantageous to compel the business 
men to pass through the senior locker room. In this 
manner the senior, aware of the possible presence of his 
elder, will keep within stricter bounds of propriety. The 
locker room in reality should be but one room divided into 
sections ; the actual division being a row of lockers of the 
usual height and wire mesh or wired glass arranged in re- 
movable panels above. Such an arrangement will most 
readily permit of a reapportionment of the capacity of the 
sections as the several memberships fluctuate from time to 
time. It is advisable to locate the seniors in the middle 
section so that the frolics of the boys will least disturb the 
older men. When determining the capacity of the locker 
space, it is incumbent to allow for a twenty-five per cent 
expansion in membership. 

Provide for an abundance of natural light and ventila- 
tion as these are vitally necessary. If lacking, whatsoever 
other virtues the room might possess, its usefulness will 
be hindered and its influence negative. 

There are several systems of locker storage in opera- 
tion. (Fig. III.) 

(A) The simple straightforward " ordinary " long 
passed the speculative and theoretical stage. (B) The 
more modern ' ' A'atisas City Plan ' ' and the most recent (C) 



as follows. 

Modified Kan- 
sas City Plan . ' ' 
Data as to the 
different methods 
of operation of 
the several sys- 
tems, some of 
which are con- 
trolled by patent 
rights, can best 
be procured 
through the 
Concisely, they 
mav be described 

In (A ) a locker is provided for each member 
holding membership entitling him to the locker privi- 
leges. The member has absolute right of occupancy 
and keeps his gymnasium clothes and accessories in it 
at all times except when he is using the physical de- 
partment. Then his locker serves as a storage for his 
street apparel. In system (B) a membership carries 
with it possession of a box or wire basket, approxi- 
mately 8x12x8 inches deep, which serves as a receptacle 
for his gymnasium suit, toilet articles, etc. In operation 
the member applies to the attendant in charge of the 
locker room for his basket and is assigned to a locker, the 
key of which is given to him. He disrobes and places his 
clothing and emptied basket in the locker and passes to the 
gymnasium. Comparison. In system (A), if the member- 
shi]) is one thousand, it is necessary to install as many 
lockers albeit the maximum attendance at any one time 
may be but one hundred. If system <B) were to be em- 
ployed, one thousand baskets need be provided and but one 
hundred lockers, a sufficiency to accommodate the maxi- 
mum single attendance. 

In system (C) the same proportion of lockers and bas- 
kets are required, but instead of having the baskets under 
the charge of an attendant, they are filed in racks of com- 
partments each large enough to hold the baskets and each 
under lock. In operation the member removes the pad- 
lock (which can be of the keyless type) from the compart- 
ment containing his basket and possessions and carries 
them to any locker which he finds not in use. He disrobes, 
placing his street apparel and basket in the locker, and 
secures it with the same padlock. Comparison. System 
(C) eliminates the necessity of employing an attendant; 
is most economical in space ; the carrying of key« and the 
possibility of their loss is eliminated and it makes each 
member personally responsible for his own effects. 

The following is the ratio of floor area in square feet per 
member required respectively by the several systems. 
The figures are based upon an average attendance in pro- 
portion to a fixed membership. 



Business Man* 













The above figures are based on the following dimen- 
sions : All lockers 144 square inches, in sectional area. 
In the junior locker room they are arranged in double 

* Dre.ssing booths in the proportion of six to every one hundred mem- 
bers are provided for the business man. The advisability of providing 
this feature is dependent upon the type of membership. 





tiers, all others single tier with the aisles between lockers 
3 feet 6 inches in width. 

Ignoring- all other factors, pro and con, it would appear 
that system (C), for economic reasons, should be adopted 
unqualifiedly; but still, under certain environment, the 
other systems possess superior attributes. What would 
serve splendidly in the North might be decidedly bad in 
Florida, and a perfectly serviceable plant for a wealthy 
residential community would be doomed to failure if at- 
tempted in an industrial center. For example, in a manu- 
facturing community, where the membership would be 
composed of men and boys, a large percentage of whom 
would be proletarian and who would not possess the pro- 
pensity towards cleanliness, the installation of system (C) 
would be absolutely absurd. One can imagine the per- 
spired gymnasium suit, crumpled and locked in a reposi- 
tory and used perhaps but once a week and laundered not 
too often. It is obvious that system (A) is by far superior 
here, as the members' clothes would at least be hung and 
permitted to air. But system (B) would have its incon- 
testable advantages, for, as the members' baskets are 
returned to the attendant, he can at a glance see if the 
member's suit is in condition to be again worn, or if the 
association maintains its own laundry service, the garments 
can be washed and sterilized and returned to their respect- 
ive baskets between sessions. 

In designing any building in which the plan of the floor 
containing the locker rooms is such that there are other 
activities, which require supervision and control, namely, 
bowling alleys, billiard room, etc., then an attendant 
should be provided at a focal point, who can distribute 
the baskets and operate system (B). In addition he should 
collect fees for the use of the different privileges, distribute 
towels and soap, and thus 
relieve the main desk of 
these inconveniences. He 
also should supervise and 
control the locker room and 
swimming pool. 

When determining upon 
the locker system to be em- 
ployed, the following factors 
should govern the choice : 
(a) type of membership, (d) 
climatic conditions, (c) plan 
of floor, id) area available. 

Gymnasium . The gymna- 
sium, when active, is one 
hundred per cent noise of 
the piercing variety, and so 
its location in the plan 
shoHld not be such that it 
will become necessary to 
curb its activity to spare 
other departments. The 
room being enclosed in brick 
walls, or walls of other 
sound-resisting material, it 
is manifest that the trans- 
mission of sound (not vibra- 
tion due to impact) is great- 
est through windows, roof 
openings, and doors. The 

gymnasium, consequently, should never be planned for at 
the base of a court and neither should the windows open 
upon a court or shaft facing the main building proper. 
The doors leading to the gymnasium generally are those 
from the locker rooms, the physical director's offices and 
spectators' galleries, and these must be so arranged that 
any possible reverberation will not be communicated 
directly to any room where it will constitute a disturbing 

The gymnasium and its related rooms should be planned 
so that they will lend themselves for diverse usages ; for 
recreative games, for gymnastics, and finally for large 
assembly purposes. As a gymnasium pure and simple 
the room need not have any particular form, granted, of 
course, that its dimensions are ample. As a room in which 
the prevailing popular games, such as indoor baseball, 
basket ball, and track sports may be efficiently and suffi- 
ciently accommodated, it need be of certain proportions, 
42 feet in width and 60 feet in length being the minimum 
dimensions, while 50 feet by 75 feet is considered ideal. 
Variations, when made, should not alter the proportion. 
In height the room should not be less than 22 feet to the 
lowest point of the roof trusses and not less than 9 feet 
and preferably 11 feet to the under side of the running- 
track gallery. 

RiDuiing Track. The width of the running track 
should be about 6 feet from the center of the outer rail 
to the wall. This width makes the passing of runners 
possible with little fear of interference. As a spectators' 
gallery, it will allow a row of seats against the rail and 
leave ample passage. If it is contemplated to frequently 
adapt the gymnasium as a place of assemblage, then the 
means of ingress should be at the side rather than at the 

ends where the incline is 
most steep and dangerous. 
Sliding poles and ladders 
should lead from the track 
to the gymnasium floors, 
but it is advisable to recess 
and so place them where 
their presence will not be 
dangerous. The wells 
should be devised so that 
they can be closed to prevent 
trespassing at public occa- 
sions. Radiators should be 
placed out of reach and, 
where additional radiation is 
l)laced under the track, the 
latter should have narrow 
registers or chases in the 
floor close to the wall, so 
that the warmed air will not 
rise at the front of the 
gallery to the discomfort of 
the spectators at the rail. 

The windows in the gym- 
nasium should be well dis- 
tributed on all available 
walls extending down to not 
less than within six feet of 
the floor on the side walls 
and to the track level on the 



ends ; leaving: these walls for hand ball play. All windows 
and as a matter of fact all sash opening into the gymna- 
sium must be provided with wire screens fastened to each 
sash where they are movable. 

Exercise Room. A valuable and necessary auxiliary of 
the gymnasium is the exercise room, to be used when the 
gymnasium is assigned for class work, tournaments, etc., 
and consequently inaccessible for individual exercise. 
Here will be found the punching bags, pulley weights, 
equipment for calisthenics, etc. A room 15 feet by 25 feet 
with a ceiling not less than 13 feet in height is serviceable. 

Apparatus Room. A room about 12 feet by 15 feet 
should be placed immediately adjacent and central to the 
gymnasium as a storage room to accommodate the gymna- 
sium equipment. Here will be kept all possible movable 
apparatus, including mats, at occasions when the gym- 
nasium is to be used as an auditorium or when games 
occupy it. It should be connected with the gymnasium by 
an opening not less than 10 feet and wide enough so that 
the handling apparatus can be easily accomplished. 

The entrances to the gymnasium should be as indicated 
in Fig. IV, that is, through the exercise room. The 
advantage of such an arrangement is significant, as it 
eliminates a condition that is extremely annoying to the 
physical director, for should the entrance be directly into 
the gymnasium, it will be found that members will rush 
pell-mell into the room unconscious of the fact that a class 
is being instructed or that a game is in progress. A roll- 
ing shutter or the folding doors, indicated, separating the 
rooms, when closed will permit of conscientious class work 
by eliminating the sources of distraction in the exercise 
room . 

Physical Director's Offices. The physical director's offices 
should command a clear survey of the gymnasium and as 
much of the running track as is possible. Not so much is 
this arrangement necessary for the detection of miscon- 
duct as it is to allow the director to casually see from his 
office that his leaders are properly directing their charges. 
His offices should be composed of an examining room not 
less than 8 feet by 10 feet with a shower room containing 
a lavatory opening from it, and his working office facing 
and with entrance from the gymnasium. This room should 
contain a fairly large closet in which will be kept such 
gymnasium appurtenances as basket and medicine balls. 
There should also be an additional closet for the use of the 
instructor as his wardrobe. 

The ostensible function of the physical director is, as 
his title implies, to properly direct physical development. 
His office should be situated as indicated in Fig. IV', 
for with a positive command of the spectators' space, he 
can espy the frequent and interested looker-on and can 
advise with him when necessary. The spectators' space, 
sufficiently large to accommodate twenty to thirty, should 
be within convenient distance of the lobby. 

Sho-wer Rooms. To guard against the possible con- 
tamination and consequent spread of disease, the associa- 
tion compels each member to bathe himself preliminary 
to his entering the swimming pool. For this must be 
provided shower rooms leading from each locker room 
and immediately adjacent to the natatorium. The showers 
should never be within the natatorium itself as the result- 
ing presence of steam and noxious odors becomes dis- 
agreeable. Concentrating the shower rooms as indicated in 

Fig. V presents an arrangement that is most economical, 
flexible, and simple of administration. It achieves equal 
results with a lesser number of showers than if the junior 
and senior shower rooms were disconnected and located at 
a distance from each other. In the operation of the physical 
department each class of membership has access to the 
swimming pool and gymnasium only during definite hours, 
though the locker and shower rooms may be available to all 
during these same times. And so by locking the door be- 
tween rooms B and C during the senior session the showers 
in rooms A and B are at their disposal and the showers in 
room C (an ample number for other than class times) are 
accessible to the juniors. Similarly, by closing the door 
between rooms A and B during the junior session, then 
they can use the showers in rooms B and C while the 
seniors have access to room A. After special events in 
the gymnasium, at which time the members of one depart- 
ment only are admitted and then in extreme numbers, the 
usual allotment of showers for that department is always 
inadequate ; but with the arrangement indicated it is 
possible to press into service the bath rooms of both 
departments without necessitating or permitting circulation 
through any other than the one locker room. 

In the senior shower room, each shower bath should be 
within a separately enclosed stall, with the controlling 
valves and soap receptacles on the sides rather than at the 
back, as is common. In the junior shower room, seventy- 
five per cent of the showers should be within one large 
compartment, with one controlling valve to be operated by 
an attendant who will regulate the quantity of water sup- 
plied and its temperature. The shower rooms should be 
wide and sufficient in area so as to allow freedom to its 
occupants while standing around after their baths — of 
course, a separate drying room is more desirable, but not 
necessary. Natural light and ventilation must be had 
and in abundance, and no plan should be at all considered 
that will not make ample provision for it. Avoid windows 
at the back of the showers as they are sources of cold 
drafts, and consequently dangerous. 

F'or the business men there should be provided special 
bath accommodations adjoining their locker room. Their 
room should be more commodious than the other bath 
rooms, as only a percentage of the older men will use the 
swimming pool and the others will leisurely take their 
shower bath and subsequent rub-down. A hot room about 
6 feet square is sometimes provided to advantage in the 
business men's shower room. Its desirabilit}' is depend- 
ent entirely upon local environment. If it is installed, its 
walls should be of clear glass to eliminate the possibility 
of imdetected accident. 

The bathers must have access to toilet accommodations 
other than that provided for the general membership. 
Inasmuch as the toilet room will be used before and after 
disrobing, it should not be necessary to pass through the 
shower room to reach it, as otherwise the members would 
carry dirt across the wet floor, which matter will ulti- 
mately find its way into the swimming pool. It is further 
objectionable to compel the members to pass through the 
shower room and chance the wetting of their clothing. 

Natatoriums . In determining upon the disposition of the 
natatorium, the major consideration should be natural 
light and ventilation, with the sources so distributed that 
the sunshine will be directly admitted during the longest 



part of the day. It should be borne in mind that the 
need of privacy may nullify the value of some windows as 
means of ventilation. A skylig-ht over the swimming- pool 
is of indubitable value, and if necessary, the plan should be 
warped to make this provision possible. Constructional 
means should be incorpo- 
rated to guard against 
excess chilling of warmed 

The pool should be 
either 18 feet or 21 feet in 
width and its length a 
factor of yards, and usually 
45 feet or 60 feet. A pool 
21 feet in width by 60 feet 
in length is considered 
standard and records made 
therein are recognized by 
athletic bodies as being 
official. The depths vary 
as indicated in Fig. VI, 
with a level section at the 
shallow end for the non- 
swimmers and with the 
deepest point in advance of 
the spring board. 

The difference in initial 
cost between the standard 
pool and one of lesser 
dimension is not propor- 
tionately large, and other factors should be considered in 
concluding as to its size — the cost of water, cost of refil- 
tration, and cost of heating and reheating. In a resi- 
dential community, where the membership would be 
composed of high school students and others deeply inter- 
ested in aquatics, the standard pool would certainly be a 
necessity, and its increased cost of maintenance can be 
defrayed by the income derived from paid attendances at 
exhibition games. 

A spectators' gallery or bleacher should invariably be 
provided. It will assist in stimulating greater interest in 
water sports and ultimately in increasing membership. 

Its position, whether at the end or along the side of the 
pool, should be elevated so that the spectators can readily 
see the water line. It is far better placed at the end or 
ends of the natatorium rather than at the sides where it 
becomes uncomfortable to keep turning one's head in fol- 
lowing the swimmers. In 
any event there should not 
be any walking space be- 
tween the pool and the 
spectators' gallery in 
which the bathers can 
stand and obstruct the 
view of the spectators. 
The pool should be in no 
case free standing, that is, 
at least one side should be 
close to a wall so as to 
prevent the bathers from 
running around the ix)ol 
and causing injury to one 

In the construction of 
the ceiling over the pool 
care should be exercised 
that no ceiling beams or 
girders project down .so as 
to prohibit the use of a 
springboard. The ladders 
into the pool should be re- 
cessed so that no part will 
obstruct the clear swimming space and on which no mem- 
ber can cause himself injury. The ladders should be 
on the sides rather than at the ends, which, must be flush 
and without any projections or depressions, so that the 
swimmers can use the walls in negotiating turns in races. 
An unevenness would give an advantage to one man 
over the others. The rim of the pool should be provided 
with a sanitary gutter on sides and ends. The construc- 
tion of this rim and other parts of the natatorium, together 
with a discussion as to the construction and choice of 
materials from a utilitarian standpoint, will be discussed 
in the following and concluding article of this series. 




Architectural Jurisprudence. — Part II. 



SINCE a proper understanding: of the duties of an archi- 
tect is essential as a basis for the full appreciation of 
his liabilities, the readers are referred to articles on " Legal 
Hints for Architects," published in The Brickbuilder, 
issues of July to November, 1911. In our present con- 
sideration we will discuss the architect's liabilities under 
the following- headings : ( 1 ) Liability to the vState or Muni- 
cipality, (2) Liability to the Employer, and {3) Liability 
to the Contractor and Other Persons. It is of course 
understood that we shall treat only of the liabilities which 
an architect incurs professionally. This will, however, 
include those cases where he loses his remuneration for 
services performed. 

Liability to the St.\te or Municipality 
The States of Illinois, California, and New Jersey have 
passed statutes which restrict the practice of architecture 
to those who comply with the requirements set forth. 
New York is about to pass such a law. Many attacks have 
been made upon these statutes as being- contrary to the 
P'ourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States, but to date they have been imsuccessful and it 
seems now well settled that the State has the right to 
make and enforce such restrictive laws regulating the 
professions. Failure to comply with these statutes maj- 
involve the architect in the following difficulties : Firstly, 
he is powerless to recover compensation for work done or 
services rendered. In one case, in order to help the archi- 
tect as much as possible, the Court decided that the archi- 
tect might take a contract for architectural services before 
he had complied with the statute requirements, and that 
the law was satisfied if he had followed its regulations 
before starting work. This distinction does not seem 
sound and should not be relied upon. Secondly, non-com- 
pliance with such statutes is a misdemeanor which is a 
criminal offense. The pmiishment for this offense is 
sometimes mentioned in the statute or may be set forth in 
the criminal code and ordinarily carries an arrest with 
fine or imprisonment for a short period or both. 

Then, in addition to the state statutes, many of the 
municipalities such as cities, counties, towns, and villages 
have local regulations requiring an architect to take out a 
license to do business or to pay a tax on his profession. 
Failure of the architect to attend to these ordinances 
usually permits the authorities to compel him to pay 
not only the stated license fee or tax with a high rate of 
interest, but also a fine for non-payment. Should the 
proposed National Income Tax Law become effective, 
architects earning large professional incomes will have to 
observe its requirements and pay their proper tax there- 
imder or be liable for the stated punishment. 

As these practices and taxing statutes are becoming popu- 
lar not only as a protection to the profession but also as a 
source of revenue, it behooves all architects to make fre- 
quent inquiries regarding such laws from responsible and 
competent parties and thus avoid the embarrassment and 
financial losses which are sure to result from failure so 
to do. 

Liability to the Employer. 
The duties of an architect towards his employer, whom 
wc will call the owner, may be summed up in the follow- 
ing items : 

1. Reasonable skill, ability, and taste in planning, de- 
signing, and superintending construction work in the light 
of present knowledge. 

2. Reasonable and honest judgment in such planning, 
designing, and superintending, and in advising the owner 
in regard to anything connected therewith. 

3. Employment of competent and careful assistants. 
A lack of ability or failure to comply with these duties 

renders an architect liable to the owner therefor. The 
damages or loss to the architect may be cither the loss of 
his remuneration, should the owner choose to relieve the 
architect from his contract of service, or the damages ac- 
tually suffered by the owner on account of the architect's 
failures or negligence, in which case the owner claims and 
stands upon the breach of the contract of service by the 
architect. In this latter case the architect is entitled to 
his compensation or credit for it should the damages prove 
to be more than such compensation. Since the ordinary 
case of trouble culminates in an action by the architect 
against the owner for his compensation or the balance of 
it, many are unaware of any damages other than the loss 
of such compensation when the owner is successful in his 
defenses of unskilfulness, non-performance, negligent su- 
perintendence, etc. Among the reported cases of such 
actions the following defenses were held good and the ar- 
chitect refused the compensation he sued for : 

1. Where the contractor's estimates were substantially 
in excess of the limit of authorized cost. 

2. Where the actual cost greatly exceeded the limit of 
authorized cost. 

3. In public contracts where either the contractor's es- 
timates or the actual cost exceeded the appropriation for 
the construction including the architect's fees. 

4. In public construction work, where there was no ap- 
propriation or where the contracting officials had no power 
to contract ; or where the charter requirements were not 
fully complied with ; or where the appropriation was void 
because of failure to comply with charter requirements, 
etc.; or where the architect was not qualified or was dis- 
qualified to accept such public contract. 

5. Where the plans and specifications are not delivered 
within a specified time and also are not complete according 
to contract or custom. 

6. Where the plans had no dimensions or figures on 
them and the scales did not correspond, and the plans and 
specifications were full of omissions and inaccuracies. 

7. Where the plans and specifications or the buildings 
constructed therefrom did not fulfill the purpose for which 
they were designed or were defective in other than minor 

8. Where there is wilful omission or departure by the 
architect from the terms of his employment or from the 
directions and instructions of the owner, or from the ap- 
proved plans and specifications. 



9. Where the plans and specifications or either were 
prepared in violation of the law, either state statutes, or 
city ordinances, or building- codes, etc. 

10. Where the superintendence is neglig-ent, the de- 
fects being such as were discoverable by the exercise of 
reasonable care and skill on the architect's part. 

There are sugg-estions in the opinions deciding these 
cases that, if the action brought is to recover a balance due 
the architect, the owner could, under these circumstances, 
ask and secure the return to him of payments already made 
to the architect. In many of these cases the question as 
to whether the owner waived or excused the architect's 
proper performance is raised, but it is usually not given 
much consideration by the ordinary jury 

Let us now consider some of the cases where the owner, 
instead of being satisfied with preventing the architect 
from getting any compensation for his work, demands his 
damages for unskilful service or negligence. The meas- 
ure of damages appears to vary somewhat, but seems gen- 
erally to come down to a recoupment by the owner of his 
loss from the architect. 

In one case where the chimney flues were not large 
enough for the purposes for which they were designed, 
the owner was permitted to retain from the architect's 
compensation an amount equal to the cost of correcting 
this defect not discovered until after construction. In 
another case the general plans showed a different roof pro- 
jection and construction on the front elevation than on the 
other three elevations. There was but one detail drawing 
and that corresponded with the two side and back eleva- 
tions . The owner wanted the building as shown on the front 
elevation, but the builder, under orders from the architect, 
constructed in accordance with the single detail drawing. 
The architect later had to sue to try and recover the bal- 
ance due him for his services and the owner defended -oja 
the ground of non -performance and claimed $500 because 
the architect had caused material departures from the 
plans without any authority and against his protest. The 
architect claimed that the front elevation was structurally 
and architecturally imperfect and that he had the right 
and the duty to correct it. The evidence showed that the 
building could easily be changed to suit the front elevation 
at an expense of $400. The decision held that the princi- 
pal drawings formed the basis of the contract and also 
formed the test of what was required for the performance ; 
that since there was a substantial performance on the part 
of the architect, and there being no bad faith on his part, 
he could recover, his full fee less the cost to the owner to 
change the house as shown by the front elevation. Thus 
the owner was allowed $400 for the work to be done. 
This case and others indicate that generally speaking the 
architect is governed by the same rule of damages as con- 
tractors. ■ This rule maybe stated, " The party damaged is 
entitled to recover a sum which would leave him as well 
off as he would have been had the other party fully per- 
formed the contract." In further explanation of this 
rule of damages another case is interesting. The archi- 
tects were only employed to superintend and supervise 
certain alterations and repairs. The architects and their 
inspector or clerk of the work allowed floor timbering to 
be insecurely and carelessly laid and also contrary to the 
building code. The work was completed and the archi- 
tects and builders fully paid. For several years the work 

caused trouble with the plastering and decorations which 
were repaired, but finally the floor settled so badly that it 
had to be taken out and extensive repairs made. The 
owners then sued the architects for their negligent super- 
vision, and upon the jury finding that they had not exer- 
cised reasonable care and diligence in supervising the 
work, although one of the architects testified that either 
he or his partner was there daily, the owner was permitted 
to recover a sum which would leave him as well off as he 
would have been had the architect properly supervised 
the original repair work. 

In a late case the architect was held liable for the dam- 
ages caused by dry rot in flooring improperly laid in con- 
crete, notwithstanding his excuse that it was the result of 
the incompetency of the clerk of works appointed by the 
owner. In another case it was suggested that if the archi- 
tect should negligently or unskilfully overestimate the 
amount of progress certificates and the employer should 
have to complete the work at his own expense, the builder 
becoming bankrupt, that any loss from the fact of the 
overpayment to the builder could be charged against the 
architect. Probably the most serious decision respecting 
an architect's liability holds that if the architect guaran- 
tees or warrants that a building will only cost a fixed 
sum, the owner can recover any excess cost above that 
amount from the architect. The same case also decided 
that if an architect locates a building so that it violates 
restrictions against the property imposed by a munici- 
pality, the owner being without knowledge of the .same, 
that the architect is responsible for all damages accruing 
thereby, including attorney's fees in defending such 

When we consider defective or imjiroper building con- 
struction there are two people, the architect and the con- 
tractor, who may have caused the injury although they 
may not have acted in concert, and in such cases they arc 
each liable for the damage. Should the owner choose to hold 
the architect liable, he may do so and recover his damages 
from him. Strange as it may seem, the architect then 
does not have any recourse against the builder even though 
the latter was partially or equally or primarily responsible 
for such condition of the work. On the other hand, if the 
owner collects from the builder he loses his right of action 
against the architect and for this reason many architects 
have escaped in such cases. That is also the reason why 
many architects are not aware of their liability under such 

Whether the architect in his work is considered as an 
independent contractor or as an agent or servant of the 
owner, his employer, may make some difference in his 
responsibility to his employer. For example, if the archi- 
tect is the agent of the owner and during tlie superintend- 
ence he refuses to let the contractor control the work and 
takes charge and control in matters of method, ijrocedure, 
and detail, he may make the owner responsible for the 
negligence of the contractor and his employees. Should 
the owner then be compelled to pa\- the dama.yes for such 
negligence, it would seem that he could reimburse himself 
from the architect. The owner has recourse also against 
the contractor, and he usually takes that means since it is 
easier and cheajier. We have a general rule of law appli- 
cable here, that an employee is directly liable to his em- 
ployer for an\- damage occasioned b\- his negligence or 



misconduct in connection with his work, whether such 
damage is direct to the property of the employer or arises 
from compensation the employer has been compelled to 
make to third persons for injuries sustained by them. 

In the matter of inspection and superintendence there 
are cases holding that unless improper materials or poor 
workmanship are seasonably and reasonably objected to, 
rejected, and condemned, that after incorporation and 
partial payment therefor, it is then too late for the owner or 
architect to object to such materials and workmanship, and 
the owner will be considered to have waived his rights under 
the contract in that regard on account of the architect's fail- 
ure to perform his duty. As the owner then has no recourse 
against the builder he should be able to recover his loss 
from the architect who is responsible for such a condition. 

There are times when the architect takes compensation 
from the contractor on a job for various reasons, some 
proper and others improper. Under the usual rule of the 
law of agency, the agent must account to his employer for 
any secret profit or compensation he has taken for doing 
what he was under contract with his employer to do, or 
the amount paid him for doing something which would 
presumably be against his employer's interests. This does 
not apply where the employer knows of or approves of such 
outside employment, hence it is a safe rule for an architect 
to advise the owner when he desires to do anything for the 
contractor for which he intends to demand or receive pay. 

A somewhat analogous but more serious situation arises 
when the architect requests or receives a gift, gratuity, 
commission, discount or bonus from a contractor, material 
man, or employer of labor for giving them the work or 
with an understanding that he shall act in a particular 
manner in the business entrusted by the owner to him. 
In many states this is a crime. For example, in New 
York it is called a misdemeanor and carries a punishment 
of not to exceed $500 fine or not more than one year im- 
prisonment, or both. A word to the wise is sufficient. 

Liability to the Contractor and Other Persons. 

Under this topic we will discuss very briefly the archi- 
tect's liability to the contractor and to persons injured either 
physically or financially by reason of his lack of skill or 
failure to properly perform his duties. An architect's duty 
to a contractor consists chiefly in giving honest and fair 
estimates of work done or certificates for payment at the 
proper time ; reasonable, honest, and timely decisions on 
all matters within his scope, either as agent of the owner 
or as an arbitrator ; and written orders for alterations, 
additions, extras, or omissions only when he is authorized 
by the owner to give such orders. A failure on the part of 
an architect to perform these duties, except perhaps his 
failure as an arbitrator, creates a liability to the contractor. 

For a general statement it may be said that for a non- 
feasance, which is the neglect of an architect to do some 
act which he was bound to do under his employment, the 
architect is not responsible to others than his employer. 
When, however, the architect does a lawful act or his duty 
in an unlawful or improper manner, he is always respon- 
sible to the employer and often to the injured party. While 
there are not many reported cases directly in point, yet 
those few are important. In one of the rather old cases 
an architect employed by a church ordered some stone 
from a material man on account of and for the Church 

Building Committee. Later the church refused to pay 
for the stone and was sued by the material man. Up to 
the time of the trial the architect contended that he had 
authority to order for the church, but on cross-examination 
he admitted receiving a letter from the Church Committee 
expressly stating that no stone must be ordered in the 
name of the church. This lost the case for the material 
man, who then sued the architect not only for the value of 
the stone, but for his costs and lawyer's fees in the de- 
feated action. In defense, the architect off'ered to pay for 
the stone alone. The jury were told that if they believed 
the architect represented that he had authority to order 
the stone from the church authorities and that that rep- 
resentation was untrue, then the material man was entitled 
to recover all he asked. Their verdict was against the 
architect. This was a pretty severe lesson for him, 
since he had to pay about $325, costs of the action lost to 
the church, about $500, the fees of the attorneys in that 
case, and about $150, the cost of the stone itself, besides 
the costs taxed against him personally. 

In a very late case where the contractor refused to go 
ahead with the work and the architect said that he would 
see that he was paid for the work requested, the opinion 
of a well-known judge intimated that where an architect 
knowingly and wrongfully made changes and ordered 
materials and work that were not embraced in the contract 
between the owner and the contractor, the architect was 
responsible therefor. 

Probably the leading case discussing an architect's lia- 
bility for causing physical injury or death discloses the 
following facts. A central column of a large building was 
planned to be placed on a cut stone block with 18 inches 
of concrete thereunder and upon undisturbed earth. In 
the construction work, unknown to the architect, this col- 
umn was placed over an old cistern, the earth around 
which was disturbed and only 12 inches of concrete were 
placed. Later the column collapsed, killing several people. 
In an action against the owner he was not held responsi- 
ble. The opinion holds that in the exercise of the super- 
intendence the architect was an independent contractor, 
and hence he and the contractor were each responsible for 
the damages caused by this disaster. The decision also 
stated that if the trouble had been a result of following 
improper plans and specifications, the architect would have 
been responsible for all damages suffered therefrom. 

In another death case the opinion of the court shows that 
they would hold the architect responsible for any negligence 
in failing to exercise the ordinary skill of his profession 
which results in the erection of an unsafe structure whereby 
any one lawfully on the premises is injured. They also were 
of the opinion that an architect who knowingly permitted 
a departure from the plans and specifications, or failed to 
condemn any improper work which he discovered, would 
be responsible to an\- party injured thereby. 

These cases and the opinions expressed in them are 
serious. It is hoped that architects will give more time 
and attention to personal supervision, or by the employ- 
ment of able assistants to whom they entrust their super- 
vision. The fact that architects have been lucky in the 
past in these matters has lulled many into the idea that 
they have no such financial liability as herein set forth, and 
it is feared that some are going to have a rude awakening 
unless they take heed and appreciate this warning. 



VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 81. 



VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 82. 




VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 83. 




VOL 22 NO. 6. PLATE 84. 


VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 85. 





< in 

J H 
Q. U 


< c 
a: < 


— Ul 

_l I- 


CD ** 

Q d 
-I 5 




VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 



VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 87. 

Z u 

0) t 

d ^ 

X < 


1 "^ 

I- " 

< Q 


(/) Ll 




VOL. 22. NO. 6. PLATE 





■ 4 fi:_<^0 HJp ? T L 00 i. . ,P, L A N* r 




VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 89. 


VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 90. 






"" '1 



■>A.-.>.t r 









VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 91. 



VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 92. 


VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 93. 







VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 94. 




VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 95. 

< t- 

z < 

-J c 

o -^ 

. u 

I/) 5 

LJ -J 

m < 

D '^ 


1 Q 



VOL. 22, NO. 6. PLATE 96. 



Brick Manor-Houses of France.— Part II 




THE visitor to the Loire Valley who merely g-oes the 
well-established round of the historic chateaux is 
very likely to find himself disappointed. This is perhaps 
largely due to their vaunting by artists and writers to a 
point which it is almost impossible for the reality — pinch- 
beck or frigidly restored as it often is — to sustain, and 
partly perhaps to the feeling that their grandiose and florid 
style, in spite of its beauty, has little of direct suggestive 
value for any of our really vital problems of the present. 
There is hidden away in the region, however, a wealth of 
minor chateaux, off the trav- 

eled routes and imblazoned by 
literature or history, which, if 
he can but find them, cannot 
fail to turn an architect's im- 
pression into one of enthusiasm 
and delight. Baedeker, and 
even the chateaux guide of 
Joanne, ignore La Moriniere, 
La Raviniere, Ferte-Imbault, 
and Herbault-en-wSologne ; to 
locate them one must use the 
most detailed maps ; to reach 
them, motors, voitures particn- 
lieres, or cycles at least. Yet 
when one has found them, or 
others like them, one realizes, 
possibly for the first tiine, the 
existence and the charm of a 
little known genre of French 
country residence, not castle, 
palace, nor yet fortified grange 
exactly, but akin somewhat in 
nature and handling to the 
smaller manors which make so 
much of the interest and beauty 
of England. 

Owing to the long insecurity 
of the Hundred Years War and 
the civil wars, and to the sub- 
sequent centralization of the 
nobility at the court, these are 
much less common in France 
than in England, but at the 
beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury and again to a less degree 
in the reign of Henry IV, there 
occurred moments favorable to 
their erection. Though not 
intended to sustain a siege, 

such houses were generally protected against casual 
marauders by a wall and a moat, which sometimes included 
the farm buildings as well. As the great castles likewise 
ceased to be fortified, the term " chateau " lost any impli- 
cation of military strength and came to be applied indis- 
criminately to any country residence of some importance. 
At the same time brick, which in the Middle Ages had been 
generally abandoned in favor of stone, except in some ])r()v- 


Near Mur-en-Sologne. 

inces in the south, once more became popular, apparently 
for esthetic reasons, since it is often used where stone 
was easily obtainable. It was now freciuently employed 
with stone trim, a practice previously little known. 

Among these unhackneyed minor chateaux few are more 
masterly in design or more lovely in present effect than 
La Moriniere, situated about twenty miles distant from 
Blois, a mile from the high road to Raniorantin, and two 
or three from the occasional trains to the sleepy village of 
Mur-en-Sologne. Local tradition has it that it was con- 

.structed, like Chambord, as a 
hunting lodge by Francis I ; 
but in size it certainly little re- 
sembles its great neighbor, 
even if the absence of the initial 
and the salamander did not be- 
lie completely any attribution to 
the royal egoist. The i^rcsent 
chateau was in truth — so the 
owner tells — built for the most 
part by one Guillaume des 
Roches, who had been surveyor 
of the works at Chambord. 
Upon the death of Francis in 
1547, and the consequent re- 
laxing of work on his favorite 
project, it is said that des 
Roches brought a few of the 
hundreds of craftsmen thrown 
out of employment to build La 
Moriniere. It is probable, 
moreover, that he was not the 
first occupant of the site, but 
that he demolished an earlier 
medieval castle and based 
many of his walls on the old 
foundations. It is even related 
that the north wing, which is 
the oldest iJortion that now 
exists, was thus built forty 
years earlier than the rest, in 
the reign of Louis XII, but it 
is such an integral part of tlie 
whole design, its classic ])ilas- 
ters show so little diiTerence 
from of the main build- 
ing and .so nuK-li from Louis' 
work at Blois, tiiat it seems 
more i)r()bable tliat the demo- 
lition and rebuilding all took 
itivciy short time and under a single 

place within a re 
presiding mind. 

Surely the subtle hand of a true master was never more 
evident than in the composition of the ensemble. The 
chateau proper is disposed about a court, nearly s(|uare, 
in such a way that from each point of view, above all from 
the front, there is a certain balance, yet this never becomes 
exact symmetry. The four sides of the court, originally 




at least, were all of uneciual heitrht. On the west rises 
the principal mass, containing the more important rooms, 
crowned by a pjramidal cupola which is the focus of the 
entire composition. Along the northern side runs a lower 
wing for the service, with a small square tower engaged at 
the outer corner of its eastern gable. The mass thus 
formed is balanced in the view from the forecourt bj- the 
towerlike bulk of the chapel, also square, which occupies 
the southeastern corner. Connecting these two formerly 
ran a low gallery of carved wood, with a pavilion in the 
center, the form of which is still traceable at the end of 
the bridge. For good or for ill, in 1825, when the chateau 
came into the hands of the present family, this gallery was 
removed, leaving only a low parapet such as has always 
formed the fourth or southerly side. Taken simply by 
themselves, surrounded as they are by their wide moat, 
these buildings form a most suc- 
cessful group, which, when the 
ancient gallery existed to give still 
further variety to the sides of the 
court, and, in spite of the easterly 
entrance, to lend a sense of opening 
toward the south, must have been 
still more interesting. 

The forecourt and its buildings, 
for a clearer view of which the 
gallery was sacrificed, however, 
supi>ly a perspective and an enclo- 
sure which woiild otherwise be lack- 
ing, and render the whole rarely 
unified and beautiful. Along either 
side, each returning for some dis- 
tance across the eastern end, are 
L-shaped masses of one story, occu- 
pied by the stables and farm build- 
ings, with simple hip roofs little 
broken by dormers or chimneys. At 
the east, the court so made is closed 
by a wall pierced only by the main 

axial gate of the chateau, but to the 
west the view is entirely open to the 
principal group, just across the moat. 
This is the more true because the 
forecourt is enough wider than the 
main court to bring the inner face 
of its buildings about in line with 
the outer walls of the chateau, so 
that the north tower and the chapel 
are included in the perspective. It 
results also that the outline of the 
whole group, stables and moat, is 
brought to a simple rectangle, and 
attractive vistas from the west are 
secured along either side of the 
moat to the ends of the farm build- 
ings. Added interest is given to 
these vistas as well as a necessary 
accent and finish to the farm build- 
ings as seen from other points of 
view, by four towers, partly di.sen- 
gaged, at the outer corners. Three 
of these are simply square, but the 
fourth, the southwestern, is given a 
hexagonal shape, and serves as the inevitable dove-cot. 
Within it one may still see the ladder turning on its central 
pintle, and the tiers of nests, the original " pigeon-holes," 
formed in the masonry by tile shelves between vertical 
ranges of brick, from which the birds, feeding on the corn 
of neighboring peasants, did their share to help on the 

The slightly asymmetrical balance which characterizes 
the general disposition is carried through into the minor 
membering of the chateau. A examination will show, 
for instance, that the forecourt, the bridge, the main door- 
way, the central dormer, and the cupola are none of them 
in precisely the same line ; and that consequently the main 
axis is given a freehand character which we to-day confine 
to our sketches alone, but which we are just being taught 
to realize the medieval architects consciously strove to 




preserve in their executed buikling-s. Ag-ain — but little 

influenced, it seems, by the interior — the designer took 

care to throw the weight of interest and detail of his facjade 

to the left, where it is needed to assist the mass of the 

chapel to hold its own against the somewhat heavier wing- 

on the other 

side. The same 

subtle principle, 

which has been 

happily called ;^ 

occult balance, 

might be traced 

throughout the 

buildings of the 


Unlike the 
profuse and in- 
ventive carving 
of the royal 
works, the detail 
of the chateau 
has not in itself 
particular inter- 
est. To be sure 
there is a door- 
way, and a few 
pilasters and 
dormers in 
carved stone, 

but they serve, like the stone quoiningat the angles, rather 
to give an emphasis and enlivenment to the general design 
than to attract individual attention. The most character- 
istic touch is given by the 7neurtrieres of the outer walls and 
towers, which show that the necessity of defense, at least 


against casual marauders, had not wholly passed away. 
It is not here the sculptured detail that gives the chateau 
its delightfully intimate and domestic character, but more 
than anything else the material of the simple walls — 
brick which from the first must have had a variety of 

color and a rich- 
, ness of texture 

whichweare but 
just now once 
more attaining. 
To-day, un- 
touched save in 
a few places 
where complete 
decay has forced 
the reluctant 
and tender hand 
of the owner, to 
whose forbear- 
ance many great 
fisstires con- 
tinue to testify, 
it has a mellow 
beauty of patina 
for which we 
must still wait 
on time. In the 
forecourt the 
tone of the walls 
is a rich red orange, gained by the absence of arch-brick, 
here very sparingly used in the chinmeys only, and har- 
monizing completely with the moss-bronzed tile of the 
roofs and the red trunks of the Norway pines, which, by a 
stroke of genius, have been planted where bark and 




fired d^- alike are flecked with the same atmospheric 
light. rand shadow. In the building-s within the moat, 
on the contrary, there is everywhere a diagonal ])at- 
tern of darker 
headers, some- 
times almost 
vanishing and 
never too evi- 
dent, which 
gives just 
enough tinge of 
violet-red to 
prevent the 
least jar with 
the purple slates 
of the roofs — 
here, like the 
freer use of 
stone and carv- 
ing, indispen- 
sable for con- 
trast and accent, 
and crowning, 
enough, an ex- 
terior of the 
greatest charm. 

In the interior, although one may enjoy most the little 
cabinet de travail, littered with works in progress in music, 
sculpture, painting, and verse, the architectural intercFt 


is, however, confined mainly to the salon and the salle a 

The original furniture has long been scattered, and there is 

little attempt to 
reproduce its ef- 
fect exactly, but 
the complete 
success of the 
result, in spite 
of this, enforces 
the oft repeated 
lesson that con- 
s i s t e n c y of 
period matters 
little when the 
pieces are 
chosen with 
taste and com- 
bined with skill. 
one may well 
envy the owner 
his country seat, 
surrounded as it 
is by charming 
landscape and 
the best coverts 

in France, and possessing itself the rare artistry — the 

poet's poetry — that make above all the delight of 

an architect. 




I'K.. I. Aiii)n((RH!,M — Tine univkrsitv or Illinois, c. 11. Biackaii, Archite^i. 

The Use of Sounding-Boards in an Auditorium 

Assislaiil Professor of Physics, Vniversily oj Illinois. 

SOUNDING-BOARDS are well known because of their 
use in audience halls where the acoustical proper- 
ties are unsatisfactory. Thus many churches are found 
equipped with this device with the expectation that the 
acoustics will be made better. Because of this common 
use the author has been led to test soundingf-boards of 
different forms, to determine, if possible, their value in 
bettering: the acoustics of an auditorium. 

The experiments were carried out as a part of a more 
complete investigation of the acoustical properties of the 
auditorium of the University of Illinois. This auditorium 
is shaped nearly like a hemisphere with several large 
arches and recesses to break the regularity of the inner 
surface. (See Figs. I and IV.) The original plans of the 
architect were curtailed because the amount of money 
appropriated for the construction of the building was 
insufficient for the purpose. The interior of the hall was 
built absolutely plain with no breaking up of the smooth 
wall surfaces, and no furnishings were provided in the 
shape of carpets or curtains. The acoustical properties 
proved to be unsatisfactory. A reverberation, or undue 
prolongation of the sound, existed. In addition, echoes 
are set up because of the large size of the room and be- 
cause of the position and form of the walls. 

A diagnosis of the acoustics was made. The time of 
reverberation was determined by Sabine's method* to be 
a little more than six seconds. The echoes were located by 
tracing out the paths taken by the sound. This was done 

by means of an arc-light backed by a parabolic reflector. t 
The arc gave out sound waves in addition to the light ; the 
two sets of waves traveling together, so that by noting 
where the light struck a wall, an observer could " see " 
where the sound traveled. The echoes were finally elimi- 
nated by placing canvas curtains so as to break up the 
sound waves that ]:)roduced the trouble. 

It occurred to the author during the course of the inves- 
tigation that sounding-boards might be helpful in curing the 
echoes. Several forms of boards were used. A flat board, 
about 5 feet square, inclined at an angle above the head of 
the speaker, produced but little effect. A canvas sheet, 
about 12 by 20 feet, similarly placed, was also unsatisfac- 
tory, although speakers said they could talk better under it 
than out in the open. Sounding-boards were then used of 
a parabolic shape, and these produced a pronounced effect. 

The sounding-board, or more properly, the reflecting 
board, was set up at one side of the platform, after the 
manner of the pulpits in Episcopal churches. (Fig. II.) 
The shape of the reflector was a (|uartcr section of a parabo- 
loid of revolution with the axis nearly liorizontal. The 
frame was madecjf wood, and faced on the under side with 
hard plaster on wire lath. The finished reflector is shown 
in Fig. III. The results obtained were lu-onounced. Pre- 
vious calculations showed that the sound would be directed 
in sucha way as to confine the echoes to a small section of 
»W. C. Sabine, " Architectural Acoustics," Amcriiau Archilccl, 1900. 
t P. R. Watson, " Kchoes in an Autlitorium,'' /'liysirat Rrview, Vol. il, 
page 231, 1911. 





the audience. A canvas of the auditors showed this to be 
the case. Echoes were reported in the section expected, 
but the remainder of the audience had no such trouble. 

Some time later another reflector of the same shape and 
size was made and mounted over the center of the statue. 
This was done because speakers regarded the raised pul- 
pit arrangement on the side of the stage as i-ather formid- 
able. This second frame was much lighter in weight. It 
was constructed of small wooden rods in a most ingenious 
way by one of the University carpenters. (.Sec Fig. V.) 

It was faced with white oilcloth (see Fig. VI) instead of 
plaster, since it had been found that the oil cloth was a 
good reflector of sound and was much lighter in weight. 
The result obtained by its use confirmed the expectations 
as in the previous experiment. 

Reflectors of this kind have certain objectionable fea- 
tures. Thus, if the mouth of the speaker is at the focus 
of a paraboloid, the reflected sound goes out in a parallel 
bundle and only a small portion of the audience gets the 
reenforced sound. This was found to be so in the two 




C. H. Blackall, Architect. 



cases cited. Experiments showed the sound to be confined 
to the reg-ion calculated. Auditors in this region reported 
an increased sound, while others outside this zone had no 
such reenforcement. To remedy this shortcoming- and 
direct the sound to all the auditors would require a reflec- 
tor of different form. The results obtained indicate that 
this could be done by making- up a modified parabolic re- 
flector to suit the conditions of the particular case. 

One other defect is the annoyance to the speaker. Thus, 
if his head is near the focus (Fig. VII), he is in a position 
to get concentrated sound from the audience; i.e. , coughing, 
sneezing, rustling of papers, etc. With the reflectors used, 
no such annoyance occurred. The two gentlemen who 
spoke — the Right Reverend Bishop Osborne, who used 
the reflector at the side of the stage, and Reverend Hugh 
Black, who used the reflector in the center of the stag-e — 
each expressed his satisfaction with the reflector and re- 
ported no annoyance in speaking. The steep slope of the 
reflector eliminated any feeling- of being " shut in." A 


speaker standing- at the focus is not conscious of the pres- 
ence of the reflector unless he turns around and looks 
at it. 

The advantages possessed by such a suitably designed 
reflector are perhaps two in number. First, it serves to 
cut off the sound which passes to walls that may produce 
acoustical disturbances, and second, to direct this sound 
usefully to auditors at a distance from the speaker. Both 
of these effects were obtained in the auditorium at the 
University of Illinois. It is not planned to use the reflec- 
tor at the latter place, since, as already indicated, the 
echoes can be eliminated by the installation of false walls 
in the dome. It seems likely that such a reflector would 
be useful in a hall where the walls could not conveniently 
be modified. It would be especially adapted for use in 
churches or halls where the position of the speaker is con- 
fined to a small space. * 

» See Air/iiicc/iiral Rcz'ieu', Vol. I., Plate LVITI., necember, 1912. 






buildings at spring lake, n. j. 
Brazer and Robb. Architects 






AN DiN OTES ^ * 




A TERSE and forcible expression of the problem of 
to-day was read by Mr. Thomas Basting's before the 
Royal Institute of British Architects. His paper was en- 
titled "Modern Architecture," in the course of which he 
said: "We American architects are ofttimes confronted with 
the question as to why we have not an architecture of our 
own, one which is essentially American ; and why it is 
that so many of us who have studied in Paris seem inclined 
to inculcate the principles of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts into 
our American architecture. The majority of people do 
not seem to realize that in solving problems of modern life 
the essential is not so much to be national or American as 
it is to be modern and of our own period. 

' ' The question of supreme interest is : What influence 
life in its different phases has upon the development of 
architectural style ? Style in architecture is that method 
of expression in the art which has varied in different 
periods, almost simultaneously throug-hout the civilized 
world, without reference to the different countries, beyond 
slight differences of national character mostly influenced 
by climate and temperament. Surely modern architecture 
should not be the deplorable creation of the would-be style- 
inventor, or that of the illogical architect living in one age 
and choosing a style from another. 

' ' The important and indisputable fact is not generally 
realized that from prehistoric times until now each age 
has built in one, and only one, style. Since the mound- 
builders and cave-dwellers, no people, until modern times, 
ever attempted to adapt a style of a past epoch to the solu- 
tion of a modern problem ; in such attempts is the root of 
all modern evils. In each successive style there has 
always been a distinctive spirit of contemporaneous life 
from which its root drew nourishment. But in our time, 
contrary to all historic precedents, there is a confusing 
selection from the past of every variety of style. Why 
should we not be modern and have one characteristic style 
expressing the spirit of our own life ? History and the 
law of development alike demand that we build as we live. 

' ' One might consider the history and development of 
costumes to illustrate the principle involved. In our dress 
to-day we are modern but sufficiently related to the past, 
which we realize when we look upon the portraits of our 
ancestors of only a generation ago. We should not think 
of dressing as they did, or of wearing a Gothic robe or a 
Roman toga ; but, as individual as we might wish to be, 
we should still be inclined, with good taste, to dress accord- 
ing to the dictates of the day. 

' ' Style in its growth has always been governed by the 
universal and eternal law of development. If from the 
early times, when painting, sculpture, and architecture 
were closely combined, we trace their progress through 
their gradual development and consequent differentiation, 
we cannot fail to be impressed by [the way in which one 

style has been evolved from another. This evolution has 
always kept pace with the progress of the political, relig- 
ious, and economic spirit of each successive age. It has 
manifested itself unconsciously in the architect's designs, 
under the imperatives of new practical problems and of 
new requirements and conditions imposed upon him. This 
continuity in the history of architecture is universal. As 
in nature the types and species of life have kept pace with 
the successive modifications of lands and seas and other 
physical conditions imposed upon them, so has architectu- 
ral style, in its growth and development, imtil now kept 
pace with the successive modifications of civilization. For 
the principles of development should be as dominant in 
art as they are in nature. The laws of natural selection 
and of the survival of the fittest have shaped the history 
of architectural style just as truly as they have the differ- 
ent successive forms of life. Hence the necessity that we 
keep and cultivate the historic spirit, and that we respect 
our historic position and relations, and that we more and 
more realize in our designs the fresh demands of our time, 
more important even than the demands of our environ- 
ment . 

" Were it necessary, we could trace two distinctly paral- 
lel lines — one the history of civilization and the other the 
history of style in art. In each case we should find a 
gradual development, a quick succession of events, a 
revival, perhaps almost a revolution and a conseciuent 
reaction, always together like cause and effect, showing 
that architecture and life must correspond. In order to 
build a living architecture we nnist build as we live. Com- 
pare the Roman Orders with the Greek and with previous 
work. When Rome was at its zenith in civilization the 
life of the people demanded of the architect that he should 
not only build temples, theaters, and tombs, but baths, 
palaces, basilicas, triumphal arches, commemorative pil- 
lars, aqueducts, and bridges. As each of these new prob- 
lems came to the architect it was simply a new demand 
from the new life of the people — a new work to be done. 
When the Roman architect was given such varied work to 
do, there was no reason for his casting aside all precedent. 
While original in conception, he was called upon to meet 
these exigencies only with modifications of the old forms. 
These modifications very gradually gave us Roman arclii- 
tectiire . 

"Compare a workman of to-day, building a (iothic 
church, slavishly followin.g his detail drawings, with a 
workman of the fourteenth century doing such detail work 
as was directed by the architect, but with as much interest, 
freedom, and devotion in making a small capital as the 
architect had in the entire structure. Perhaps doing pen- 
ance for his sins, he praises God with every chisel-stroke. 
His life interest is in that small capital; for him work is 
worship, and his life is one continuous psalm of praise. 
The details of the capital, while beautiful, may be gro- 

1 1 










tesque ; but there is honest life in them. To imitate such 
a capital to-day without that life would be affectation. 
Now a Gothic church is built by laborers whose one inter- 
est is to increase their wages and diminish their working- 
hours. The best Gothic work has been done, and cannot 
be repeated. When attempted it will always lack that kind 
of medieval spirit of devotion which is the life of medieval 

' ' vSo g-reat were the chang-es in thoug-ht and life during 
the Renaissance period that the forms of architecture 
which had prevailed 
for a thousand years 
were inadequate to 
the needs of the new 
civilization ; to its 
demands for greater 
refinement of 
thought ; for largfer 
truthfulness to 
nature; for less 
mystery in form of 
expression, and for 
g-reater convenience 
in practical living-. 
Out of these necessi- 
ties of the times of 
the Renaissance 
style was evolved — 
taking: about three 
gfenerations to make 
the transition — and 
around no other 
style have been ac- 
cumulated such vast 
stores of knowledge 
under the lead of the 
g-reat masters of 
Europe. Therefore 
whatever we now 
build, whether 
church or dwelling, 
the law of historic 
development re- 
quires that it be 
Renaissance ; and if 
we encourage the 
true principles of 
composition it will 
involuntarily be a modern Renaissance 

Wilder & White, Architects. 

and with a view 
to continuity we should take the eighteenth century as our 
starting-point, because here practically ended the historic 
progression and entered the modern confusion. 

' ' In every case where the medieval style has been 
attempted in modern times the result has shown a want of 
life and spirit, simply because it was an anachronism. 
The result has always been dull, lifeless, and uninterest- 
ing. It is without sympathy with the present or a germ 
of hope for the future — only the skeleton of what once 
was. We should study and develop the Renaissance and 
adapt it to our modern conditions and wants so that future 
generations can see that it has truly interpreted our life. 
We can interest those who come after us only as we thus 
accept our true historic position and develop what has 

come to us. We must accept and respect the traditions of 
our fathers and grandfathers and be, as it were, appren- 
ticed by their influence. Without this we shall be only 
copyists or be making poor adaptations of what was never 
really ours. 

" The time must come, and I believe in the near future, 
when architects of necessity will be educated in one style, 
and that will be the style of their own time. They will be 
so familiar with what will have become a settled convic- 
tion, and so loyal to it, that the entire question of style, 

which at present 
» seems to be deter- 
mined by fashion, 
fancy, or ignorance, 
will be kept subser- 
vient to the great 
principles of com- 
position, which are 
now more or less 
smothered in the 
general confusion. 

"Whoever de- 
mands of an archi- 
tect a style not in 
keeping with the 
spirit of his time is 
responsible for re- 
tarding the normal 
progress of the art. 
We must have a 
language if we 
would talk. If there 
be no common lan- 
guage for a people 
there can be no 
communication of 
ideas either archi- 
tectural or literary. 
I am convinced that 
the multiplicity of 
lirinted books and 
]ieriodicals written 
by literary critics 
and essayists who 
have not even been 
apprenticed, but are 
writing with author- 
ity about art, has 
than anything else in 
I believe that we 

N. J. 

perhaps been more instrumenta 
bringing about this modern confusion 
shall one day rejoice in the dawn of a modern Renaissance, 
and, as always has been the case, we shall be guided by the 
fundamental princii^les of the classic. It will be a modern 
Renaissance, because it will be characterized by the con- 
ditions of modern life. It will be the work of the Renais- 
sance architect solving new problems, adapting his art to 
an honest and natural treatment of new materials and con- 
ditions. Will he not also be unconsciously influenced by 
the twentieth-century spirit of economy and by the appli- 
cation of his art to all modern industries and speculations ? 
"We must logically interpret the practical conditions 
before us, no matter what they are. No work to be done 
is ever so arbitrary in its iJractical demands, but tliat the 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

art is elastic and broad enough to give these demands 
thorough satisfaction in more than a score of different 
ways. If only the artist will accept such practical impera- 
tives as are reasonable, if only he will welcome them, one 
and all, as friendly opportunities for loyal and honest 
expression in his architecture, he will find that these very 
conditions will do more than all else besides for his real 
progress and for the development of contemporaneous art 
in composition. 

"The architects in the early history of America were 
distinctly modern and closely related in their work to their 
contemporaries in Europe. They seem not only to have 
inherited traditions, but to have religiously adhered to 
them. I believe that it is because of this that the gen- 
uine and naive character of their work, which was of its 
])eriod, still has a charm for us which cannot be imitated. 
McComb, Bulfinch, Thornton, Latrobc, L' Enfant, Andrew 
Hamilton, Strickland, and Walters were sufficiently Ameri- 
can and distinctly modern, working in the right direction, 
unquestionably influenced by the English architecture of 
Inigo Jones, vSir Christopher Wren, James Gibbs, Sir 
William Chambers. Upjohn and Renwick, men of talent, 
were misled, alas, by the confusion of their times, the 
beginning of this modern chaos, the so-called Victorian- 
Gothic period. 

" Gifted as Richardson was, and great as his personality 
was, his work is always easily distinguished, because of its 
excellent quality, from the so-called Romanesque of his 
followers. But I fear the good he did was largely undone 
because of the bad influence of his work upon his profes- 
sion. Stumpy columns, squat arches, and rounded cor- 
ners, without Richardson, form a disease from which we 
in America are only just recovering. McComb and Bul- 
finch would probably have frowned ui)on Hunt for attempt- 
ing to graft the transitional Loire architecture of the 
fifteenth century upon American soil, and I believe all will 
agree that the principal good he accomplished was due to 
the great distinction of his art and the moral character of 
the man himself, rather than to the general influence and 
direction of his work. 

"Whether we agree with Charles F. McKim or not in 
wanting to revive in the nineteenth century the art of 
Bramante, St. Galo, and Peruzzi, he had perhaps more of 
the true sense of beauty than any of his predecessors, in 
American art. His work was always refined, personal, 
and with a distinctly more classic tendency in his most 
recent buildings. 

" It is, I believe, a law of the universe that the forms of 
life which are fittest to survive — nay, the very universe 
itself — are beautiful in form and color. Natural selec- 
tion is beautifully expressed, ugliness and deformity are 
synonymous ; and so in the economy of life what would 
survive must be beautifully expressed. 

When we think of what the past ages have done for us, 
should we not be more considerate of those that are yet to 
come ? A great tide of historic information has constantly 
flowed through the channel of monuments erected by suc- 
cessive civilizations, each age expressing its own life, and 
we can almost live in the past through its monuments. 

The recently-discovered buried cities of Assyria give us 
a vivid idea of a civilization lost to history. The Pyramid 
of Cheops and the Temples of Karnak and Luxor tell us 
more of that ingenuity which we cannot fathom, and the 

grandeur of the life and history of the Egyptian people, 
than the scattered and withered documents or fragments 
of inscriptions that have chanced to survive the crumbling 
influences of time. The Parthenon and the Erectheum 
bespeak the intellectual refinement of the Greeks as much 
as their epic poems or their philosophy. The triumphal 
arches, the aqueducts, the Pantheon, and the basilicas of 
Rome tell us more of the great constructive genius of the 
early republic and the empire of the C?esars than the frag- 
mentary and contradictory annals of wars and political 

" The unsurpassed and inspiring beauty of the Gothic 
cathedrals which bewilder us, and the cloisters which 
enchant us, impress on our minds a living picture of the 
feverish and morbid aspiration of medieval times — -a civ- 
ilization that must have mingled with its mysticism an 
intellectual and spiritual grandeur which the so-called Dark 
Ages of the historian have failed adecpiately to record ; 
and in America, even amid the absorbing work of con- 
structing a new government, our people found time to 
speak to us to-day in the silent language of their simple 
architecture of the temperament and character of our fore- 

"Will our monuments of to-day adequatelj'^ record the 
splendid achievements of our contemporaneous life — the 
spirit of modern justice and liberty, the progress of mod- 
ern science, the genius of modern invention and discovery, 
the elevated character of our institutions ? Will disorder 
and confusion in our modern architecture express the 
intelligence of this twentieth century ? Would that we 
might learn a lesson from the past — that modern archi- 
tecture, wherever undertaken, might more worthily tell 
the stor.v of the dignity of this great epoch and be more 
expressive of this wonderful contemporaneous life." 


FOR the first time since the organization, in 1896, of 
the National Fire Protection Association, its president 
is not identified with the fire insurance business. This 
innovation signifies the intent to broaden the influence of 
the association. The new president, Robert D. Kohn, is 
an architect of prominence in his profession and president 
of the New York Chapter of the American Institution of 
Architects. The architect can be a powerful agent for 
good in the movement for fire prevention, but at present 
he is an undeveloped force, says the Insurance Press. 

THE Supreme Court of Illinois has upheld the legality 
of the architects' license law of Illinois in a test suit 
brought by David Saul Klafter. 

CHINESE scholars have formulated a new alphabet, 
after a study of all the alphabets of the world, which 
will supersede, it is said, the cumbersome ideograms 
which were the pride of the ancient Chinese, as well as 
the puzzle of the modern world. Five vowels have been 
taken from the Latin, four from the Greek, four from the 
Russian, one from the Chinese, and two are elongated 
signs and seven are reversed ideograms. Fourteen con- 
sonants are Latin, three Russian, and two Greek. With 
these it is declared to be possible to write all the words 
used in any part of China. An effort is to be made at 
once to introduce the new alphabet into official circles. 




HOUSE, ST. MARTINS. PA /T^^W /A ,?S^/ ''ul 

HOUSE, NEW HAVEN, CONN Mu,^/n&/M>n, 109,110 

HOUSE, CHESTNUT HILL, MASS _F. Ma>;lo» Wakcjield 111 






Illustrations from drawings by McKim, Mead & White and York & Sawyer 

H. Van Buren Magonigle 


Descriptive article Editorial 

Illustrations from photographs and plans. 

Part II. General Considerations — <ri9«/?«««/ M. E. McCalmotit, R. N. 

Illustration from photograph and plans. 

Illustrations from photographs and plans. 

Part II. The Architect's Extra Work Wm. L. Bowmau, LL.B. 









Photo by I'lu- Royal Prussian J'holomehic Institute. 


Built about 14()0. Bands of rubble alterna- 
ting with brick and .stone. 


JULY, I913 



Some Suggestions as to the Making of Working Drawings, 



IT will interest the reader to know what methods are 
used in other offiees than that of the writer, and I am 
indebted to Messrs. McKim, Mead & White and York & 
Sawyer, to Mr. C. B. J. Snyder, architect of the New York 
Board of Education, and to Mr. Oscar Wenderoth, vSuper- 
vising Architect of the Treasury Department, for the loan 
of drawings, and statements as to their practices. 

Taking: these in their order, Messrs. McKim, Mead & 
White have loaned some of their drawings for the Munici- 
pal Office Building in New York City, a structure so largre 
and in some respects so complicated that it was of the 
highest importance to systematize the process of making- 
the drawings to avoid utter confusion. 

Including: shop-drawings, setting:-diagrams and the like, 
made outside of the office, the total number of drawings 
for the job was between seven and eight thousand. Of 
these a comparatively small percentage were made in the 
office, but they nevertheless ran into many hundreds. 

The job was divided into two contracts, one being for 
the structure proper and the other for the interior finish. 
The drawings necessary for the contract sets, that is to 
say, those upon which the bidders estimated and upon the 
basis of which the contracts were sig:ned, were all made on 
cloth in ink, so that they could be reproduced by lithog- 
raphy for the great number of copies required. For the 
first contract the lithograph copies were 27 inches wide 
and 40 inches long. General plans and elevations were 
drawn at '/^-inch scale and reduced photographically for 
lithog:raphic reproduction to Vici-inch scale. Scale details 
were made at ^-inch and reduced to ^-inch scale and full 
sizes reduced one-half. For the second contract the size 
of these lithog^raphed contract sets was 16 inches wide by 
30^ inches long:, the reductions being- similar to the above. 

This method produced contract sets of a size easily 
handled, and the photographic reduction made it possible 
to indicate vastly more than would have been possible at so 
small a final scale. There were one hundred and twelve 
drawings in the first and ninety-six in the second contract 
set, so that compactness was essential. 

The further drawing-s required for the execution of the 
work were made, some on cloth, but principally on white 
tracing paper, and of these sun prints were made. A 
width of 4 feet was established for these supplementary 
drawings to allow for large full sizes, but no attempt was 
made to keep a standard length, this dimension being 
reg:ulated by the capacity of solar printing machines. 
After i^rints for the contractors and for an office set had 
been made, the orig^inals were rolled on tubes about 10 

inches long^er than the width of the sheets, about ten draw- 
ings in each roll, and kept fresh for such further prints as 
mig:ht be required from them ; the office set of prints was 
used entirely for reference (see The Brickbuilder for 
May, 1913, first page) and were kept up to date with notes 
and references to correspondence where modifications were 
of a nature that would have required too lengthy a note. 

Details of ornament were made at full size on manila 
detail paper and the originals sent to the modeler ; but a 
careful tracing: was first made and prints of this issued to 
superintendents and general and sub-contractors. 

Mr. Nims, under whose direction this work was pro- 
duced, ag"rees with the writer that the drawing from which 
the print is made should be made by a competent man and 
be an orig-inal drawing- whether on cloth or tracing- paper. 
In too many offices, I gather, the original is made by a 
good man on paper and traced by a junior ; the contractor 
then g-ets a print from a junior's tracing ; or the paper 
original is handed out and the junior's tracing retained to 
make trouble, while the contractor's draftsmen make copies 
of the fine original and pass them along: to sub-contractors 
to make more trouble. A fantastic practice. 

Some minor points about these drawing's are of interest. 
The number of each drawing- is marked at all of its four 
corners and this is said to save time and trouble in refer- 
ence, and probably does in the field where drawing:s are 
not likely to be kept systematically and when wanted have 
to be hauled out of a heap or extracted from a roll. 

Owing- to the fact that there was much work below the 
surface, the foundations being very deep and the rapid 
transit subway running under the building, involving 
many drawing:s, the first floor plan was numbered 1001 to 
positively avoid any possible confusion, scale details beg:in- 
ning at 2001 and full sizes at 3001. Shop drawings are 
bound in the office set next to the architects' original for 
ready reference. 

The building being of irregular shape, on all elevations 
of its many faces, a miniature block plan in outline was 
given, with the portion covered by the drawing indicated 
with a heavy line (see illustration). 

The record of drawin8:s was kept by card index, each 
drawing having its own card with the number, etc., at 
the top. The trade for which the drawing is primarily 
intended is indicated by a letter and the number of copies 
and their destination recorded. No attempt is made to 
send out receipts for drawings ; the experience of every 
one is about alike in this ; contractors rarely return these 
receipts and it is really postage and extra work wasted at 



both ends, except in the thousandth 

My own practice as to providing- 
copies for contractors is to issue as 
man}' prints of a drawing- as there 
are trades represented by it, phis 
a copy for the contractor's office, a 
copy for his office at the job, and a 
copy for my own superintendent, 
which he keeps at the job ; I can 
control the way my own man keeps 
his drawing's and thus be reason- 
ably sure that when I want a draw- 
ing; on the job it can be found ; it 
is useless to expect a contractor 
to maintain order in the shanty 
and I have given np trying'. In 
the case of a one-trade drawing, 
such as a piece of cabinet work or 
carpentry, a copj' is made for the 
contractor's office, one for his job- 
office, one for his mill man and 
one for my superintendent. For 
stonework the same, except that 
the copy for the contractors at the 
job is omitted, the setters always 
using the setting diagrams made 
by the contractor ; but the clerk 
of the works gets one to keep his 
records complete and to check up 
by in case of mistakes or discrep- 
ancies. Mr. Nims used practically 
the same system on the Municipal 

The drawing's which Messrs. 
York & Sawyer consider fairly 
typical of their method arc also 
reproduced herewith. They gen- 
erally use a sheet of a standard size 
and if this is too small for any 
given job they simply increase it 
— which is the sensible thing to do. 
Whenever possible, details are 
made on tracing paper, otherwise 
on cloth, and printed. They have 
been trying a white tracing cloth, 
36 inches wide, 24 yards to the 
roll, at $5.45 per roll, instead of 
heavy tracing paper, for details ; 
this cloth will not take ink and the 
details are made iipon it in pencil ; 
it will bear more handling than any 
tracing paper. A little figuring 
(in which I have not yet personally 
indulged) would no doubt settle, 
for any one interested, the point of 
expense involved by the use of this 
cloth as against a bond paper or 
thin white tracing paper original 
kept fresh for future prints and a 
paper or cloth print of it for an 
office reference set. 

Origfinals and prints are kept flat 



' McKim, Mead & While, 



aCALZ i- i-o' 
■ ■■> T 

in drawers during the progress of 
a job and rolled and placed in tubes 
when it is completed. The ad- 
mirable clearness and complete- 
ness of the drawings are so obvious 
as to inake comment imnecessary 
were it not that all working draw- 
ings are not so good as these ; they 
have a way which has always ex- 
cited my admiration of giving 
explanatory details and sections, 
frequently at the same scale as a 
plan, on the plan to which that 
particular section relates, and espe- 
cially where some intricate or in- 
timate relation between two floors 
occurs. These are sometimes quite 
elaborate and they are nearly al- 
ways, if not quite, elucidations of 
parts impossible to cover in a gen- 
eral section, and they make a 
workmanlike and complete set of 
working drawings. General draw- 
ings are numbered from 1 to 100, 
scale details from 101 to 200, full 
sizes from 201 to 300. This would 
naturally vary somewhat with the 
size or degree of elaboration of the 

They still adhere to lettering 
firm name and titles by hand, as 
will be observed ; perhaps they may 
be converted. Just here I may 
speak of one of the methods in 
vog-ue in my office. I spoke in the 
May article of having certain gen- 
eral lettering carefully drawn, zinc 
cuts made of it and this general 
matter printed from them in 
printer's ink. After these zinc 
cuts were made, Mr. Frank Snyder 
had reverse casts made of them 
and then cast in rubber and 
mounted. These rubber stamps 
are generally used on bond paper 
or thin tracing paper originals 
instead of printing in printer's 
ink, for the obvious reason that 
dampening the paper to proj^erly 
take the ink cockles it. It is not 
necessary to dampen tracing cloth . 
We also use the name stamp, re- 
duced to one or two smaller sizes, 
as rubber stamps for various office 
purposes. The rubber stamp man's 
lettering would do just as well, 
I suppose, but I like uniformity in 
such things. 

It is very interesting" to compare 
these various ways of arriving at 
a result in private practice with 
those in the office of Mr. C. B. J. 
Synder. (To be published in The 







Z ifl 

— I- 

Q O 
_l UJ 

— I- 


Z 5 

2 D 

hi S 

X 2 

\ 2 

tt: ^ 




Brickbuilder for August. ) Naturally the problems in 
private practice vary so widely as a rule that standardi- 
zation is difficult except in minor particulars. But Mr. 
Snyder is building millions of dollars' worth of schools 
every year and has standardized much of the work. He 
has standardized certain types of plans, and these are 
traced over and over for new buildings of the type with 
such minor changes as may be advisable. The elevations 
and some special features are changed or entirely re- 
studied. But when it comes to details of staircases, details 
of construction and equipment and the like, these are thor- 
oughly standardized, given an identifying signature such as 
A2 or B6, and are referred to as such on the general plan at 
the point where such standard detail applies. It is, then, 
when a new school of a certain type is to be built, necessary 
only to make such minor changes in the general type plan 
as are necessary, re-study the elevations, alter sections to 
fit the elevations, make new details of the exterior, and for 
all the rest merely bind into the set copies of the standard 
details A2, B6, etc. These include staircases, handrails, 
standing trim, blackboards, etc. 

This is of suggestive value for the private practitioner. 
Standardization cannot be carried so far ; but there are 
very many things such as window frames, butler's pantry 
details, and service trim that can be standardized. It does 
seem silly to start fresh on such things for every new job. 
If we once work out the essential details of a butler's 
pantry satisfactorily, there is no reason for not doing pre- 
cisely the same thing in another job ; the drawing room 
is another matter. I tried it once some time ago, but 
somehow it fell into disuse and I am strongly inclined to 
revive it. 

In Mr. Snyder's Department, blue prints are made in 

the office and the width of the blue print paper controls 
the widths of sheets ; the extreme length is 6 feet, the 
largest print the office can make. 

Sheets for general plans, elevations, and sections are 
made uniform in size, but the detail sheets are not neces- 
sarily uniform in size with them. Eighth scale general 
drawings are the rule, with H inch for scale details. 

The issue book is a large double page affair giving date, 
number of prints, number of drawings received, etc., and 
is signed by the contractor when he gets his cojnes. 

The figures as to cost of production are impressive, 
although it is only fair to say that such low cost can only 
be expected where a high degree of standardization, as in 
a constant procession of school buildings, is possible. 

But we are all interested in the eternal question of cost 
of production, and it would seem reasonable for the pro- 
fession to adopt methods of manufacture that will bring 
down the cost of production without turning the offices 
into factories. 

In most architects the artistic temperament predomi- 
nates and it is an uphill fight against that rather disorderly 
quality. Most of us want to do decent work with a per- 
sonal touch ; how to do that and have something left over 
to meet our personal obligations is one of our biggest 
problems. But if we are artists first, we must, in these 
ultimate days, be also business men. We have grave 
responsibilities in the expenditure, to the best advantage, 
of our clients' money, the safeguarding of their interests 
in a hundred ways, and if we are too artistic to be busi- 
ness-like we can hardly hope to retain the respect and con- 
fidence of the business public that builds. It seems to me 
that a little simple systematization of our work will help 
us to serve it better. 

The series of Ivor king drarinngs will be completed in the August issue 
with reproductions of several interesting drawings front the offices of the 
Superi'ising Architect of the Treasury Department and C. B. f. Snyder. 


-or-nauRE5- ABOVE- small.- arche3- are- omitted - 



iCALE 4'.l"-0' 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



•'^un -.... n 


-i — i — j-= d^ 

- FROM 1'-^ TO 5'- FLOORS- 









The Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the 
BHnd at Watertown, Massachusetts. 

R. Clipston Sturgis, Architect. 

''T^IIE problem presented to the architect was a com- 
1. plete grroup of new buildings for the two depart- 
ments of the Institution previously housed in two separate 
groups, one in South Boston and one in Jamaica Plain. 
There were three main divisions of the problem : first, the 
upper school; second, the lower school; and third, the 
buildings common to both. The upper school required 
accommodation for about one hundred and sixty pupils 
demanding three separate units : first, the school and 
administration building ; second, the living quarters for 
the girls ; and third, the liv- 
ing quarters for the boys. 
The lower school re<|uired 
accommodation for about one 
hundred and twenty children, 
with the living quarters and 
school rooms in close relation 
to each other and with two 
general meeting rooms in ad- 
dition. The buildings to 
serve both these branches of 
the Institution were to con- 
sist of a Director's House, a' 
small hospital and dispensary 
building, and the power 
plant . 

The principle governing 
the housing of the children 
was a very important factor 
in determining the scheme of 
the plan. In other institu- 
tions of the kind, as for instance at Overbrook, Pa., the 
dormitory plan was adopted and there the school depart- 
ments as well as the living quarters were grouped under a 
single roof. Here the cottage system was adopted as the 
underlying principle and this involved subdividing the 
children into relatively small groups, giving to each group 
an independent, complete cottage with its bedrooms, living 
rooms, dining room, and service, and tending to create as 
much as possible the quality of the home. In the upper 
school there are four cottages for the girls and four cottages 
for the boys, each containing about twenty pupils with a 
matron, three or four teachers, and the necessary servants. 



the latter reduced to a minimum since the children are 
called upon to do a considerable amount of the daily work 
for themselves, such as keeping their rooms in order, help- 
ing at the table and in the serving rooms, and in kee])ing 
their cottage clean. The lower school consists of four 
cottages with about thirty younger children in each cottage, 
with their attendant teachers and a larger complement of 
servants since the younger children do less of the house- 
work. In the upper school these cottages are entirely 
separated from the school building, while, as noted above, 

in the lower school the living 
quarters are more closely 
allied to the school rooms. 

Another fundamental prin- 
ciple underlying the plan was 
the necessity for the segrega- 
tion of the sexes. In the 
lower school the two cottages 
for the boys and the two for 
girls are practically indepen- 
dent. In the upper school, 
the girls and boys each have 
direct access from their cot- 
tages to their respective por- 
tions of the school building. 
Further than this, within the 
school building itself, the 
school rooms for the boys and 
girls are kept completely sep- 
arated, and the common 
rooms, such as the museum, 
main assembly room, the smaller morning assembly 

room, and the swimming pool and gymnasium, so located 
as to give access for the boys and girls without any cross- 
ing of the line of approach. Separate playgrounds have 
been provided for the boys and the girls adjacent to their 
respective cottages in both the upper and the lower 
schools; and again the Hospital with its dispensary is so 
located as to give independent approaches for the boys and 
girls to their two entrances to the dispensary, as well as 
independent entrances to the four isolation wards. 

The Director's House had of necessity to be in close 
contact with the various units, and still give him some 



degree of isolation for his 
family life. The power 
house, housing: all the 
domestic services for the 
complete Institution so far 
as main supplies are con- 
cerned, had to be so located 
as to serve readily, through 
a tunnel system, all the in- 
dependent cottages with 
their daily needs, and also 
fulfil the requirements of 
the domestic engineering 
services. The power house 
contains a refrigerating 
plant and cold storage 
rooms; opportunity for the 
receipt, storage, and dis- 
tribution of all supplies ; 
boiler and engine rooms, 
carpenter shop, laundry 
rooms, bake shop, and 
living accommodations for 
about fourteen men. It 
also houses the "Howe 
Memorial ' ' printing plant, 
which serves not alone this 
Institution, but other insti- 
tutions throughout the 
country, and indeed the world to a certain extent as well. 
The site of the Institution comprises a forty-acre lot in 
Watertown, bordering on the Charles River. It is very 
largely level, sloping off towards the river, with steep 
banks and terraces which swing back to form a small 
valley near the middle of the boundary line. An existing 
driveway, bordered by splendid trees for half its length, 
has been used as an approach from the west. Along the 
west boundary a fine row of lindens screen the lot from 
the adjacent dwellings, and there are as well several small 
orchards. An attractive feature is a small natural pond 
near the middle of the property. 


The general plot plan of 
the group of buildings as 
developed shows how the 
upper school building and 
cottages form a long group 
parallel to the river front- 
age, with the existing 
driveway leading directly 
to the main entrance c)f the 
school and administration 
building. The Director's 
House was placed at one 
end of the group of girls' 
cottages, and so that the 
Institutional buildings 
would not interrupt the 
view of the river. Beyond 
this, in the southwest cor- 
ner of the lot, is the'power 
house. A service tunnel 
extends under the long axis 
of this group of buildings, 
with a branch tunnel from 
the end of the Girls' Close 
northward to the Kinder- 
garten or lower school 

The Hospital occupies a 
position on the curve of 
the driveway near the main school building, and is fairly 
centrally located in reference to the Boys' Close, the Girls' 
Close, and the Kindergarten. 

The cottages for the boys and the girls of the upper 
school developed into two groups which, for purposes of 
illustration, might be compared to the Vicars' Close at 
Wells in England. On each side of a central walk two 
cottages, stretched into a long building, run more or less 
east and west, admitting of southern exposure for all the 
living and sleeping rooms, with the toilets and wash rooms, 
stairs and corridors on the northerly side. Each i)air of 
cottages on each side of the Close meets in a party wall, 








VOL. 22. NO. 7. PLATE 97. 








VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 98. 



VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 99. 







VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 100. 



H (- 
o- '-' 

u_ UJ 

o t 

ll- I 
_l " 


1 "H 

U 15 

(fl ^ 

h- (« 

(- z 
u o 

I/) H 













THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 101 





VOL. 22. NO. 7. PLATE 102. 





VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 103. 





VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 104. 





VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 105. 









O t 
U. I 

O < 


<^ ^ 

H ^ 

H Z 

UJ o 

(/) H 

D ifl 














VOL. 22. NO. 7. PLATE 106. 


VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 107. 

7 "^ 
£ < 


_l u 

— _i 

H) m 







VOL. 22. NO. 7. PLATE 108. 















UJ uj 



VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 109. 




VOL. 22. NO. 7. PLATE 110. 










VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 111. 




VOL. 22, NO. 7. PLATE 112. 




Practical Details in Hospital Planning and Equipment. 



THE due and proper consideration of the staff is un- 
doubtedly the architect's greatest difficulty and a 
little analysis of the situation may not come amiss. 

It must be acknowledged at the start that doctors are 
not as a professional class good business men or execu- 
tives ; and very fortunately not, for if they were they would 
probably not be good doctors, and the world has a great 
need of them as such. The few and brilliant exceptions 
but prove the rule. Generally speaking, however, it is 
psychologically true that the practical temperament which 
impels a man to a business career is widely different from 
the temperament which impels a man to the medical pro- 
fession. Their modus operandi is diametrically opposed. 
The business of the one is commercial, in brief, to " get " ; 
the business of the other is more or less altruistic, in 
short, to " give." The success of the first depends upon 
method and system, the life of the other by its very nature 
precludes all system and regularity. We, therefore, very 
naturally find the majority of doctors unbusiness-like, im- 
practical and with not a very keen sense of the utilitarian ; 
that they are gullible and easily persuaded into a cham- 
pionship of impracticable propositions, finds ample testi- 
mony from the army of agents, promoters, etc., who single 
them out, in company with our worthy ministers, as their 
first and easiest victims ! 

This, however, is the architect's opportunity. They 
aye easily persuaded. Let the architect do the persuading. 
Usually he approaches the staff with the outward appear- 
ance, if not the inward spirit, of humility, and a modest 
assumption of ignorance on all the special problems of 
operating rooms and kindred departments. Let him 
change his procedure. Armed with real facts, let him 
approach the staff with an air of great knowledge and 
greater conviction, and when a surgeon wishes to have 
installed an antiquated sink because it is the kind he has 
always used, let the architect put before him the most mod- 
ern thing with every argument pro and con, and such an 
array of authority that discussion would seem absurd. 
Recently the writer knew of an instance where a surgeon 
refused to have a table with a modern hydraulic base, 
because it was so constructed that he could not wind his 
leg around it while operating ! In a western hospital built 
and equipped solely by doctors, in addition to exclusive 
furnishings of wicker (!) chairs, the beds in the private 
rooms had hand-painted roses on them ! It is difficult to 
imagine such enormities, yet they are facts. 

In another very beautiful hospital, the private room fur- 
nished by the medical staff contained the only lo-w bed in 
the hospital, — an impossibility to work over. 

These impractical tendencies are not so apt to creep into 
the actual hospital construction, but frequently are allowed 
to spoil the hospital planning. Undoubtedly the doctors 
must be consulted in regard to the special departments, 
operating room, laboratory, x-Ray, morgue, etc., but wise 
is the architect who enters the fray armed with facts. 

With utility rooms and housekeeping departments, it is 
folly to consult the majority of physicians. Possibly nine- 
tenths of the workers of our hospital are women. It is 
the intelligent worker who should have the best knowledge 
of what is required for his or her work, to which may be 
answered, " Is not the surgeon the worker \n the operating 
room?" Yes and no. His work is 2.\\ prepared iox \\:m\. 
It centers about one table. He has absolutely no idea of 
how many needless steps have been taken because of the 
inconvenient arrangement or planning. If his operations 
go smoothly, he thinks he has an ideal operating room and 
advises all his friends to build one just like it, without at 
all realizing that perhaps a difference of planning, a better 
arrangement of plumbing fixtures, etc., might lessen the 
working force in that department by one or more persons, 
as well as make the work less exhausting for all. 

Practically every bit of work that is related to or is de- 
pendent upon the proper planning of a hospital is done by 
the women workers — yet that same planning is generally 
dominated by a group of impractical men. And so we 
find, as in a recent most costly and beautiful hospital con- 
taining hundreds of dollars worth of unnecessary fixtures, 
not a porter's closet in the entire building ! Throughout 
the day the beautiful marble-lined bath rooms were disfig- 
ured by a motley array of brooms, pails, and mops — actually 
not a place to get them out of sight, much less economically 
care for them. 

Dozens of other similar oversights could be enumerated, 
but the point is certainly sufficiently illustrated. 

Location, Orientation, and Type. 

It is an amazing fact that many of our most recent hos- 
pitals are built in the noisiest and dirtiest sections of the 
town or city. 

It is natural for sick or wounded animals to go off to a 
shady and quiet place to recover. This is also the natural 
instinct of man. Yet with a horrible di.sregard for such 
natural tendencies, we build our hospitals in the noisiest 
possible sections, — street cars clanging past at all hours 
of the day and night ; teams rattling over cobblestones ; 
dust blowing in the windows ; the noise of playing chil- 
dren in the street. 

Surely one of the first duties of the architect, if he is 
truly interested in sane and humane hospital construction 
(and he should not have the temerity to plan a hospital if 
he is but commercially rather than humanly interested), 
should be to insist upon a reasonably suitable occasion. 

Under no consideration should it be on a street where 
trolley cars pass. vSpecial city or town ordinances should 
protect the patients from the noise of heavy drays, etc. 
The most noiseless form of pavement should be used in 
the street, cobblestones or similar noisy materials should 
be absolutely eliminated. The surrounding streets should 
be known and respected as " hospital streets." 



The noise without is supplemented by noise within. To 
be sure, it is a matter of common agrreement that a normal 
amount of noise is not undesirable. Whispering attend- 
ants, going about on tiptoe, would quickly produce an 
atmosphere as inimical to recovery as excessive noise. 
But the hospital is yet to be found where there is anything 
approaching a "deadly quiet." On the contrary, help- 
less and acutely sick patients are obliged to hear the dis- 
tressing sounds of childbirth, delirium tremens, nausea 
from anesthetics, crying babies, etc., to a truly brutal 
degree. No architect is doing his duty unless he insists 
that at least the nursery, delivery room, isolation rooms, 
and a reasonable number of recovery rooms are made ab- 
solutely sound-proof. Also that elevators, dumb waiters, 
etc., should be enclosed in sound-proof shafts. But it 
seems absurd to make a plea for a few rooms only, when 
the entire hosjiital should be sound-proofed. 

The architect who is the first to construct a modern hos- 
pital that is truly sound-proof deserves and will probably 
obtain a national reputation ! 

Were you ever acutely sick ? If so, did you not want to 
be in a quiet and darkened room ? What are we doing 
with the acutely sick in hospitals ? We put them in wards 
flooded with sunlight and full of cases of all descriptions ; 
frequent visitors ; and all manner of noises within and 
without. It is only when we are convalescent that we 
want floods of sunshine and can feel tolerant of many 
peop'e. Yet, in our present fad for orientation, we have 
almost forgotten that sunlight is most undesirable for 
many, and that quiet and a moderated light are at 
times essential factors in recovery. 

So, too, have we rather blindly followed the European 
idea of scattering the various one, two, and three-story 
pavilions of the hospital all over the landscape. 

The excessive cost and exhausting labor of administer- 
ing such institutions has been entirely lost sight of. There 
are many more arguments against than for. Certainly we 
have a better view, better air, less dust and less noise as 
we build up. The most forcible argument against build- 
ing up, rather than spreading out in the low pavilion style, 
is the danger in case of fite ; but our modern construction, 
particularly in hosjiitals, is so nearly fireproof as to weigh 
lightly as an argument against the many advantages 
gained from higher buildings. 

Ventilation and Lighting. 

Both of these subjects are sufficiently important for spe- 
cial articles. Here they can only receive general comment, 
though special lighting fixtures for hospitals will be con- 
sidered at length in a later article. 

It is believed that the partial and, in many cases, the 
complete failure of the various ventilating systems tried 
out in our poor exploited hospitals are gradually but surely 
forcing architects and hospital workers to the conclusion 
that natural methods of ventilation are, after all, the safest 
and best. The writer has been in so many hospitals where 
these systems are found out of order, and has so frequently 
emerged with a racking headache and almost gasping for 
air from inspections of hospitals where such systems were 
supposed to be in working order, that with the utmost 
earnestness it is urged that the natural methods be not 
disregarded, even if an artificial ventilating system is con- 

In a recent visit to a new hospital occupied but a few 
months, the ventilation was noticeably bad, and inquiry 
made regarding it, to which one of the members of the 
building committee replied with evident chagrin that the 
electric fans operating the system made so much noise that 
the patients could not stand it ! 

In another and very large hospital where no expense 
had been spared for construction and equipment, a most 
elaborate ventilating system was installed, with "water- 
washed air " and many other wonderful " talking points." 
On minute questioning, however, even the engineer con- 
fessed that when the wind shifted in a certain direction the 
system failed utterly. 

On the day of the writer's visit the air was so noticeably 
bad in one section of the hospital that inquiry was made 
as to why the windows were all closed ; to which the nurse 
replied that all the windows were equipped with key-locks, 
the ke\-s of which were carried by the Sisters (this was a 
Catholic institution) and that the windows could only be 
opened by going to the Sister for a key and obtaining per- 
mission to open the window. With such regulations it is 
easy to imagine how much really fresh air entered that hos- 
pital. Yet, in many other respects, it was most excellent 
and very modern. 

As a matter of fact, to have windows equipped with lock 
and key is rather a good idea for hosjMtals, but it should 
be so arranged that the upper sash at least could be opened 


There is a no more neglected subject in hospital con- 
struction than the problem of lighting. The A. B. C. of 
the subject has scarcely been formulated. The nervous 
irritation, conscious or unconscious, which results from a 
well person being obliged to face directly for any length 
of time a glare of light, must become at least a subcon- 
scious agony in the case of sick persons. Yet for years 
we have placed glaring ceiling lights in our hospital wards, 
unshaded center and wall lights in the pri\-ate rooms, sub- 
limely unconscious or cruelly indifferent to the acute 
discomfort of and pernicious effect upon the patient. 

The comimratively new system of indirect lighting is a 
cause for thankfulness in many (|uarters ; certainly it is an 
unmitigated blessing to the hospital patient. Various 
details and description of fixtures thus far worked out as a 
partial solution of this vital problem will be discussed in a 
later article. 

Planning and Equipment. 

As wc have stated previously in this article, the problem 
of organization, management, and equipment are too 
closely related to the planning and construction to be 

We have talked, read, discussed, and practised rounded 
corners and angles, flush surfaces and absence of un- 
necessary projections until we now feel that it is almost a 
personal affront to mention the subject. The most poorly 
planned hospital of recent construction can brag of these 
features which were radical ten years ago, while the most 
ignorant architect, to-day, would scarcely dare install 
paneled walls or doors. And yet, though years of time 
and effort have been spent in arriving at this stage of 
education, we to-daj' see hospitals where thousands of 



For example, in a contract which was properly entered into 
by a city commissioner, there was a clause requiring the 
architect to be subject to the orders and directions of the 
commissioner or his engfineer, and that if any orders or 
directions be gfiven the architect and they were not carried 
out, then the city should have the power to terminate the 
contract by written notice. There was also a contract 
clause specifying- that all changes or modifications of the 
drawingfs, etc., must be in writing-. After the architect 
had completed his working drawings and specifications 
ready for bidding purposes, but before bids were received, 
the commissioner, upon the advice of his engineer, decided 
to make some very radical changes both in the design of 
the steel construction and in the inside finish. This decis- 
ion was given to the architect in a conference and he made 
new working drawings and new specifications to cover 
these changes. At the trial there was no serious question 
but what the architect had done this extra work and that 
he was entitled to pay for it, but the trial justice in 
charging the jury stated that since the contract required 
all changes, etc., to be ordered in writing, which was 
neglected in this instance, there could be no recovery by 
the architect. This instruction to the jury was given also 
in face of the fact that the commissioner had the power to 
enter into contracts orally with any architect, and there 
was no question but what he had an appropriation to pay 
for this extra work. As there was a partial recovery on 
another part of the case, no appeal was ever taken, so it 
cannot be stated what the appellate court would have done. 
However, this is an example of the protection afforded 
municipal corporations when they are sued, and there is 
no question in my mind but what the result would have 
been different had the defendant been any one else. 

Changes in the working drawings or details made during 
the progress of the work may or may not be extra work, 
depending- largely upon the circumstances. It has been a 
custom for most architects to do a certain amount of such 
changing work without making extra charges, although 
they know they are entitled to an additional fee based upon 
the cost of the labor involved in such changes. What might 
be considered the leading case on this matter involved the 
following facts : An owner contemplated changes in a 
building at a cost of $5,400. After some conversations 
the architects offered to do the work for a flat sum of $500. 
The work had progressed and, in connection with other 
improvements and changes, cost $50,000. The architects 
sent in their bill based on ten per cent of the total cost, 
and the owner refused to pay, claiming the fee was $500, 
and that there was no contract or agreement for any 
other work or compensation. The decision was that the 
owner must pay the architects' bill as rendered and proven 
at the trial. The grounds of the decision were that the 
owner had let the architects go ahead with the work, that 
he had practically agreed to a ten per cent commission for 
the work originally contemplated and ordered, and there 
was expert testimony that such percentage was the reason- 
able value of the work. In another case, where extra plans 
were required and the architect was allowed to recover for 
such extra work, it was suggested, in stating the fact that 
the recovery should be the reasonable value, that the archi- 
tect must not make the cost more than necessary. 

Other Extra Work. The reported cases show that an 
architect has been allowed extra compensation for such 

services as making up a lumber bill, settling accounts be- 
tween employees on the work, acting as an arbitrator, 
qualifying as a witness, attending in court as a witness or 
expert, etc. On the other hand, in one case it was held 
that time used consulting an expert during the preparation 
of insulation plans, and also that time used in the actual 
preparation of such plans, was not extra ; also that where 
the architect's brother was put on the job as superintendent 
or clerk of the works, there could be no extra recovery for 
his services ; that these were all part of the contract work 
and were paid for in the percentage payments. Just lately 
I saw an architect's opinion on this question of extra work 
wherein he stated that all necessary traveling expenses were 
usually billed against the owner, and that in all out-of-town 
work the architect was entitled to extra remimeration for the 
extra time involved in the superintendence of the work by 
reason of its distant location. These suggestions do not 
seem to be sustained by any legal decisions and do not seem 
to be sound, unless made a matter of contract right. This 
same opinion also claimed that under the usual statement that 
all drawings and specifications should remain the property 
of the architect, an owner should pay for a set of plans if 
he wanted them. That does not seem a safe suggestion in 
view of the present law on the subject, which holds that as 
between the employer and the architect the plans and 
specifications belong to the owner, unless there is some- 
thing in their contract to the contrary. In a late case, 
upon a question of this sort, it was held that an owner 
could be permitted to prove a general custom of the archi- 
tect to furnish copies of plans and specifications for use by 
bidding contractors. It is therefore not advisable for an 
architect to refuse an owner a set of plans and specifica- 
tions unless he will pay extra for them. 

Recommendations. It is important to remember that 
there are many ways in which an architect may waive his 
rights in this matter of extra work and preclude his recov- 
ery of payment for it. The employment contract may 
specify that the architect shall do any and all architectural 
work required or demanded by the employer in connection 
with a specified piece of property ; it may require work to 
the satisfaction of the employer in jurisdictions where hon- 
est dissatisfaction precludes recovery ; it may require extra 
work to be subject to conditions of written order, of fixed 
cost, etc., or it may even provide that no extra work will be 
paid for imless there is a new contract entered into therefor. 

In the matter of payment, the architect should know and 
remember that if he accepts a certain sum in full for his 
services, or a check which shows on its face or back or by 
the accompanying letter that it is meant and sent as full 
compensation to date, or if he signs a release or other 
paper to the same effect , — all such actions may be disas- 
trous to any later attempt to recover for extra work. 

Our considerations then give us the following summary 
of recommendations : First — have a definite written 
contract and if possible have the institute or a local society 
schedule made part of the contract or at least make sucli 
document a matter of notice to the employer ; second — 
comply with the contract conditions regarding extra work 
or, if there are none, then give notice to the employer of 
such extra work when ordered, with an approxiniate esti- 
mate of the cost ; and third — in accepting payment on the 
contract do not blindly accept contract payments and sign 
away your rights to compensation for your extra work. 

1 68 



1 AN DfN OTES ^ t C 



MR. WARREN PERRY, instructor in Architecture, 
University of California, in an address upon the 
" Teaching- of Architecture on the Pacific Coast," says : 
First — a purely selfish observation — he who teaches 
learns ten times as much as does he who is taught ; there- 
fore, let us one and all start ' ateliers.' I think that this 
is more true of architecture than of almost any other sub- 
ject, for it invites to a sublime deg:ree not only a study of 
the ' Five Orders according to Vignola ' — God forbid ! — 
but of humanity — of as many individualists as one has 
disciples — each one a living bundle of enthusiastic ten- 
dencies, good, bad, and indifferent. 

If architecture be not the study of humanity, what- 
ever is it ? It means the being prepared (for a stated 
period each day, in my case) to face a thousand searching 
questions on the history, theory, and practice of this vast 
subject, which are being constantly concocted by an inter- 
active group of unfettered and exceedingly restless imagi- 
nations. Happy is he who has left a row of conveniently 
disposed loopholes along the pedagogic path, through 
which he may slip, on occasion, with small loss of dignity ; 
and, I may add, thorny is the way of him who has been 
wont to say with firmness, ' Never do this ! ' ' Always 
do that ! ' for he will be tripped headlong over his own 
foolish phrases, again and again. Also this : A class may 
forget the name of the architect of the Parthenon, or the 
principles of Gothic construction, but never will it fail to 
call to mind a famous building which flaunts itself in the 
face of one of your ' dont's ' or ' always's,' however ob- 
scure that one may have been . ' ' 

this reason the proportion is usually made according to the 
cost of the salary rather than to the time. 

THE form of agreement^ with clients used by Mr. R. 
Clipston vSturgis and suggested to our readers in the 
May issue of The Brtcrbuildijk has inspired one of 
our readers to suggest two points which seem to him 
incompatible with the form of agreement. We print 
these with the hope that others will be prompted to discuss 
this important phase of architectural practice. 

The first is that most architects like to do considerable 
drafting themselves, and some of the practical ones write 
their own specifications, and unless such an architect 
places himself upon a salary the cost of the work is not 
properly computed ; and if the architect does draw a 
draftsman's salary for such services, how can this be ex- 
plained to the client in the form of agreement suggested 
by Mr. Sturgis. 

In regard to valuing office space in proportion to the 
time of the draftsman, rather than as to the cost of their 
services, it is our experience that the least lighted portions 
of the office are usually assigned to the cheaper men, and 
that in order to proportion the administrative expense to 
the time, rather than to the salary, would necessitate val- 
uation of the floor space according to its proximity to the 
light, etc. Expert accountants inform us that mainly for 

ARTISTIC works are not a luxury, they are necessary 
for the satisfaction of human requirements for cul- 
ture and enlightenment. Yet all paintings in oil or water 
colors, pastels, and sculpture that have been produced 
within the last twenty years are subject to a tariff tax. 
We know of no American artists who wish to be " pro- 
tected ' ' from the free interchange of art works between 
this country and Europe. Section 654 of the Underwood 
bill, as the House passed it, cuts off the absurd duty. The 
members of the Senate committee would restore it, and 
would extend its .scope to works produced in the lastjfifty 
years. We hope there are no other .Senators narrow- 
minded enough to wish its restoration. 

Why a tariff on paintings and sculpture ? If there is a 
great living church of art, this tariff wall serves only 
to obstruct the view of its services. Let it be utterly 


-.±??...??.^.?¥?.?.I1?:? . ,. l.uWi.,ln.<! _. •-:ontr;l;.- 

SfiltOS, l^AO'A inired by the Act ot August U, 191*. 

Hon.— Thij •IMcmcDt u I'l bv u>td« iaduplir«tf, )>«[» c-<>;ii.« u> tje dflivered bv lh« publfelter to titf pai.tu]RM«r, who irllf 
■end ono cop^ u> the Third Ai>iiu<tjitit Poetuuetcr Goncnkl (lAviMiMi ol CbMlIluitioo), WubliiKtoo, D. 0.. cod rcuia tbe ollttf 


SrpokllMi t!.<>!>*^ 

>py ... 

ill. tbe flit* of th« jMi't office. 


Editor, _.RM.»«lX.J'......lBttt9heB4, 

Managing Editor, _.a«M.»li..r! ..'«fe.i.t9!)«9!}. 

Biuiceea Uanagei^, ..B«lidi.I!.«ti] 

Pabliaheif >- Sogftrt Ml UNU^aCscvsny.,.. 

BOAtfilla -KMf.f...- 

Owners; (If *oorpot«tlon, gtvoiumesuida'ldi 




■ of Mockbolden balding I par OMit or nx>r« ol total ftmooiit ol dock.) 

_ Cw>xia«..t:.Mjia 


Known bondholdon,, mortgagees, and other security holders, holding 1 per cent or more of toti 
amount of bonds, mortgages, or other secarttics: 


Average number of copies of each issue of thin publirAtlon sold or distributed, through 
thu mails or otherwiso, to pftid tiubscribora duriojE the six moDths preceding tho duto 
of this slalument, (Thia iuformation is required from daily newspapers only.) . 

.Swwn.tonad subscribod before me this 


{Uy coaimiarioa Mptrc 




Architect Plate 


Ernest Withy, Associate 

CHURCH, ST. BARBARA'S, BROOKLYN, N. Y. Helmle & H liberty 124 

FIRE HOUSE, ALBANY, NEW YORK. Marcus T. Reynolds Ml-Xli 

HOUSE, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND . Laurence Hall Fmvler 125-128 

INN, GOSHEN, NEW YORK Walker & Cillelte ll.S-121 

Y. M. C. A., CLEVELAND, OHIO I/ubbell & Benes 116-117 





Illustration.s from drawings and photographs Hugh Tallant 


Illustrations from working drawings.. //. Van Buren ISIagonigle 


Illustrations from drawings and photographs. 

Report of the Ji'ry of Award. 

Part IV. The Architect as Arbitrator Wm. L. Bozvman, C.E., LL.B. 














For the United States, its insular possessions and Cuba, $3.00 per year 

For Canada, $5.50 per year For Foreign Countries in the Postal Union, $6.00 per year 

All copies mailed flat 
Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 

Plwto by The Royal /^russian I'liotometric Instilule. 


Herringbone diaper and other pat- 
terns, embedded in thick mortar. 
Fourteenth Century. 


AVGVST, 1913 



Acoustic Design in the Hill Memorial Auditorium, 

University of Michigan. 


DURING the summer and fall of 1910 there appeared 
in The Brickbuilder a series of articles entitled 
" Hints on Architectural Acoustics." These articles ex- 
plained that g-ood hearing- depends upon the loudness, the 
distinctness, and the quality of the effect produced by 
sound ; gfave methods for obtaining satisfactory acoustic 
qualities in an auditorium by means of modifications in its 
shape, arrang-ement, equipment, 
materials, and method of constriic- 
tion ; and illustrated the procedure in 
the case of several interiors laid out 
alongf the lines suggested. Since that 
time, thanks to the courtesy of Mr. 
Albert Kahn, there has been pre- 
sented an opportunity for corrobora- 
ting these principles on a much larger 
scale, and with much g-reater accuracy 
and thoroughness, than ever before. 
The acoustic results thus obtained in 
the Hill Memorial Hall, of which Mr. 
Kahn was the architect, have more 
than justified the study and attention 
devoted to them, and may, therefore, 
be of sufficient general interest to 
warrant an outline of the principles 
and methods by which they were 

The problem was to construct an 
enclosure in which five thousand in 

people migfht enjoy the g^raduating 

exercises of our largest imi versify. As the student 
speakers at a college commencement are not necessarily of 
unusual vocal capacity, they obviously re(|uire conditions 
of hearing" specially well adapted to the pur]xjses of public 
speaking". Ample loudness combined with distinctness 
was, therefore, the fundamental acoustic refpiisite in the 
case of the Hill Memorial Hall, but quality of tone was a 
matter of only less importance, as the building was to be 
used for musical productions of all kinds and for choral 
singing- in particular. 

It may be stated that, as a general principle, there is 
always plenty of sound in any auditorium. The difficulty, so 
far as loudness is concerned, arises from the fact that the 
effect is u.«5ually much too loud near the speaker and corre- 
spondingly too faint elsewhere. If, on the contrary, con- 

ditions could be averag-ed — if, in other words, the sound 
could be equally distributed throughout the entire audi- 
ence — the result would be ample loudness at all ix)ints. 
With this end in view, it occurred to the writer that, as 
sound is reflected in exactly the same manner as light (the 
angle of incidence being- equal to the angle of reflection), 
the principle of the ordinary search-ligfht reflector might 
be utilized to advantage on a much 
larger scale for the reflection of sound. 
As every one knows, the search-ligfht 
reflector prevents the light rays from 
spreading, with the result that the 
illumination retains its brilliancy to a 
very great distance. It seemed rea- 
sonable to infer that an auditorium 
laid out along these lines would re- 
flect the sound in such a way as to 
maintain its intensity in all parts of 
the enclosure. The principle of the 
seach-light reflector was, therefore, 
adopted as the basis of the acoustic 
design of the Hill Memorial Hall. 

The particular shape to which the 
scai-ch-light owes its efliciency is, of 
course, the surface known in g-eometry 
as the paraboloid of revolution. It is 
the surface obtained by revolving a 
parabola aboiit its axis. In the dia- 
. I. grams accompanying the present 

article this surface will be represented 
by the parabola resulting from its intersection by a plane 
passing through its axis. Thus in Fig-. I the paraboloid 
is represented by the parabola B A C, although the real 
surface would be obtained by spinning tlie parabola about 
its axis A X. 

The property upon which the searcli-light is based is the 
fact that every ray of light emanating from the focus F, 
Fig-. I, is reflected in a direction parallel to the axis A X. 
Thus rays such as F P and 1" R are reflected in the direc- 
tions P Q and R vS, parallel to A X. Applying: the same 
principle to the reflection of a sound-wave, it follows that 
any small part of the wave (which, for convenience, will 
be called a single sound) will be similarly reflected in a 
direction parallel to the axis. In this way the natural 
tendency of the sound-wave to expand as it recedes from 



the starting- point is entirely checked so far as the reflected 
portion of the wave is concerned, and this portion will, 
therefore, produce an effect at Q just as loud as at P and 
an effect at S just as loud as at R.* This fact very much 
simplifies all the calculations for loudness. Its bearing- 
will be better understood by considering- the shape assumed 
by a sound-wave starting from the focus of the paraboloid 
and subsequently reflected from the enclosing: surface. 

In Fig-. II the paraboloid is again represented by the 
parabola B A C. For the i:)resent purpose it may be 
assumed that the sound-wave orig-inates in the form of a 
spherical surface of compressed air of which the focus F is 
the center. t This spherical surface is represented by the 
circle P Q R. 

the flat portion of the wave reaches him less than one-fif- 
teenth of a second after the spherical portion — if, in other 
words, the distance Q L is 75 feet or less + — he will per- 
ceive the two portions of the wave in the form of a singfle 
sensation of hearing: each louder than the effect which 
either part of the wave would have produced alone. 

In applying this principle to the Hill Memorial Hall the 
first problem was to adjust the parabolic surface to the 
requirements of architectural desig:n and decorative effect. 
As a matter of g:eometry the paraboloid was first limited 
by surfaces corresponding- to the side and rear walls, the and the floor. The resulting shape which the audi- 
torium thus assumed is shown in plan in Fig. V and in 
vertical section in Fig. VI. In Fig. V the side walls are 

-A X 

-A X- 


Fig. Ill shows what happens when the wave has spread 
far enough from its starting point to strike against the 
inner surface of the paraboloid. The part of the wave 
which has struck the paraboloid is reflected in the form of 
a plane surface represented by the line V Z. The re- 
mainder of the wave still continues to expand in the form 
of a spherical surface as represented by the arc Y R Z of 
which F is the center and I^" R the radius. The relati\-e 
intensity of the sound at diff'erent points of the wave is 
indicated by the thickness of the lines which represent the 
wave front on the diagram. Thus the flat part of the wave 
is shown thickest at its center because the sound is more 
intense at this point. On the other hand the spherical 
portion of the wave is represented by a imiform line be- 
cause the intensity of the sound is the same at all points 
on the spherical surface. 

Fig. IV shows the shape of the wave a little later on, 
when the reflected portion has passed beyond the focus F. 
Under these circumstances a man standing at the point L 
will hear first the direct or spherical portion of the wave 
Y L R Z and next the reflected or flat portion Y Q Z. If 

* An unimportant modification of these conditions results from the side- 
ways movement or diffraction of the sound-wave. 

t The precise shape of the sound-wave produced by a speaker's voice 
will be discussed in a subsequent article. 

indicated in plan by the lines E B and D C and in Fig. VI 
their intersection with the paraboloid is indicated by the 
parabola H I J . The intersection of the ceiling with the 
paraboloid is similarly represented in Fig. V by the para- 
bola E G D and in Fig. VI by the horizontal line O H K. 
The rear wall is represented in Fig. \' by the curve E M D 
and in Fig. VI by the vertical line O P. Finally the main 
floor is represented in Fig. \'I by the line P N J L. Photo- 
graphs of the completed building reproduced on another 
page in the present issue of The Brickblulder show how 
this geometric laj'out was subsequentl.\- developed in archi- 
tectural scheme and detail. 

The influence of the wall and ceiling surfaces upon the 
shape of the soimd-wave is shown in Fig. VII . If there had 
been no side walls the wave would have taken the form of 
the spherical surface Y R L Z and the plane surface Y Q Z. 
The wall D C, however, intercepts and reflects the portion 
of the wave represented by the dotted line S Z G, with 
the result that this portion assumes the form of the 
spherical surface S N, of which the center is at F' symmet- 
rical to F with reference to the line D H. The loose end 
N of this wave also spreads out still further by diffraction 
as shown by the arc N O of which C is the center. Under 
these circumstances a man standing at L will hear in suc- 
tSee The Brickbiii.der for May, 1910, pages 113 and 114. 



cession three sound-waves, 
namely: the direct spherical 
wave R L S, the flat reflected 
wave I Q G, and the reflected 
spherical wave vS NO, and 
if these three waves reach 
him within the same six- 
teenth of a second he will 
perceive all three as a single 
sensation of hearing. In ex- 
actly the same way a still 
further portion of the wave 
is reflected down from the 
ceiling so that people in the 
extreme rear of the audito- 
rium hear this fourth portion 
in addition to the other 
three. As a result the audi- 
ence in what are apparently 
the worst parts of the hall 
hear quite as loudly as any- 
where else. Indeed tests in 
the completed building have 
shown that the effect in the 
extreme rear corners is 
actually louder than at cor- 
responding points in the 
center of the hall, and the 
carrying power is so intense 
that the noise of a dime 
dropped upon the floor of 
the stage from a height of a 
quarter of an inch can be 
readily perceived at the ex- 
treme rear of the second 
balcony over 150 feet away. 

The actual acoustics dia- 
gram used in laying out the 
interior of this building is 
reproduced in Fig. VIII. It 
is the culmination of a long 
series of studies laid out 
successively in true architec- 
tural fashion upon superim- 
posed sheets of tracing 
paper. The final study was 
ultimately drawn up on 
detail paper with extreme 
care and with sufficient accu- 
racy and delicacy of line to 
permit of scaling the dimen- 
sions to within less than an 
inch. For convenience of 
reference the essential data 
were traced from this draw- 
ing upon the acoustics dia- 
gram as g'iven. 

Certain points in connec- 
tion with this diagram re- 
quire special mention. In 
the first place, as the speaker 
was likely to move a little 
from the exact center of the 

platform, the paths of cer- 
tain important sounds were 
separately laid out from two 
points corresponding to this 
possible variation in the 
starting- point of the sound. 
The two locations of the 
speaker will be readily seen 
on the acoustics diagram 
together with the corre- 
sponding sound-paths. To 
avoid confusion the paths 
corresponding to one posi- 
tion are indicated by contin- 
uous lines, while the paths 
corresponding: to the other 
position are indicated by 
dotted lines. In this way 
the conditions of hearing 
under the overhang' of the 
balconies and at other criti- 
cal parts of the hall were 
separately checked for the 
extreme variations which 
were likely to occur. 

The next difficulty was 
due to the fact that an organ 
was to be installed in a 
large archway directly be- 
hind the speaker, and that 
consequently this portion of 
the paraboloid could not be 
counted upon as a reflector. 
To overcome this difficulty 
the speaker was assigfned to 
a location somewhat in front 
of the focus of the parabo- 
loid so that the reflected 
sounds should have a ten- 
dency to converge. As a 
result the gap in the re- 
flected sound-wave closes 
itself up within 53 feet, at 
most, of the si)cakcr. At 
less than this distance from 
the speaker the direct wave 
is strong enough to furnish 
all the loudness necessary. 
Beyond the 53 feet the di- 
rect wave has the suj^port 
of the reflected wave. 

Another point which re- 
ceived special attention was 
the reflection of the sound 
to the extreme rear seats 
under the balconies. This 
was a very important con- 
sideration because without 
the help of the reflected 
sound the effect imder the 
balconies was likely to be 
much too faint. When the 
paths of the reflected sounds 



were first accuratelj- 
plotted it was found 
that owing to their 
convergence (on ac- 
count of the organ) 
they slanted down- 
wards toward the 
back of the audito- 
rium, and were inter- 
cepted by the balcony- 
fronts before they 
could reach the rear 
seats below. To over- 
come this difficulty 
the axis of the pa- 
raboloid was inclined 
slightly upwards so 
that the downward 
sloi)e of the reflected 
sound-paths might be 
correspondingly les- 
sened. The inclina- 
tion of the a.xis was 
made just sufficient 
t(j enable the reflected 
sounds to pass under 
the lower edge of the 
balcony-fronts to the 
rear «.'ats below. As 
a result of this pre- 
caution the reflected 
sound reaches all 
]K)ints under the bal- 
conies and the effect 
is everywhere amply 
loud, although in the case of three extra rows of seats recently 
added at the back of the main floor there is a perceptible 
diminution in loudness. The paths by which the reflected 
sounds reach the rear seats will be seen on the diagram 
passing just under the balcony-fronts. The angle at which 
the axis of the paraboloid was inclined is also indicated in 
the lower left-hand corner of the drawing. 

Still another i)oint which will be found worked out on 
the plan is the length of time which elapses between the 
first arrival of the direct portion of the wave and the subse- 
ciuent arrival of the portion reflected from the side walls. 
As has already been mentioned, it was essential that the 
path by which the reflected sound reaches any given hearer 
should not be more than 75 feet longer than the path by 
which the direct sound reaches him. These paths are 
shown and figured on the plans. As will' be seen, the 
sound reflected to the critical point mores through a dis- 
tance of 80 feet before reflection and 68 feet after reflection, 
or a total of 148 feet. The direct sound moves through a 
distance of 75 feet to reach the same poist, or only 73 feet 
less than the reflected sound. Both direct and reflected 
sounds, therefore, reach the hearer at this point within 
one-sixteenth of a second of one another and combine to 
produce a single initial sensation of hearing. The reflec- 
tion of the sound from the ceiling to the ffont of the first 
balcony will be found similarly checked on the section. 
In this case the sound reflected to the critical point moves 
through a distance of 73 feet before reflection and 56 feet 


after reflection, or a 
total of 129 feet. The 
direct sound moves 
through a distance of 
56 feet to reach the 
same point, or only 
73 feet less than the 
reflected sound. 

The question of 
loudness having thus 
been met in a satis- 
factory manner, the 
next question was 
that of distinctness. 
As was explained in 
" Hints on Architec- 
tural Acoustics,"* in- 
distinctness arises 
from three causes, 
namely: interrupted 
reverberation, exces- 
sive reverberation, 
and sound - interfer- 
ence. Interrupted re- 
verberation is a per- 
ceptible interruption 
or break in the early 
part of a reverbera- 
tion. It occurs 
whenever there is a 
fifteenth of a second 
or more during which 
no sound is reflected 
to the hearer, and 
produces the effect of 
a very quick echo or repetition of the sound. In the case 
of the Hill Memorial Hall there seemed reason to believe 
that such an interruption would occur in certain parts of 
the auditorium. On the other hand, careful calculation 
indicated that the initial loudness obtained by the methods 
already described would be so great as practically to 
drown out the tendency to echo. In point of fact this is 
exactly what occurs, and no echo or sound-repetition is 
noticeable under normal conditions. At the same time 
the ditTiculty was very narrowly averted, for it has been 
found by experiment that if the speaker turns his back to 
the audience at certain critical points (thereby reducing 
the initial loudness to a minimum), an echo is distinctly 

Just how long a reverberation may last without becom- 
ing excessive is a problem which has not yet been authori- 
tatively solved. From such data as the writer had been 
able to collect t it appeared that in an auditorium of the 
size of the Hill Memorial Hall —about 800,000 cubic feet — 
a reverberation lasting two seconds would not be excessive 
for purposes of speaking, and would be better than a 
shorter reverberation for purposes of music. Unfortu- 
nately, however, the cement flrxjrs of the Hill Memorial 
were to be uncarpeted and there was to be little upholstery 
on the seats, so that the amount of reverberation was likely 
to be much greater when the hall was empty than when 

•.See The Brickbuilder for October, 1910. 

•f See The Bkickbuilder for November, 1910, page 2A5. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 


there was an audience present. Under these circumstances 
the various wall, floor, and ceiling surfaces were adjusted to 
a calculated reverberation of 1.7 seconds when all seats 
were filled. This gave a reverberation of 2.4 seconds when 
only half the seats were filled and of 4.0 seconds when the 
hall was empty. In actual practice the reverberation is not 
excessive for speaking purposes when only half the seats 
are filled. When the hall is empty — except for the experi- 
menters — a speaker can 
still be heard clearly if 
he restricts himself to a 
conversational tone of 
voice, but he is apt to 
evoke a little too much 
reverberation if he 
raises his voice in true 
oratorical style. 

Sound-interference is 
produced mainly by 
sounds reflected from 
the rear wall of an audi- 
torium. As there was 
no carpeting or other 

natural sound-absorbing exti 

surface to which such 

disturbing .sounds could be reflected and destroyed, an 
artificial absorbent consisting of camp cloth over felting 
was applied to the rear walls. The coefficient of absorp- 
tion of this combination is about 0.62, which proved ade- 
quate to the purpose in hand. The material was disposed 

in panels enclosed by a heavy raised moulding, and the 
cloth, being of the same shade as the painted plaster, har- 
monizes satisfactorily with the general decorative scheme. 
As there is practically no woodwork in the building, the 
quality of tone is wholly dependent upon the reverberation 
above mentioned. It is obvious that with such a possible 
variation in the length of the reverberation — from 1.7 
seconds to 4.0 seconds — the conditions cannot be equally 

satisfactory at all times. 
To the writer the rever- 
beration of 1.7 seconds 
seemed obviously insuf- 
ficient for the choral 
singing at the dedica- 
tion exercises. On the 
other hand such musical 
opinion as has hitherto 
been obtained has been 
extremely favorable, 
not to say enthusiastic ; 
but it must be admitted 
that such expressions 
arc apt to be biased by 
courtesy. Moreover, as 
explained in "Hints on 
Architectural Acoustics," the ear has apparently a ten- 
dency to accept volume of sound as a substitiite for quality. 
In the Hill Memorial Hall there is no question concerning 
the volume, but a categorical statement with regard to the 
intrinsic quality would probably be premature. 


INI i:i-:li iH 

\l I \ll IIU. 

Albert Kalin, Aicliitci t . 


Some Suggestions as to the Making of Working Drawings. 



ATTENTION was called in the first part of this paper tively as made, whatever their class or character ; but I 
(The Brickbuilder for July, page 148) to the in- find certain drawbacks to this. The original idea was, 
teresting comparison between the ways of arriving at a that the full sizes (let us say) relating to a certain scale 
result in private practice with those in the office of the drawing would be finished up at about the same time as 
architect of the New York Board of Education, Mr. C.B.J, the latter, and if not, very soon thereafter, and numbers 
Snyder, and of Mr. Oscar Wenderoth, Supervising Archi- could be reserved for these full sizes so that they could be 
tect of the Treasury Department. It was shown that bound in consecutively and follow, in the set, the scale 
standardization for private practice was very difficult ex- drawings, and cross reference be made easy. But it is not 
cept in minor particulars, while in work where millions of always convenient, advisable, or desirable to make the full 
dollars are spent every year for one type of building alone sizes (or to assemble them on the final sheet — see Brick- 
it becomes practical to standardize certain types of plans, builder for May, 1913) at once, and the original idea can- 
details of staircases, details of construction and equipment, not be carried out and so becomes practically worthless, 
etc. Three working drawings from Mr. Snyder's office Moreover, for any large job, the set should be subdivided 
are illustrated in this number, and show the methods or it becomes unwieldy and troublesome to handle. I am 
referred to in the last issue. going to adopt the principle of numbering given above. 

In the office of the Supervising Architect of the Treas- The method of placing the drawings on a sheet is not 

ury Department, where again a vast quantity of work is subject to a fixed rule in the Supervising Architect's office, 

done every year, the general practice is to adopt a standard When tracings are printed to be issued to bidders, a set of 

size of 24>^ inches by 37 inches for working drawings and the prints is bound together and placed in a drawer in the 

40 inches by 10 feet for full size details. At the present custody of the draftsman in charge of that particular 

time a rubber stamp is used for the titles, which has a building. The theory is that any change made as the 

place in it for the insertion of the number by hand, and execution of the work proceeds at the site is noted on the 

the numbering is systematized as follows : drawing, so that when the building is completed this set 

1 to 99 Scale plans. shows exactly the work as in place. After the building is 

100 to 199 Scale elevations and sections. occupied the drawings are forwarded to a general file. In 

200 to 299 Scale details. issuing plans and specifications to bidders a multiple form 

300 to 399 Miscellaneous (standard I scale details. ■ j i.- -u „• i ^ ^ c ^u ^ *■ 

, J . IS used which gives a complete record of the transaction 

400 to 499 Structural drawings. ^ , . . -, , , 

500 to 599 -Full size details from beginning to end, and reduces the correspondence. 

600 to 699 Mechanical drawings. As a general rule, each contractor is allowed fifteen sets of 

Adding the letters"?," "H," "L,"etc., to designate Plumbing, scale drawings and specifications, and one copy each of 
Heating, Lighting, etc. full size drawings, e.xcept in the case of standard details, 
700 to 799 Repairs. when three copies are sent. The contract drawings con- 
Adding the letters "P," "H," "L," etc., for the mechanical tain a fair proportion of H scale details to illustrate 
repair drawings. the work, and after a contract is awarded the full size 

800 Architectural .shop drawings. details furnished the contractor are quite complete; pos- 

900 Structural shop drawings. gjblv more so than in a private office, as the work of the 

1000 Mechanical shop drawings. a • • \ i.-.. ^> re • /-^ ^ .. i 

Supervising Architect s office is often done at long range. 

Where a sheet represents work to be done by more than In these papers I have of course only scratched the 

one trade, the number given to it is governed by the i)re- surface ; they are intended to be suggestive, not didactic, 

dominating trade. and if they will have really suggested something of in- 

This system of numbering has many advantages ; up to terest to some one, they will have served their modest 

quite recently I have been numbering drawings consecu- purpose. 

tJ ' r t ip i --4-.4- -i[f-^^U-'J n^ 






THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 







Pla;M op Tir^it Tloor 

■SCAUt _J^''l'-0" 

arm . punhm^ rtn-nftwri (b><«L> 





a 5 3 

4 ja_ .,i, .. >■ 

H _l 

< -^ 


-I O Ml 

^ QC t 

2 CD I 

. O 


a. Q < 

> Ok 

;:; T. ^ 

i U ? 


Q q: 



VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 114. 


OAUaer pla.s 



VOL. 22. NO. 8. PLATE 115. 


■o / 


i / 






CD U) 

z _i 

< i 



O u 

H .. 

D t3 

D 111 

< t 





-J (r 

_l 111 

— m 

I -I 

UJ < 



VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 116. 


Q «; 

Z o 

< Ui 

_J t 

liJ I 

> u 

UJ o: 

_l < 

U u, 

. UJ 

O z 

-7 UJ 

1-1 <a 

CD m 

. m 

< D 

• I 



VOL. 22. NO. 8 PLATE 117. 


d "^ 

z o 

< ui 

_l t 

Hi I 

> u 

uj o: 

_l < 

■ m 

O z 

± m 

. m 

< D 

• X 


VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 118. 


■:!,:■ ■ :i..u*i;:.'^'i^ 

Z^^-S?^^^.^-. -^^v.> .-...■ -^^ .■■ 







VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 119. 

- U) 

■I- o 

0) K 

O < 

Z h 

z 5 
o ^ 



VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 120. 




VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 121. 




VOL. 22. NO. 8. PLATE 122. 

>- m 

uj o 
> m 

Z Q 

< ?i 




VOL. 22. NO. 8 PLATE 123. 

5^ •- 

O o 

> ^ 

^ 5 

u u 

z 5 


VOL. 22 NO. 8. PLATE 124. 





>- in 

_i I- 

^ o 

o !^ 

IT o 

CO q: 

. < 

CE a: 

D '^ 

X 5 

O I 

(/) « 

< UJ 





VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 125. 




VOL. 22, NO. 8. PLATE 126. 








VOL. 22. NO. 8. PLATE 127. 





VOL. 22. NO. 8. PLATE 128. 

^ V 







The Business Side of an Architect's Office. 



ONE Hundred and One Park 
Avenue, New York City, has 
been christened " The Architects' 
Building." It is one of the build- 
ings completed this year which 
most assuredly has an unique in- 
terest to every one in the architec- 
tural profession. The attention of 
the building: world has been at- 
tracted because it was built as the 
home of a large group of T square 
and triangle men ; it was designed 
by them and is owned by them. 
Already some twenty-five archi- 
tects and engineers have collected 
under this one roof. One Hun- 
dred and One Park Avenue is 
theirs, and it will be interesting 
to follow the method by which the 
scheme of co-operative offices was 
handled among so many and in a 
city where there is so much com- 
petition and such great activity in 
building. The fact that the build- 
ing has accommodations for 
general and sub-contractors, dec- 
orators, material men, etc., would 
indicate a greater efficiency in 
handling the working forces of 
those who are fortimate enough to 
be numbered as tenants. One's 
office boy, with a tracing, can dis- 
appear into an elevator and in ten 
minutes bring back a blueprint 
hot and dry from an electrically 
lighted cylinder. Sets of drawings 
can be most conveniently delivered 
to contractors, and that contractor, 
called General, can quietly tap at 
the door and delicately insinuate 
that if F. S. details are not ready 
by such a date, the time of com- 
pletion of the building will have 
to be extended. It seems quite 
ideal to be able to go next door for 
a criticism, or to borrow a drafts- 
man, or to admire a set of com- 
petition drawings. 

One Hundred and One Park 
Avenue is interesting to the archi- 
tectural profession because here 
its members can see the offices of 
several distinguished architects 
designed by themselves and un- 
doubtedly expressive to a large 
degree of the taste and character 
of each. The building is interest- 


TJ/F. propose to illustrate in this series of 
rr articles the offices of a number of noted 
architects. Plans and photographs ivill he pre- 
sented and also descriptions of salient features 
of each. .Architects are invited to write to Mr. 
D. E. Waid, 1 Madison Avenue, Neiv York, 
who will be interested to learn of any office de- 
vices, methods, or printed forms which they have 
found valuable in their office management and 
IV h ich might be of general interest to the profession . 

III III ill" 

u 111 III I"!! 








Ewing & Chappell, La Farge & Morris, 

A.ssociated Architects. 

ing to the building world in gen- 
eral, because here the architects 
were their own clients and presum- 
ably handled the whole enterprise 
in an ideal way from the archi- 
tects' point of view — from the 
purchase of the ground to the solu- 
tion of the office building problem, 
and finally, in the letting of con- 
tracts and execution of the work. 

The real history of the enterprise 
is quite as interesting as one's 
fancy could wish. The scheme of 
co-operative offices for architects 
had been suggested by Charles 
Ewing seven years before, and, at 
that time, with the encouragement 
of John M. Carr^re and others, 
had almost been realized. Now 
all signs seemed propitious. Mr. 
Mead gave strong support to the 
idea, and, with Ewing & Chappell 
and La Farge & Morris as the 
active leaders, it quickly as.sumed 
definite form. Mr. Burt L. Fenner, 
as president, headed a stock com- 
pany composed of fifteen archi- 
tects and seven engineers. 

After a long search for a site 
one was finally selected, excellent 
as to its proximity to a great trans- 
portation center, the lot chosen 
being on the corner of Park Avenue 
and Fortieth Street, two short 
blocks from the new Grand Central 
Terminal. The building obtains 
a south and west frontage. This 
we may label surprise number one. 
In the outcome, however, consid- 
ering the north court light for 
those who wish it, the long, sunny, 
breezy south front is voted alto- 
gether fortunate. 

The financing scheme having 
been worked out, several general 
contractors were called upon for 
estimates. But they couldn't bring 
the cost down to fit the finances. 
Speculative builders have con- 
structed the larger part of New 
York, and they came to the rescue 
in this — surprise number 
two. A firm of builders who had 
begun with modest tenements and 
crowned their success as expert 
buyers of ground and labor and 
building materials for great hotels 

I So 




and commercial buildings, agreed to 
furnish our group of architects with 
both land and building ready for use. 
A two million dollar bargain was struck 
over sketch plans and outline specifica- 
tions. It was agreed by preliminary 
contract, June, 1912, that working draw- 
ings and specifications were to be devel- 
oped by a certain date, and then, if 
minds shouldn't meet in design upon 
one side against price on the other, 
either party to the contract could with- 
draw. The preliminaries proved true 
and the contract was confirmed July 10, 
1912, for the completion of the build- 
ing May 1, 1913. As a matter of fact, 
the first tenant moved in April 3, 1913, 
and the building was >ra//y completed 
May 1, 1913 — surprise number three. 
The builders furnished ground and 
building and procured a first mortgage 
cash loan and gave a second purchase 
money mortgage. The architects paid 
cash for their stock and thus completed 
the financial deed which made the prop- 
erty theirs. The amount of stock allotted 
to each bore no absolute relation to the 
office space desired by each, although 
the limit of subscription ranged from 
three to five dollars per foot. But 
the largest subscriber had first choice 
of space, and so on. Each subscriber takes a lease like 
any other tenant at the average price, $1.75 per square 
foot. His advantage is expected to accrue in the form of 
dividends which may cover his capital at the rate of five 
per cent the first year, and, if all goes well, may reduce 
his rent one-half later on. A special sinking fund is pro- 
vided to pay off the second mortgage in ten years and a 
substantial sum, $20,000, in addition, goes annually into a 
general sinking fund. 

The structure has a basement and sixteen stories, with 
provision for four ad- 
ditional stories. It com- 
plies with the law for 
"loft" or light manu- 
facturing buildings as to 
fioor loads (one hundred 
and twenty pounds) and 
as to exits. The three 
stairways afford evenly 
distributed fire-pro- 
tected exits from each 
story, and are in fact 
equal in value to five 
stairways placed in the 
ordinary fashion. Other 
ingenuities of plan also 
are evident and are ac- 
complished in a simple 
wdy which gives flexi- 
bility as to subdivision 
highly commendable 
both from commercial 



and fire protection standpoints. 
The typical stories are 12 feet high 
in the clear instead of the usual 10 feet, 
and windows placed close to the ceiling 
give good light even to the rear of 29- 
foot rooms. In this connection it may 
be well for architects to recall that 
drafting tables 32 inches high are better 
illuminated under the same daylight 
conditions than tables 42 inches high. 

The frame of the building is steel, 
carrying all walls story by story and 
reinforced concrete floor slabs with a 
span of about five feet. The finished 
floors are concrete with surfaces hard- 
ened by the oxidized iron filings process. 
Each tenant, however, is likely to have 
a part, at least, of his floors covered 
with linoleum or some plastic comj^o- 
sition. The regular base is of slate, 
five inches high, and there is a wide 
border of slate to support radiators and 
cover their branches. Window frames 
and sashes are of hollow sheet steel 
with no inside trim save plaster jambs 
and slate stools. 

The corridor floors are of terrazzo. 
This material, objectionable because of 
the tendency of shedding its feather- 
edged chips of marble and leaving a 
pitted surface and because of its future 
zigzag shrinkage cracks, is yet attractive in appearance. 
It is laid in panels with mosaic borders on the beam lines. 
The corridor base is Tennessee marble, eight inches high. 
The critical visitor should know that the owners fully and 
regretfully realized that, in economizing on plaster wain- 
scot in corridors and omitting marble, they were incurring 
an increased maintenance cost. 

The material used for the first two stories of the building 
is limestone. The entire shaft of the building is built of 
brick. Brick lintels have been used without any embel- 
lishment, the only break 
in the plain surfaces be- 
ing at the fourteenth 
floor, where a terra cotta 
sill course runs around 
the two street fac^ades. 
A terra cotta cornice 
with slight projection 
crowns the u p ji c r 
stories. The building 
expresses frankly that it 
is to be used for offices 
where maximum light 
is the chief requirement. 
The design does not con- 
ceal the fact that the 
framework is steel. The 
corner piers, however, 
express a certain amount 
of strength which adds 
to the pleasingness of 
the composition. 




We illustrate herewith plans and 
several photofifraphs showing- the 
individual offices of the two firms 
who promoted and designed the 
building. The plans show the pos- 
sibilities of layout where the condi- 
tions are absolutely favorable. The architects in each case 
subdivided the space allotted them, always keeping in mind 
relative importance of space for drafting room, reception 
room, library, filing, etc., astoinsureefficient administration. 

It will be noted that special attention has been given in 
both the offices shown to the matter of office entrances and 
the control of these. The operator of the telephone 
switchboard is in a position to direct all visitors to the 
proper department, quickly sending- clients one way and 
contractors another and, at the same time, can issue and 
receive drawings and is the better able to do all the useful 
thing's which are expected of that functionary. 

Messrs. La Farge & Morris have collected and placed in 
their reception room sev- 
eral bits of interesting 
oriental carving-, rugs, 
etc., the rich coloring of 
which is sug-gested by 
our photograph. The 
walls are covered with 
burlap painted a dark 
g-reen. The color 
scheme in all other por- 
tions of the office is in a 
light cream or buff. Be- 
sides the private offices 
for the members of the 
firm it will be noted that 
provision has been made 
for an office manager 
and superintendent. A 
vault larg-e enough to 
serve as a filing- room 
is a feature of this office. 
It is accessible from 



the main office and drafting room. 
The lobby and rece])tion roonis of 
Ewing- & Chappell are light gray 
and white in a simple and pleasing 
treatment. The panels of the wain- 
scot are nearly white canvas applied 
to the walls, overlaid with stiles and rails of plain gray 
wood. The coat room has hangers on metal rods set 
at right angles to the wall with individual hat pigeon 
holes above. In the drafting room, a horizontal bar is 
hung: on curtain pulleys and travels from floor to ceiling 
in hoisting detail drawings for judgment. 

One device which Mr. Ewing recommends to his inter- 
ested visitor is a bunch of blank cards which are kept 
within reach for a memorandum record of first interviews 
with clients. These cards are larger than a letter sheet 
and have printed down the left margin a list of items 
suggesting questions which always need to be asked 
at the outset of any commission to give a clear understand- 
ing of the problem in 

These two offices 
which we have consid- 
ered are an interesting- 
study, not because they 
are larger than those 
occupied by the average 
architect, but because 
being newly planned by 
their owners after a long 
experience in building 
up and organizing- a 
successful professional 
practice, they rei^resent 
what has been found 
to be the most econom- 
ical and cHicicnt ar- 
rangement of the vari- 
ous parts making- up 
the business side of an 
architect's office. 



"^- ^^j^ ^ 

5 >• 

O ;. 

> z 




Competition for Two Semi-Detached Cottages. 


Program Governing the Competition. 

THE problem calls for Two Small Semi-Detached Cottages — two dwellings under a single roof, separated by a ])arty wall 
— the walls and foundations of which are to be built of Hollow Tile. Competitors may group the two cottages in any 
manner they see fit — originality in this respect is sought after. 

The location may be as.sumed in a town, small city, or suburb of a large city. Size and shape of plot to be established 
arbitrarily by the designer — the land is level. 

Each cottage may have two or three floors — above foundation. 

One cottage is to provide living accommodations for a family of two adults and two children, and the other, accommoda- 
tions for a family of three adults and two children. 

The cost of these two semi-detached cottages — exclusive of the land — shall not exceed ^9,000. The method of heating 
and plumbing, other fixtures and finish, to be governed by the limit of cost. 

The cost of these cottages must be figured at $.20 per cubic foot. Measiirements of the cottages must be taken from the 
outside face of exterior walls and from the level of basement floor to the average height of all roofs. Porches, verandas, and 
other additions are to be figured separately at one-fourth (25%) of their total cubage. The cost of porches, etc., is to be 
included in the total cost of the two cottages ($9,000). 

All cubage and other dimensions will be carefully checked before the drawings are submitted to the jury. 

The jury will not consider those designs which exceed the limit of 

The jury will give consideration to the fitness of the design, in an assthetic .sense, to the material employed ; second 
— the adaptability of the design, as shown by the details, to the practical constructive requirements of the material ; third — 
excellence of plans. 

Drawings which do not meet the requirements of the program will not be considered. 

On the drawing in a space measuring 6 inches by 5 inches — enclosed in rules — is to be given, at a size which will permit 
of three-quarters reduction, the cubage of the cottages multiplied by the cost per cubic foot, and the various items with costs 
which go to make up the total cost of the cottages. 

Report of the Jury of Award. 

THE problem of a small two-family house is one which 
has been so often treated as to render anything new 
extremely difficult of attainment. Moreover, the necessity 
of basing- these particular designs upon the use of stuccoed 
surfaces of largely uniform character had a tendency to 
restrict the designs to three general types, namely, the 
Old Colonial, the English country house, and the Spanish. 
Under these circumstances the variety of solutions sub- 
mitted and the general high order of merit was a matter 
of both surprise and satisfaction to the jury. The results 
of this competition are an excellent indication of the 
general advance in design and composition to which the 
younger generation of American architects are so largely 
contributing, and, in particular, testify to a very high 
average of good taste and a strong feeling for simplicity. 
These facts rendered the duty of selecting the ten best 
designs one of particular difficulty, as many of the draw- 
ings submitted were of almost equal excellence with those 

First Prize. Was awarded for exceptional imagination 
and originality in the use of the material, this being the 
primary requisite upon which the judgment was based, 
according to the terms of the program. This drawing 
also showed a command of composition and grouping 
which extended even to the arrangement of the accessories 
in connection with the rendering, which is particularly to 
be commended. 

In plan, this project is less practical than some of the 
others. In particular, the rooms marked " Den " are too 
small to be used for this purpose and might better have 

been denominated " Coat Rooms," as their real use seems 
to have been dependent upon the requirements of the 
exterior effect. On the other hand, this plan shows stair- 
cases with square landings, a feature largely neglected in 
many of the other plans, where winders were the rule. 
Certain other features, such as the recessing of a space for 
the kitchen stove, are also to be commended. 

Second Prize. Was awarded to a scheme less interesting 
in design than the one already mentioned, but showing 
more- careful study in the arrangement of the plan and 
better knowledge of livable conditions. In particular the 
grouping of the service in stich a way as to be convenient 
to the street and as not to interfere with the use of the 
garden, is a point of particular value. This arrangement 
concentrates the plumbing while keeping the main entrance 
entirely separate and in direct communication with the 
garden at the rear. It also carries out the intentions of 
the program with reference to bedroom facilities. There 
is no doubt that this would give greater practical .satisfac- 
tion to an owner than the first prize, although doing less 
for the advancement of architectural design. The exte- 
rior is, however, better than it appears, as its effect is 
marred by the rendering. 

Third Prize. Was given to a simple and attractive de- 
sign. It would be improved in plan by dividing the living- 
room from the dining room, and as the cubage was well 
within the reciuirements, both living and dining rooms, 
together with the bedrooms above, might liavc been en- 
larged to advantage. While this design is well adapted to 
the use of tile, the actual detail of the construction was 

1 84 




o >- 



< 5 

Q u 

^ I 1 

< 2 

I * 




poorly indicated and showed a lack of knowledg-e of the 
material to be employed. The perpendicularity of the two 
center windows is also disag-reeable, but there is a nice 
feeling- in the detail of the door. 

Fourth Prize. Was awarded to a design which, although 
simple and well considered, was somewhat lacking in 
originality. In plan the entrance halls are narrow and 
unsatisfactory, owing to the service arrangement which 
necessitated a closing: off of the staircase. This drawing- 
is commended for g-ood general composition and excellent 

The six drawings following- the prizes have been g-iven 
equally honorable mention and the order in which they 
are discussed bears no relation to their respective merits. 

The mention drawing shown at the left, on this page, 
shows a simple and attractive exterior with a distinctly 
homelike charm. It is also very agreeably presented and 
in particular the free-hand rendering of the plan eliminates 
much of the stiffness which characterizes the presentation 
of other drawings. 

The mention drawing shown at the right of the same 
page shows a good livable plan with proper separation of 
service yard from garden. Certain practical points are, 
however, forgotten. In particular, no kitchen chimney 
is shown and this design would, therefore, be unsatisfactory 
in parts of the country where the gas stove and fireless 
cooker are not in general use. 

The mention drawing shown in the upper right-hand 
corner of page 186 while attractive is to be criticized for the 

treatment of the tops of the walls of the bay windows, which 
in actual construction would result in staining and disin- 
tegrating the stucco surface. The difference in the two 
doorways is out of keeping with the otherwise symmetrical 
treatment of the elevation. The bay windows also appear 
to be incorrectly shown in perspective, as they give the 
effect of rectangular projections which, in point of fact, 
would have been much better than the sloping bays shown 
in plan. 

The mention drawing shown in the upper left-hand 
corner of page 186 shows a simple, straightforward plan, 
but commonplace and lacking in originality of design. 
The presentation is also unfortunately complicated. 

The mention drawing shown in the lower left-hand corner 
of page 186 is interesting in general character, but has the 
disadvantage in plan that it is necessary to pass through 
either the dining room or living room in order to go from 
the kitchen to the front door. 

The mention drawing shown in the lower right-hand 
corner of page 186 is simple in plan and beautiful in ren- 
dering, but the exterior would be hard and uninteresting 
in actual execution. 

Frank Chouteau Brown, Boston, 
Abram Garfield, Cleveland, 
William II. Schuchardt, Milwaukee, 
Hugh Tallant, New York, 
Waddy B. Wood, Washington, 

Jury of Award. 



^".ii t— r»i-^ « 




1 86 


i_* - -V ^--^ ^ '- -— ^j*-^ ."^^ -JjlT^ "~"^ 

•TOTAl, _ ♦Weft^o 

COST AT J0<1 - tesi**© 



J ■■ »^ e> kf- SiHrt 



1 :t- t- 





r— ( 








CVMC. C0t*TtNT;-'a30L^ 
e| .tc - { 8400-00 
C5ri^At<ce6 150-00 

ItUaCE*. K.00'0 

MAt*TU3 50-flQ 













Architectural Jurisprudence. — Part IV. 



IN his ordinary professional employment the architect 
assumes the unique and exceptional legal combination 
of an employee or ag-ent for the owner and at the same 
time arbitrator between the owner and the contractor. 
Under the usual rules gfoverning- the (jualifications of an 
arbitrator, an architect would be ineligible to act or would 
be disqualified on account of his created by his 
employment by the owner. That the architect and also 
the engineer should be the only ones to occupy such an 
exceptionally difficult and supremely honored position may 
seem strange, but it is nevertheless true. In a late opinion 
commenting upon this fact one of the judges wrote as 
follows : " True it confides much to the judgment, impar- 
tiality and integrity of the architect ; but it has long been 
a feature in building contracts, and that it obtains to-day 
as largely as ever shows that experience has approved it." 
Nor has the architect been given or retained this position 
without serious legal conflicts. As each new clause of 
building contracts was put into practice, calling upon the 
architect to act as arbitrator, it has been questioned 
whether or not the law should sanction a reference to the 
agent of one party of such matters as might already be 
matters of judgment of the architect or which might even 
cover disputes involving the question as to whether he has 
himself acted with due skill and competence in advising 
his employer in respect to the carrying out of the building 
contract. Now, however, most of our common contract 
clauses under which the architect acts as arbitrator have 
been passed upon and held valid by the highest courts. 

In this paper we will take up only the positions of arbi- 
trator as set forth in the usual building contract between 
the owner and the contractor. Hence this does not go 
into the statutory arbitrations which are now possible under 
different state statutes and which method is becoming 
more common as a means of settling disputes that would 
otherwise call for the delays and expense of a court trial. 

Competency of Arbitrator. Generally speaking, any 
architect may be named or selected as an arbitrator not- 
withstanding his natural incapacity, or legal disability as 
infancy or even lunacy; or his disqualification on account 
of interest, provided si:ch interest be known to both parties 
at the time of the signing of the contract. There may be 
circumstances unknown either to the owner or the contractor 
and calculated to bias the mind of the architect where the 
court would interfere if called upon so to do. In one case, 
unknown relationship of the architect to the owner was 
held a disqualification ; in another, relationship and 
owing the owner a large sum of money. To be indebted 
to one of the parties in a small way probably docs not dis- 
qualify, but it should be avoided. That the architect was a 
stockholder of the building employer has been held to make 
him incompetent to act. Since the relation between the 
owner and the architect is such as would ordinarily dis- 
qualify the architect from acting as arbitrator where the 
owner is concerned, the courts are quick to note the exist- 

ence of any other facts which would further influence 
the judgment of the architect favorably to the owner. 
On this account the architect should always be sure and 
disclose such matters to the contracting ])arties when he 
is named in the building contract. 

Where the relationship, etc., which would ordinarily 
tend to create a bias arises after his selection as an arbi- 
trator, the architect is not prevented from acting in this 
capacity, nor does it revoke the submission. It has been 
held that where the architect angrily sues and pushes an 
action at law against one of the parties that such conduct 
would revoke the arbitration. The contrary has been 
decided where one of the parties sues the architect. It 
is hard to .see why this distinction just mentioned should 
exist, and it can be best explained by the fact that the 
decisions are not in the same jurisdiction or court. 

As to whether or not the submission of matters to the 
architect as an arbitrator can be recalled at any time by 
either parties, it would seem that the usual rule would 
apply, namely, that either party could withdraw at any 
time prior to the rendering of a decision by the arbitrator. 
There seems to be a tendency in this class of arbitration, 
however, to make a distinction and as far as possible to 
sustain the submission. Thus one state has held that if 
the naming of the architect as an arbitrator has been made 
in a sealed instrument, it would require a sealed instru- 
ment for revocation. In the .same case there is also an 
intimation that the court would consider the revocating of 
such an important contract clause, such a breach of the 
contract as would enable the contractor to take advantage 
of, either by rescinding, or by enabling him to continue 
the work and to collect whatever damages he might be able 
to show were sustained by the refusal to arbitrate. 

Authority of Arbitrator. Strange as it may seem the 
architect never knows his full duties until the building 
contract is signed by the owner with the general con- 
tractor or the various contractors who are to do the work 
of the different trades. He becomes an arbitrator solely 
under the clauses of the building contract. Thus it would 
seem that if there is no written contract he would probably 
have no such powers as we are now about to discuss. Of 
course in such a situation it is probable that the owner and 
contractor might, when the emergency arose, call upon the 
architect to decide, but the architect should be sure that 
he has received such joint reciuest for his action before 
taking a hand in the matter. An arbitrator has been 
defined as "a private extraordinary judge to whose deci- 
sions matters in controversy are referred by consent of the 
l^arties." His power has been very aptly stated by one 
judge in these words : "So long as the arbitrator acts up- 
rightly and impartially, and keeps within his authority as 
designated by the submission, his judgments are unim- 
peachable and irreversible ; he may do what no other 
judge has a right to do — he may intentionally decide con- 
trary. to the law and still have his judgment stand." With 

1 88 


this as a text and motto no architect should ever be at a 
loss what to do or how to decide in such matters. The 
honor and dignity of his position and profession should 
prevent his acting other than justly and equitably. 

Whether, under- certain circumstances or pursuant to 
certain contract clauses, the architect is an arbitrator or 
an ag-ent of the owner, is often difficult to decide. No 
simple rule of determination can be given. For a general 
statement of little practical help we say that the intention 
of the parties would govern. Probably in all "dispute " 
clauses the architect is arbitrator, also in ' ' construction of 
drawings and specifications," " extra work," and "pay- 
ment ' ' clauses except where the architect is definitely 
stated in a preceding part of the contract to be " the agent 
of the owner." 

Before we consider some of the most common clauses 
under which the architect acts as arbitrator, one important 
fact must be kept in mind which will be emphasized 
throughout, — that an arbitrator must be gov-erned by a 
strict and literal meaning of the words used to express 
the submission of the parties. 

I. The architect's decision " as to the true construction 
and meaning of the drawings and specifications shall be 
final . ' ' 

This clause has just lately been held valid by the United 
States Supreme Court. Another court which decided the 
same way added that there was implied a condition that 
the decision should be honest. Pursuant to this clause 
the architect becomes an arbitrator whose decision is con- 
clusive of the matter passed upon in the absence of fraud, 
or such gross mistake as would necessarily imply bad faith 
or a failure to exercise an honest judgment. 

The decisions considering this clause have held that the 
architect was not authorized to make a change in the con- 
tract ; nor to order the work stopped — no question hav- 
ing arisen as to the plans or drawings or the manner of 
doing the work ; nor to determine the rights of the i^arties 
as to other matters ; nor to determine whether work done 
by a subcontractor has been performed in accordance with 
the contract. In one state it has been held that this clause 
necessarily gives the archi'tect the power to pass upon 
the question as to whether certain work is extra or not. 
A summary of the decisions considering this clause deeply 
impresses one with the fact that the architect's authority 
is restricted to the literal meaning of the words used. 

II. As arbitrator of extra work. 

In some states, and especially where the building con- 
tract speaks of the architect as agent of the owner, it is 
held that when the architect passes upon the question of 
extra work he does so as agent of the owner and not as 
arbitrator, and hence his decision is not binding upon the 
contractor. The determination of extra work, its value, 
etc., must be specially provided for if the architect is to act 
as an arbitrator, since such extra work being outside the 
contract would not otherwise be governed by the contract 
provisions. The architect must find express authority to 
act before doing so in this regard. This has been decided 
in cases where excavations are required to be carried 
below grade ; where the work was rendered more difficult 
at actual increased cost ; or where there were losses for 
materials wrought or supplied. Where the architect was 
to decide in case of disputes as to the true value of extra 
work, a court has decided that that did not include the 

questions whether certain work was extra or not, or 
whether extra work done at an agreed price was properly 

Where a contract made the architect " an umpire to de- 
termine all questions growing out of the contract ' ' and 
making him the sole judge of the quality and quantity of 
work done and material furnished, it was held that his 
powers did not extend to extra work done outside the con- 
tract. Power to pass upon the quantity and ciuality of 
work as it progresses does not make the architect arbiter 
to pass upon the meaning of the contract as to an ambig- 
uous clause. In cases where the architect was to decide 
all disputes relating to the contract that does not apply to 
differences as to claims for extras. 

III. As arbitrator of disputes. 

There are many and diverse expressions covering the 
matter of disputes. It is impossible to consider but a 
few of the most important here. Probably the most com- 
mon forms for such clauses start " if any disputes arise," 
etc., or "any and all disputes," etc., shall be decided 
by the architect. They have been held to limit the 
authority of the architect to cases in which disputes have 
actually arisen. In these numerous clauses used we also 
find what seems identical wording held to have contrary 
meanings in different states. Where the architect was to 
decide controversies growing out of work specified in the 
contract, and such contentions or differences as might 
arise in the premises, it was held that he had no power 
to annul the contract ; on the other hand, where he 
was to decide "all disputes relating to and touching" 
the contract, it was held that the question of the dis- 
missal of the contractor must be submitted to the architect 
for final decision. 

A late case involved this wording: "should any disa- 
greement or difference arise as to the true meaning of 
the drawings and upon any point concerning the character 
of the work the decision of the architect shall be final and 
conclusive and binding upon the parties to the contract." 
The court decided that this limited his power to disputes 
arising as to the true meaning of the matters mentioned, 
and he could do nothing with regard to disi)utes as to 
delay or liquidated damages for the same. 

It would hardly seem necessary to point out that the 
power of the architect to act under these clauses ceases 
when the contract is broken or completed. Yet the follow- 
ing incident will show that the contrary opinion has been 
held by an architect who should have known better. 
A building had been completed and was apparently satis- 
factory to both architect and owner and the final certifi- 
cate had been issued. A payment was delayed because 
of financial troubles of the owner. Later complaints were 
made that the building became damp and even that 
water seemed to penetrate the walls after a heavy storm. 
The trouble was probably due to the character of the 
patent blocks which were used and also to poor design as 
to the method of waterproofing. The owner asked the 
architect for advice and was told that he could compel the 
contractor to do the work under Clause V. of the so-called 
uniform contract. The architect then wrote the con- 
tractor that under said clause he demanded that he start 
at once to perfect the work and make the building water- 
tight, or that the owner would do the work and charge 
the expense against the contractor. Luckily for the 



architect the matter was settled out of court. As a legal 
proposition the action of the architect was indefensible 
and if it was a bluff it put him in an unfortunate position 
had he been compelled to take the witness stand. 

In this connection the architect should know that in cer- 
tifying' to the default of a contractor when it is in his 
opinion sufficient reason to permit the owner to terminate 
the contractor's employment, he occupies his judicial posi- 
tion, and is bound to act impartially and in due form. 
Thus where an architect merely wrote the owner a private 
letter expressing: an opinion that the contractor had de- 
faulted so that the owner could discontinue his employ- 
ment, which opinion was not communicated to the con- 
tractor, it was held that the owner was not justified in 
rescinding' the contract. This example then gives us 
another rule, namely, that in his decisions as arbitrator 
the architect must act formally and with due notice to both 
parties concerned. 

IV. Arbitration as to payments. 

In many jurisdictions the architect is considered as an 
arbitrator in his making' of monthly partial payment or 
final estimates and in issuing the respective cei'tificates. 
Such estimates and certificates even if incorrect often 
give the contractor no cause of action. They are not 
binding", however, if the architect misinterprets the con- 
tract provisions. In other words, the architect cannot 
oust the court of jurisdiction to construe the terms of the 
contract or decide the contract rights of the parties. The 
power to make estimates does not permit the architect to 
fix another or different price or measurement of compen- 
sation. For example, where a contract specifies that the 
owner shall pay thirty-five cents per cubic yard for earth 
excavation and seventy-five cents for rock, the architect 
cannot make a new classification of loose rock at fifty cents. 
Loose rock is rock in that contract and must be paid for at 
the full price. Nor can the ai-chitect refuse compensation 
for frozen excavation as such for the reason that the con- 
tractor migfht have done the work before cold weather. 

Where the architect was required to certify to ' ' all pay- 
ments " and the contractor, claiming to have completed, 
quit so that the owner claimed to complete as agent of the 
contractor, it was held proper for the architect to charge 
for supervision but not for the rental value from the date 
of contractor's alleged completion to the date of actual 
completion, that not being within the submission. Where 
the architect is made the judge as to when the contract 
is completed, it has been held that it does not give him 
the right to pass upon claims for damages for nonful- 

There are many serious questions for the architect re- 
g-arding the form of wording of his certificates, but it is 
impossible to go into detail in this paper. Except for the 
fact that the (|uestion has actually arisen, it would seem 
hardly necessary to state that where an architect is only 
employed to prepare plans and not to supervise he docs 
not have to make estimates or issue certificates even 
though he is mentioned in the building contract as an arbi- 
trator in that respect. Consequently, in such case the 
contractor does not have to have a certificate before he 
can get his payment from the owner. Certificates, of 
course, should be sigrned only by the architect who is the 
arbitrator, although the data need not to have been person- 
ally collected by him. Above all, the certificates should 

in wording conform to the submission wording in the 

V. Negligence of the architect. 

vSuppose the architect is himself partially or wholly 
responsible for the conditions which require his action as 
arbitrator, can he act ? The better opinions say no. As a 
matter of common decency no architect should act imdcr 
such circumstances. One opinion .says : " Nothing short 
of the most positive and definite agreement of the parties 
could justify the architect in passing upon the question of 
whether his own negligence was the cause of the damage. 
The idea of one acting: as an arbitrator where his own con- 
duct is one of the elements to be passed in review is repel- 
lent to soimd instincts." In a very late case the follow- 
ing is found : ' ' Certainly it could not have been the 
intention of the parties to deliberately enter into a cove- 
nant providing that the arbiter should have the right to pass 
upon and finally determine questions involving their own 
failure in the performance of duties." Hence in cases 
where the disputes arise from delays in furnishing plans 
or details — delays due to changes ; mistakes in plans and 
specifications necessitating work to be chang'cd and done 
a second time ; delays in decisions — the question is always 
proper for the architect to ask himself : ' ' Can I or should 
I in this case act as an arbitrator ? Have I the right and 
if I have can I control my personal feelings sufficient to 
give an honest and unbiased decision?" The answers 
depend upon the strict wording of the clause in question 
and also upon the moral fiber of the architect. 

It might not be out of place here to suggest that an esti- 
mate is not a certificate, a distinction which is sometimes 
overlooked. Whether or not a certificate when issued 
ousts the court of jurisdiction to pass upon the questions 
involved in such certificate, depends upon whether the 
architect had the power to act and whether his decision 
was free from fraud or collusion. 

Summary. Our considerations have made clear to us 
that the most important matter for consideration as to 
whether the architect is or is not an arbitrator is the word- 
ing of the particular clause of the building' contract. 
Since legally such contract may consist of the contract 
proper and the general conditions attached to the specifi- 
cations, it is well to see that there is no conflict between 
these 'two documents. All such clauses will be strictly 
construed and no implied powers will be given the 

If you are made arbitrator by a clause, remember that 
you have greater powers than the judges on the bench, 
hence your decisions should be beyond reproach. The 
fact that in the exercise of your duties as arbitrator you 
cannot be held legally responsible for lack of skill, care- 
lessness, or even negligence should create an ambition 
to merit the honor bestowed. Never forget you are tak- 
ing the place of the court, and your action may close the 
door to either party to api:)eal from your decision. Pro- 
fessional honor and reputation often depend more upon the 
architect's action in such matters than his pure archi- 
tectural knowledge, and let him once be g'uilty of fraud 
or try as a witness to sustain a dishonest or collusive deci- 
sion made by him as arbitrator, and he might as well give 
up further practice of his profession — he is an outcast with 
whom clients will not deal, with whom reputable architects 
will not associate, and for whom contractors will network. 



AN D^N OTES ^ * 

IT LS interesting: to compare the results which have been 
achieved by our larger cities in regard to the regula- 
tion of the height of buildings. Thci"e seems to be no imi- 
form method of regulation, and the following statement 
of building heights is valuable for comparison as well as 
indicating the conditions which governed the adoption of 
the respective ordinances. 

Baltimore. — Fireproof buildings limited to 175 feet, 
and non-fii-eproof buildings to 85 feet. 

Boston. — Two and a half times the width of the street ; 
maximum 125 feet. 

Buffalo, N. Y. — No height greater than four times the 
average of least horizontal dimensions of the building. 

Chicago. —Absolute limit of 200 feet. 

Cleveland. — Two and a half times the width of street, 
with maximum of 200 feet. Recesses or set-backs to be 
counted as added to width of street. 

Denver. — Buildings not to exceed 12 stories. Those 
more than 125 feet to be fireproof. 

Indianapolis. — No regulations as to height of fireproof 
buildings, except on Monument Place, which is regulated 
by State law, where no building shall be over 86 feet. 

Jersey City- — No building or structure, e.Kcept a church 
spire, shall exceed in height two and one-half times the 
width of the widest street upon which it stands. 

Los Angeles. — Limit of 150 feet is fixed by city charter. 
This applies to Class A steel frame buildings. City ordi- 
nance fixes the limit of height at 133 feet for reinforced 
concrete Class A structures. 

New Orleans. — The height at the street line shall not 
exceed two and a half times the width of the widest street 
which the building faces, but any portion of the building 
setting back from the street may be increased in height up 
to two and a half times the distance from the face of such 
offset to the property line at the opposite side of the near- 
est street. 

Newark, N. J. — No building shall exceed 200 feet, but 
if to be used as warehouses or stores for storage or sale of 
merchandise, shall not exceed 150 feet. 

Paterson, N. J. — Warehouses and stores must not ex- 
ceed 100 feet in height. 

Portland, Ore. — Code of 191 1 : "No building or other 
structure hereafter erected, except church spire, shot 
tower, water tower or smokestack, shall be of a height ex- 
ceeding 160 feet. 

Providence, R. L — Has height limitation ordinance 
before council, representing the persistent effort of the 
local chapter, A. L A., and Cincinnati, Ohio, is proposing 
to present ordinance of limitation. 

St. Louis. — On streets less than 60 feet, two and a half 
times the width — maximum 150 feet — except hotels, 
which are limited arbitrarily to 206 feet. Office buildings 
may be erected to a height of 250 feet, under special condi- 

St. Paul, Minn. — Not more than 20 stories; 250 feet 
maximum limit. 

Tacoma, Wash. — Class A buildings shall not exceed 12 
stories or 152 feet ; if all interior as well as exterior is of 
fireproof construction, same can be 16 stories, or 200 feet. 

Washington, D. C. — In the main the limit is the width 
of the street plus 20 feet ; maximum 130 feet on business 
streets (160 feet on north side of Pennsylvania Avenue), 
and 85 feet on residence streets. 



THE following fellowshii:)s are mvardcd aniutally by the 
Academy, viz. : 

A fellowship in Architecture, of the value of $1,000 a 
year for three years ; 

A fellowship in Sculpture, of the value of $1,000 a year 
for three years ; 

A fellowship in Painting, of the value of $1,000 a year 
for three years ; 

Two fellowships in Classical Studies, each of the value 
of $1,000 a year, which may be renewed for a period not 
exceeding three years. 

The awards are made on competitions which are oj^en 
to unmarried men who are citizens of the United .States ; 
if in the fine arts, to men only ; if in classical studies, to 
men and women, who comply with the regulations of the 

Information as to the terms and conditions of the com- 
petitions may be obtained from the Secretar\- of the 
Academy, 101 Park Avenue, New York City. 

The advantages, which the Academy offers, place the 
American student, who is successful in obtaining one of 
its fellowships, on a par with the holder of the f Jrand Prix 
de Rome, and it should exert an influence ujion art in 
America, no less important than that which the French 
Academy has exercised upon the art of Frrmce, and in a 
broader field, for it stands for the art of expression in 
every form and offers as great an oijportunity to the 
student of history as to the artist. 


Wl-^ have in our possession many drawings which have 
been submitted in Tmc Bkickbuildkr competi- 
tions. In every instance these drawings are being held 
because the return postage has not been sent us, although 
we have advised every owner of the drawings of this fact 
two or more times. 

We hereby give notice that unless postage {%.25 in 
stamps) is sent to us between now and October 1, 1913, all 
these drawings will be destroyed. Upon receipt of postage 
the drawings will be immediately returned. 


85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 







Architect Plate 



HOUSE, CLEVELAND, OHIO Fountain & Moratz 138 

HOUSE, HARTFORD, CONN La Farge & Morris 140-142 

HOUSE, COLUMBUS, OHIO Richards, McCarty & Bulford 139 


SCHOOL, RIDGE, NEWARK, N. J E. F. Guilbert 135-137 





The Office of Mr. Donn Barber. 

Illustrations from photographs and plans. 


Part II. Detached Arbor Structures. 

Illustrations from photographs and drawings. 

Illustrations from photographs and drawings. 

Part V. The Architect in Municipal Work. 

Plate Description. 











B o .y T O N 




'"^^lZ\^TZT.^Z'^^l^^■. POST OFF,C£ as 5.c;np:c :;;s MML.MT».M>» CH.t.l.,.-CO.yMCHU9.3 BY ROCERS-MA.SON COMPANY 


For the United States, iu insular possessions and Cuba, $3.00 per year 

For Canada. $5.50 per year For Foreign Countries in the Postal Union. $6.00 per year 

All copies mailed Rat 
Trade supplied by the American News Company and its brancKcs 

Plioto by llif Royal Prussian Pholomelric Institute. 




End of Thirteenth Century. Typical of the last 
flowering of Byzantine art. All the patterns are 
formed of simple combinations of common brick, 
squared stone, and colored tile. 







Consulting Illumiimiing Engineer, A^cwlfork City. 

7^HIS is the first of a scries of articles by Mr. Marks to treat 
of the artificial lighting of public and semi-public buildings. 
So much of the architectural effect of the interior depends upon its 
illumination that the study of this problem is tcell tvorth the 
serious attention of the architect. The first of the series sets forth 
the basic principles underlyir?g good lighting, and in subsequent 
issues a study of specific installations ivill be made, accompanied 
by illustrations of many line examples. The classes of buildings 
to be discus.<:ed are grouped under the follotving general headings: 

1 . Court Houses, Custom Houses, Post Offices, City Halls, etc. 

2. Museums, Art Galleries, etc. 3. Libraries, Schools, etc. 
f. Theaters, Music Halls, etc. 5 . Auditoriums, Assembly Halls, 
Armories, etc. 6. Churches, etc. 7 . Hospitals, etc. 8. Raihvay 
Terminals, etc. 9. Hotels, Clubs, etc. 10. Offices, E.vhibition 
Rooms, and Miscellaneous. 

DAYLIGHT. Natural light has always been the criterion 
of that which is most desirable to obtain by artificial light- 
ing'. The broad problem in artificial lighting is how to 
obtain, with the comparatively feeble flux of light we have 
at our command from artificial sources, as close an ap- 
proach as possible to the character of lighting obtained 
from the enormous flux of daylight. With the well-known 
limitations of artificial light it would, at first sight, appear 
impossible to reproduce in effect the conditions which 
obtain in daylight illumination. 

The development of the science of illuminating engi- 
neering has, however, demonstrated that step by step we 
are changing our methods of artificial lighting and ap- 
proaching more nearly the ideal conditions. The handi- 
cap of artificial light is not nearly so great as would appear. 
Contrast the problem of daylight illumination with that 
of artificial lighting. We have, on the one ha:nd, a tre- 
mendous flux of light and an enormous area from which 
the light comes, and, on the other, an extremely limited 
flux and, usually, a comparatively small area from which 
the light comes. Fortunately, the eye is so constituted 
that we are capable of good vision between an extremely 
wide range of luminous intensities. We may see well, and 
without visual fatigue, in daylight at an intensity of 500 
foot-candles (about 5,000 meter-candles) and more, and 
at 1 foot-candle (about 10 meter-candles) and less. Under 
good conditions of artificial lighting we may see well, and 
without visual fatigue, at several hundred foot-candles 
intensity and at less than 1 foot-candle intensity. The 
unit in which illumination is measured is called the foot- 
candle and is the intensity of light at a point on a sur- 
face 1 foot distant from a light source of 1 candle power, 

when the surface is perpendicular to the direction of the 
light rays. 

The ability of the ej'e to adjust itself to very low-work- 
ing intensities of illumination makes it possible to simulate 
daylight conditions in the design of the artificial lighting 
of interiors. While we recognize this possibility, we real- 
ize that before the eventuality of an ideal design there 
remains to be performed a mass of experimental work, 
investigation, and research, involving a close analysis of 
conditions of illumination of which we have practically no 
data at present, and, in general, a complete study of the 
problem from the physical, physiological, and psychological 

Up to the present time, lighting by artificial sources 
has, for the most part, been carried on by illumination 
from substantially point sources. These are the sources 
with which we have to do for the most part at present, 
and which will continue to occupy our attention in the 
immediate future. 


The general principles vmderlying good lighting are the 
same whether the light be used for the illumination of a 
public building or of a private house, and whether the 
source of light be an electric lamp, a gas lamp, or an oil 
lamp. A discussion of these principles follows, abstracted, 
in the main, from the writer's lectures on " Principles and 
Desig-n of Interior Illumination," delivered at the Johns 
Hopkins University lecture course on illuminating engi- 

In public buildings tiic (piestion of lighting often 
assumes a more imi)ortant aspect than in other classes 
of buildings, by virtue of the use of the former by the 



public. The consideration of litjht as a factor of safety 
must be given great weight in planning the lighting of 
public buildings. The design of the lighting layout with 
reference to the hygienic use of light is also of paramount 
importance. The scheme of lighting should be in keeping 
with and aim to bring out the beauty of the architecture 
and decoration and at the same time provide sufficient 
intensity of light to meet the demands of young and old, 
strong sighted and weak sighted. In public buildings as 
a rule the lights must be located out of reach of the public 
to prevent tampering or interference with the fixtures and 
lamps ; the same restriction holds for location of switches 
which latter must be inaccessible to the public. The 
arrangement of circuits should be such as to make for 
the best economy in the operation of the lights ; that 
is to say, careful provision should be made for the inde- 
pendent control of such lights or groups of lights as are 
likely to be used separately at times. However, too great 
refinement in control should be guarded against, as one of 
the important objects of the lighting, namely, to make the 
building cheerful in appearance and attractive at night, 
may thus be defeated. Above all, the lamps should be 
well shaded to minimize glare from the light source and 
consequent brilliant reflection from polished surfaces of 
glass, furniture, paintings, woodwork, paper, etc. 

In studying the principles underlying the application of 
artificial light to the illumination of interiors, we must 
consider, broadly, the following : 

I. Flux of Light. 

II. Diffusion and Direction of Light. 
III. Quality or Color of Light. 

The study of the above involves the consideration of : 

A. Selection of Illuminant. 

B. Intensity of Illumination. 

C. System of Illumination. 

Z). Location of Lighting Sources. 

E. Lighting Fixtures : Globes, Shades, and Re- 

/^. Glare and Intrinsic Brightness. 

G. Regular or Specular Reflection. 

//. Contrast. 

/. Shadows. 

/. Esthetic Considerations. 

A'. Economy and Efficiency. 
The above headings are not arranged in the order of 
their importance. In fact, it would be difficult, if not im- 
possible, to name any one item in the list which could be 
said to be less important than another. The violation of 
a single principle of illumination, no matter how seem- 
ingly trivial the violation may be, may make the differ- 
ence between success and failure in the accomplishment 
of the desired result. 


The flux of light required for the adequate and suitable 
illumination of the interior will depend upon a variety of 
conditions. The governing consideration in all cases is, 
of course, the ability to see well, but coupled with this 
must be visual comfort while occupying the interior, 
whether for a short or a prolonged period of time. Unless 
all of the conditions of usage of the light and of equip- 
ment of the interior are definitely defined, it is impossible 

to state in advance, with any degree of precision , what flux 
of light will be required to supply adequate and suitable 

The flux of light required for the illumination of a given 
interior will depend (a) upon the actual intensity neces- 
sary on the work or on the objects viewed, and this in 
turn will depend upon (d) the system of lighting employed; 
(c) the location of lighting sources with reference to the 
field of view ; id) the intrinsic brightness of the lighting 
sources; {e) the contrast in the degree of illumination in 
different parts of the interior ; (/) the extent of regular 
or specular reflection from the objects viewed ; (^) the 
color of the light and the color of the ceilings, walls, floor 
and room furnishings, and (/;) upon the personal equation 
of the user. 

In determining the flux of light required for the illumi- 
nation of an interior, it is customary to assume a definite 
intensity on a reference plane, usually a horizontal working 
plane 2 feet 6 inches (0.76 m.) above the floor. Based on 
experience in existing lighting installations, we know that 
the flux of light required to give the needed intensity may 
vary between very wide limits, depending upon conditions 
which have been named above. 

In determining the total flux needed, the method em- 
ployed at present is to assume certain intensities that have 
been found in practice to be nearest the desideratum under 
well-defined conditions that have been established in a 
parallel case. 


In daylight illumination of interiors, we have a natural 
diffusion of light, as well as definite direction. In illumi- 
nation by artificial light, however, we find it very difficult 
to reproduce these conditions, and are often compelled in 
practice to sacrifice diffusion for direction or vice versa- 

The layman in considering the illumination of an inte- 
rior by artificial light sees little more in the problem than 
hanging a sufficiently powerful light in the center of the 
room, and possibly supiilementing this by a number of 
side lights around the room. His idea usually is that if a 
sufficiently large flux of light is provided, all that remains 
to be done is to select lighting fixtures that suit his taste, 
and it is no imcommon experience to find that the owner 
of a building, be it a residence, a store, or an auditorium, 
selects his lighting fixtures from a stock in the open mar- 
ket, having regard mainly, if not only, for the cost of the 
fixture equipment and its general appearance. He is not 
apt to take cognizance of the question of suitable diffusion 
and direction of the light. 

The lighting design should provide for such a diffusion 
and direction of light as to avoid jarring contrasts in dif- 
ferent parts of an interior. This result can be accomplished 
by providing for the emission of a suitable proportion of 
the light rays in an upward and sideward direction to illu- 
minate the ceiling and walls to a moderate intensity, and 
directing a suitable proportion of the light downward and 
sideward to illuminate more brightly the " working " por- 
tions of the room. 


The quality or color of the light, and the color of ceil- 
ings, walls and furnishings of an interior, have an impor- 
tant bearing not only on the flux of light required to give 



a definite intensity of illumination on the objects viewed, 
but also on the ability to see well with this intensity. Our 
conception of true color values of surfaces is based upon 
the values which obtain in daylight illumination. Correct 
color values cannot be obtained from light which is defi- 
cient in rays which a surface must reflect in order to be 
seen in its natural color. 

From the standpoint of securing true color values our 
choice of artificial illuminants is extremely limited. In 
practice, however, even with this limitation, we can secure 
results from artificial light fairly comparable with those 
obtained in daylight, by adapting the illuminant so far as 
possible to the conditions to be met in each individual case. 

A. Selection of Ilhiminant. As between illuminating 
g-as, electric ligfht, acetylene, oil, and candles, we find in 
practice conditions which make some one of these illumi- 
nants better suited to the needs of the user than any of the 
others. Generally speaking, however, the question is, 
what type of gas or electric lamp is best adapted for the 
lighting of a specific interior? 

The quality or color of the light for the purposes in hand 
may likewise be a determining factor in the choice of the 
type of lamp. Thus, for example, in the home, the choice 
may be limited to illuminants capable of producing: a 
mellow light. 

The divisibility of the lighting unit, that is, the sizes in 
which the unit may be procured, may be the deciding 
factor in the selection of the type of lamp best suited for 
the conditions in hand. The suitable divisibility of the 
unit would depend upon the size of the interior, architec- 
tural, esthetic, and other considerations. It may be very 
important to select an illuminant that will be capable of 
such division that the lig^hting will not be seriously im- 
paired if one or more of the lamps accidentally go out of 

The ability to direct or redirect the light of the lamp by 
suitable reflectors or diffusers may be a governing condi- 
tion in selecting: the type of lamp best suited to meet the 
needs in a g:iven case. 

Aside from the question of maintenance cost, the long 
life per se of a lamp may be a governing- condition in cases 
where freedom from care of trimming or replacing the 
lamp is of paramount importance. 

A primal consideration in the selection of a lighting 
source is, of course, that the light should be perfectly 
steady under all conditions of operation. The eye-strain 
which results from an unsteady or flickering light need not 
be dwelt upon here. 

Where the eye is taxed continuously with the discrimina- 
tion or discernment of fine details, as, for example, in the 
work of engraving:, or where the task is that of reading 
a book or newspaper, the importance of having a steady 
lig-ht is naturally very considerably g-reater than where 
only casual observations of illuminated objects are neces- 
sary, or where the eye is not called upon to discern the 
details, as, for example, in foundries where the work is 
bulky and the only operation is that of casting large ingots 
which require no detailed inspection. 

The choice of the kind of lamp to be used will often 
depend upon the system of lig-hting- employed. The flexi- 
bility of the system and the ease of control of the lamps 
may also be a deciding: factor in the selection of an illumi- 

B. I)itensity of Illuniination. The intensity of illumina- 
tion required for good vision will depend not only upon 
the character of the work to be performed, but upon a 
number of conditions which have already been named. 
Tables have been published from time to time stating the 
intensity of illumination required for special classes of 
service. According- to some of these tables, the intensity 
of illumination required for different classes of buildings 
and different kinds of work are as follows : 

Residences, from 1 to 2 foot-candles (about 10 to 20 

Schoolrooms, from 2 to 3 foot-candles (about 20 to 30 

Libraries, from 1 to 2 foot-candles in general, and 3 to 4 
foot-candles on the reading tables. 

Factories, from 4 to 5 foot-candles, where no individual 
local lamps are used, and from 2 to 3 foot-candles, general 
lighting, where individual lamps supplement the g:eneral 

Figures are also given for the illumination intensity re- 
quired for different kinds of work, as, for example : 

For drafting, from 5 to 10 foot-candles. 

For engraving, 5 to 15 foot-candles. 

For postal service, 2 to 5 foot-candles. 

Where such fig-ures are given they should be interpreted 
only in the light of the specific conditions under which the 
lamps were used, otherwise they may lead to entirely 
erroneous conclusions. It is difificult, if not impossible, 
to state definitely what illumination intensity is required 
in any instance without limiting the statement by a long 
list of conditions, some of which, with our present imper- 
fect knowledg-e of the art, could not even be definitely set 
forth. Hence, while it is stated, for example, that the 
intensity of illumination required on the reading table of 
a library is from 3 to 4 foot-candles, the specific con- 
ditions attending the use of the light must all be known 
before it would be safe to so assume that substantially 
the same results would be achieved if an intensity of 
from 3 to 4 foot- candles were provided on the reading 
table of another library which it was desired to illumi- 
nate. Under changed conditions it might easily be that 1 
or 2 foot-candles would be suflicient, or that 4 foot-candles 
would be insufficient. 

It niay be noted also that the required intensity will 
depend upon the " personal equation " of the user. An 
intensity that is satisfactory to one user may not be satis- 
factory to another. 


It was found in one instance that the intensity of day- 
light required for a certain class of work, under the spe- 
cific conditions that obtained in the interior alluded to, was 
3.2 foot-candles, whereas with one system of artificial 
illumination in this interior the intensity re(|uired was 
from 4 to 6 foot-candles and with another about 20 foot- 

In the case of an office which was illuminated by a 
cluster of lamps at the ceiling, it was found that an inten- 
sity of 2.1 foot-candles artificial light was ample for read- 
ing fine print with ease in any part of the room. On a 
very dark, cloudy day, in the same office, it was fovmd 



that the minimum intensity of daylight on the working- 
spaces was 29 foot-candles. 

In still another case it was found that with well-diffused 
artificial light approximately 6 foot-candles intensity on 
a v'ertical plane was required under the conditions that 
obtained for the particular class of work in hand, whereas 
in daylight, on a bright day, the actual intensity of natural 
light on the work was 400 foot-candles.* 

In another case in the postal service it was found that 
an intensity of 1.6 foot-candles daylight illumination 
was sufficient for the work, and that artificial light was 
required when the intensity of daylight fell below this 
value. In this installation an intensity of approximately 
1.5 foot-candles artificial light was sufficient. 

In a public library it was found that an intensity of 
daylight of from 100 foot-candles down to 5 foot-candles 
satisfied the readers, and that 1 foot-candle intensity of 
artificial light satisfied some of the readers, whereas 6 
foot-candles intensity was not sufficient for others. 

Under actual practical conditions in daylight illumina- 
tion we are able to see well throughout a very wide range 
of illumination intensities, provided the conditions under 
which the illumination is carried out are suitable. The 
actual intensity of illumination per se really plays a com- 
paratively small part in the problem of securing good 

In artificial lighting a "dim religious light" is often 
sufficient even for reading purposes, though the intensity 
of illumination on the book may fall considerably below 
1 foot-candle. On the other hand, if artificial light is 
properly diffu.sed and directed, the eye readily adapts itself 
to illumination intensities within extremely wide limits, 
and we can read with comfort in an interior in which the 
actual intensity on the pages of a book exceeds 500 foot- 

In daylight, under usual conditions, the eye works with 
a comparatively small pupillary aperture, because of the 
enormous flux of light. In artificial lighting, under good 
conditions of diffusion, direction, and contrast, the eye 
works with a comparatively large pupillary aperture, be- 
cause of the relatively insignificant flux of light. Under 
these conditions we can therefore see well, and without 
visual fatigue, by artificial light at illumination intensities 
that are only a very small fraction of those which ordi- 
narily obtain in daylight. 

In daylight the eye is rarely exposed to the primary 
source of light, whereas in artificial light the primary 
source is often within the ordinary field of view. Hence 
the effect of contrast in intensity of the source and inten- 
sity of light on objects viewed, enters to a far greater 
extent in artificial lighting than in daylight. 

C. System of lUinnination. The various systems of 
illumination may be broadly classified as follows : 

(a) General illumination by direct lighting. 

((5) General illumination by indirect or semi-indirect 

ic) Combination of {a) and {d). 
id) Local illumination. 
<,e) Combinations of id) with (a), U), and {c) . 

•See "Factory Lightiug," L. B. Marks, Transactions Illuminating 
Engineering Society, November, 1909, p. 828. 

Each of the above groups may be subdivided into two 
or more typical arrangements, as, for example, general 
illumination by direct lighting may be accomplished by 
(1) lamps exposed to view or (2) enclosed in globes or 
shades which diffuse and direct the light, or (3) mounted 
behind a transmitting screen or septum, such as a diffusing 
skylight or art-glass panel. General illumination by indi- 
rect lighting may be accomplished by ( 1 ) lamps concealed 
in opaque reflectors suspended from, and pointed toward, 
the ceiling, or (2) concealed in coves located on the side 
walls near the ceiling, or (3) concealed in high standards 
placed on the floor, etc. Illustrations of the various sys- 
tems of lighting as carried out in practical lighting instal- 
lations will be given later. 

D. Location of Lighting Sources. Man has been accus- 
tomed from time immemorial to daylight illumination 
from side windows. In locating artificial lighting sources 
for the illumination of an interior, it would therefore seem 
logical to reproduce, as nearly as possible, the conditions 
that obtain in daylight illumination, and to locate the 
lighting units at or near the windows. If we could obtain 
a sufficiently large flux of artificial light without undue 
expenditure of power, and could distribute this flux in a 
manner analogous to that of daylight, the problem of 
locating the lighting units would be a comparatively sim- 
ple one. With the restrictions with which we now have 
to contend, and with which we will ])robably have to con- 
tend for all time in supplying a substitute for the sun, we are 
compelled to so locate our lighting units that the compar- 
atively meager flux of light we are able to obtain from 
them can be utilized to the best advantage to meet the 
special requirements of the interior with which we have 
to deal. 

In artificial lighting the location of the lighting units 
will depend upon 

(a) the use to which the interior is to be put, 

(b) the system of lighting employed, 

(c) the character of the illuminant used, 

(rf) the ability to diffuse and direct the light, 

(<?) the removal of the light from the field of view, 

(/") the avoidance of strong contrasts in illumination, 

ig) the structural conditions in the building, 

(A) esthetic considerations, 

(0 accessibility, 

(y) economy. 

Before deciding on the location of outlets, it is necessary 
to know the character of the illuminant to be used. If the 
vacuum tube, for example, is to be employed for lighting 
a large room, a single outlet on the ceiling or on the wall 
might be sufficient, whereas, if tungsten lamps are to be 
used, several ceiling outlets may be required to suitably 
distribute the light. If gas is to be used, the limitations 
in location due to necessary placement at some distance 
below the ceiling must be taken into consideration. 

To determine the position of the lighting units it is nec- 
essary to decide on the system of illumination that will be 
best employed to meet the conditions of usage of the light. 
If general illumination only is to be used, only ceiling 
outlets need usually be considered. If local illumination 
is to be used, or a combination of local and general, the 
location of outlets for such illumination must be deter- 





In a large room in which a moderate degree of ilhi- 
mination meets all the requirements, a lighting- fixture 
centrally located on the ceiling may answer the purpose ; 
whereas, if a very high degree of illumination is needed in 
some parts of the room, the central lighting fixture might 
have to be supplemented by local lamps placed more or 
less close to the objects to be lighted. 

The location of the lighting sources will be governed in 
a material degree by the extent to which it is possible to 
direct or redirect the light of the particular illuminant, by 
reflectors and diffusers. They should be so located also as 
to keep the lamp as far as practicable out of the ordinary 
field of view, and to avoid violent contrasts in illumina- 

Due cognizance must be taken of the structural condi- 
tions of a building in locating lighting sources. Some- 
times the limitations are such that it is impracticable to 
place a lamp in any location other than in the center of a 
bay. Frequently, both from the standpoint of distribu- 
tion of illumination and from the architectural stand- 
point, the location of the lighting unit in the center of the 
room, or in the center of a bay, works out to best advan- 

In deciding on the location of outlets cognizance must 
be taken of esthetic considerations. The placement of 
the lights must be such that the ensemble will look well. 
In other words, the arrangement of the lighting units 
must be esthetically as well as scientifically good. Where 
it is planned to carry out a certain style of lighting, as 
with fixtures of the Louis XIV period, for instance, the 
location of the outlets for the lighting units must be ar- 
ranged accordingly. Often the need of accessibility for 
replacement or for local lighting or extinguishing of 
lamps is a governing factor in their location. 

The broad question of economy, not only in the cost of 
the lighting installation but also in the cost of its mainte- 
nance, is another frequent deciding factor in the location 
of lighting sources. Although far better results in illumi- 
nation may be obtained with one system of illumination 
than with another, the better system may be proscribed 
because of too gi-eat cost of installation and too great cost 
of operation. In such a case, the location of the lighting 
units must conform to the needs of the less expensive 

E. Lighting Fixtures : Globes, Shades, and Rejiectors. It 
is not uncommon for architects to provide a certain num- 
ber of outlets for the lighting of an interior, and to leave 
the matter of design or selection of the lighting fixtures in 
abeyance until the building is so far along in construction 
that the problem of lighting is not one of designing the 
most suitable lighting arrangements for the interior, but one 
of designing the most suitable fixtures to fit the limitations 
which have been imposed in the location of the outlets. 
In other words, the design of the lighting fixtures is left 
for an after-consideration. 

To secure definite predetermined results, it is necessary 
to know in advance the general decorative scheme and wall 
coloring of an interior in order that the location of lighting 
units and the design of the lighting fixtures may be planned 
with reference to the required illumination of the finished 
interior. Without a knowledge of these conditions, the 
design of the lighting fixtures must be at best a compro- 
mise, and the lighting result must depend upon a ' ' cut and 

try " method. Without the data referred to, the selection 
of globes, shades, and reflectors becomes a matter of guess- 
work rather than of scientific procedure. 

F. Crlarc and Intrinsic Brightness. As a general prin- 
ciple of illumination, the specific brightness of the lighting 
sources within the field of view should be kept within cer- 
tain limits. These limits have been variously placed by 
different authorities at from 4 to 5 candle-power per square 
inch (0.62 to 0.78 candle-power per square centimeter) of 
the lighting sources down to from 0.2 to 0.1 candle-power 
per square inch (0.031 to 0.016 candle-power per square 
centimeter) of actual surface. This refers to primary 
lighting sources. The figure for maximum intrinsic 
brightness per square inch of lighting source cannot, how- 
ever, be taken as a criterion, unless the dimensions of the 
source itself be coupled with this figure- The area of the 
lighting sources within the field of view, as well as its 
specific brightness, must be kept within definite limits 
under given conditions to avoid eye-strain. No exact data 
are available as to the safe maximum limits in specific cases, 
and, indeed, such data, even if secured, would be of little 
practical value unless all the conditions of usage of the 
light were stated in connection therewith. For example, 
imless the conditions of contrast in illumination are known, 
the numerical value of the safe limit of intrinsic brightness 
would mean very little. Thus a specific brightness of 5 
candle-power per square inch may not produce material 
eye-strain or visual fatigue if there is not excessive con- 
trast ; whereas, on the other hand, a specific brightness 
of 0.1 candle-power per square inch may produce con- 
siderable eye-strain and visual fatigue if there is excessive 

Referring to the secondary lighting sources, such as the 
ceiling or walls, as the case may be, the specific bright- 
ness, even though numerically very small, becomes a seri- 
ous matter if a large area of the illuminated .surface is 
continuously within the field of view, as it often must of 
necessity be. There is need of complete and accurate data 
along these lines. We have been guided in the past 
by experience, but little has been done in this connec- 
tion to formulate a scientific basis for correct illumination 
design. For example, exact knowledge of this of 
the subject is needed to give us a better insight into 
the question of the relative merits of direct and indirect 

In connection with lighting installations we must con- 
sider, first, the glare of the primary and .secondary lighting 
sources, and, second, the glare of the objects illuminated. 
In minimizing glare, the location of the lighting sources 
and their specific brightness and area must be taken into 
account. This involves the consideration of the diffusion 
and direction of the light, the contrast in illumination, and 
the regular or specular reflection. 

(/. Regular or Specular Reflection. The general problem 
of arranging the lighting .sources with reference to the 
avoidance of regular reflection was considered in discussing 
the location of lighting units. 

When light strikes an object, some of the rays are ab- 
sorbed by the object, some pass through (in the case of a 
transparent or translucent object), some are reflected 
diffusely, and some are reflected regularly. The regularly 
reflected rays are those we are now considering. 

The regular reflection from calendered paper of a book 



that the minimum intensity of daylig-ht on the working- 
spaces was 29 foot-candles. 

In still another case it was found that with well-diffused 
artificial liijht approximately 6 foot-candles intensity on 
a vertical plane was required under the conditions that 
obtained for the particular class of work in hand, whereas 
in daylig-ht, on a bright day, the actual intensity of natural 
light on the work was 400 foot-candles.* 

In another case in the postal service it was found that 
an intensity of 1.6 foot-candles daylight illumination 
was sufficient for the work, and that artificial light was 
required when the intensity of daylight fell below this 
value. In this installation an intensity of approximately 
1.5 foot-candles artificial light was sufficient. 

In a public library it was found that an intensity of 
daylight of from 100 foot-candles down to 5 foot-candles 
satisfied the readers, and that 1 foot-candle intensity of 
artificial light satisfied some of the readers, whereas 6 
foot-candles intensity was not sufficient for others. 

Under actual practical conditions in daylight illumina- 
tion we are able to see well throughout a very wide range 
of illumination intensities, provided the conditions under 
which the illumination is carried out are suitable. The 
actual intensity of illumination per se really plays a com- 
ixiratively small part in the problem of securing- good 

In artificial li.ghting a "dim religious light" is often 
sufficient even for reading purposes, though the intensity 
of illumination on the book may fall considerably below 
1 foot-candle. On the other hand, if artificial light is 
properly diffused and directed, the eye readily adapts itself 
to illumination intensities within extremely wide limits, 
and we can read with comfort in an interior in which the 
actual intensity on the pages of a book exceeds 500 foot- 

In daylight, under usual conditions, the eye works with 
a comparatively small pupillary aperture, because of the 
enormous flux of light. In artificial lighting, under good 
conditions of dift'usion, direction, and contrast, the eye 
works with a comparatively large i>upillary aperture, be- 
cause of the relatively insignificant flux of light. Under 
these conditions we can therefore see well, and without 
visual fatigue, by artificial light at illumination intensities 
that are only a very small fraction of those which ordi- 
narily obtain in daylight. 

In daylight the eye is rarely exposed to the primary 
source of light, whereas in artificial light the primary 
source is often within the ordinary field of view. Hence 
the effect of contrast in intensity of the source and inten- 
sity of light on objects viewed, enters to a far greater 
extent in artificial lighting than in daylight. 

C. System of Illumination. The various systems of 
illumination may be broadly classified as follows : 

(a) General illumination by direct lighting. 

(b) General illumination by indirect or semi-indirect 

(f) Combination of ia) and ib) . 

(d) Local illumination. 

(e) Combinations of U) with (a), (b), and (c). 

•See "Factory Lighting," L. B. Marks, Transactions Illuminating 
Engineering Society, November, 1909, p. 828. 

Each of the above groups may be subdivided into two 
or more typical arrangements, as, for example, general 
illumination by direct lighting may be accomplished by 
(1) lamps exposed to view or (2) enclosed in globes or 
shades which diffuse and direct the light, or (3) mounted 
behind a transmitting screen or septum, such as a diffusing 
skylight or art-glass panel. General illumination by indi- 
rect lighting may be accomplished by (1) lamps concealed 
in opaque reflectors suspended from, and pointed toward, 
the ceiling, or (2) concealed in coves located on the side 
walls near the ceiling, or (3) concealed in high standards 
placed on the floor, etc. Illustrations of the various sys- 
tems of lighting as carried out in practical lighting instal- 
lations will be given later. 

D. Location of Lighting Sources. Man has been accus- 
tomed from time immemorial to daylight illumination 
from side windows. In locating artificial lighting sources 
for the illumination of an interior, it would therefore seem 
logical to reproduce, as nearly as possible, the conditions 
that obtain in daylight illumination, and to locate the 
lighting units at or near the windows. If we could obtain 
a sufficiently large flux of artificial light without undue 
expenditure of power, and could distribute this flux in a 
manner analogous to that of daylight, the problem of 
locating the lighting units would be a comparatively sim- 
ple one. With the restrictions -with which we now have 
to contend, and with which we will probably have to con- 
tend for all time in supplying a substitute for the sun, we are 
compelled to so locate our lighting units that the compar- 
atively meager flux of light we are able to obtain from 
them can be utilized to the best advantage to meet the 
special requirements of the interior with which we have 
to deal. 

In artificial lighting the location of the lighting units 
will depend upon 

(a) the use to which the interior is to be put, 

(b) the system of lighting employed, 

(c) the character 6f the illuminant used, 

{d) the ability to diffuse and direct the light, 

{e) the removal of the light from the field of view, 

if) the avoidance of strong contrasts in illumination, 

{g) the structural conditions in the building, 

(//) esthetic considerations, 

(O accessibility, 

(y) economy. 

Before deciding on the location of outlets, it is necessary 
to know the character of the illuminant to be used. If the 
vacuum tube, for example, is to be employed for lighting 
a large room, a single outlet on the ceiling or on the -wall 
might be sufficient, whereas, if tungsten lamps are to be 
used, several ceiling outlets may be required to suitably 
distribute the light. If gas is to be used, the limitations 
in location due to necessary placement at some distance 
below the ceiling must be taken into consideration. 

To determine the position of the lighting units it is nec- 
essary to decide on the system of illumination that will be 
best employed to meet the conditions of usage of the light. 
If general illumination only is to be used, only ceiling 
outlets need usually be considered. If local illumination 
is to be used, or a combination of local and general, the 
location of outlets for such illumination must be deter- 



In a large room in which a moderate degree of ilhi- 
mination meets all the requirements, a lighting- fixture 
centrally located on the ceiling may answer the purpose ; 
whereas, if a very high degree of illumination is needed in 
some parts of the room, the central lighting fixture might 
have to be supplemented by local lamps placed more or 
less close to the objects to be lighted. 

The location of the lighting sources will be governed in 
a material degree by the extent to which it is possible to 
direct or redirect the light of the particular illuminant, by 
reflectors and diff users. They should be so located also as 
to keep the lamp as far as practicable out of the ordinary 
field of view, and to avoid violent contrasts in illumina- 

Due cognizance must be taken of the structvtral condi- 
tions of a building in locating lighting sources. Some- 
times the limitations are such that it is impracticable to 
place a lamp in any location other than in the center of a 
bay. Frequently, both from the standpoint of distribu- 
tion of illumination and from the architectural stand- 
point, the location of the lighting utiit in the center of the 
room, or in the center of a bay, works out to best advan- 

In deciding on the location of outlets cognizance must 
be taken of esthetic considerations. The placement of 
the lights must be such that the ensemble will look well. 
In other words, the arrangement of the lighting units 
must be esthetically as well as scientifically good. Where 
it is planned to carry out a certain style of lighting, as 
with fixtures of the Louis XIV period, for instance, the 
location of the outlets for the lighting units must be ar- 
ranged accordingly. Often the need of accessibility for 
replacement or for local lighting or extinguishing of 
lamps is a governing factor in their location. 

The broad question of economy, not only in the cost of 
the lighting installation but also in the cost of its mainte- 
nance, is another frequent deciding factor in the location 
of lighting sources. Although far better results in illumi- 
nation may be obtained with one system of illumination 
than with another, the better system may be proscribed 
because of too great cost of installation and too great cost 
of operation. In such a case, the location of the lighting 
units must conform to the needs of the less expensive 

E. Lighting Fixtures : Globes, Shades, and Rejlectors. It 
is not uncommon for architects to provide a certain num- 
ber of outlets for the lighting of an interior, and to leave 
the matter of design or selection of the lighting fixtures in 
abeyance until the building is so far along in construction 
that the problem of lighting is not one of designing the 
most suitablelightingarrangements for the interior, but one 
of designing the most suitable fixtures to fit the limitations 
which have been imposed in the location of the outlets. 
In other words, the design of the lighting fixtures is left 
for an after-consideration. 

To secure definite predetermined results, it is necessary 
to know in advance the general decorative scheme and wall 
coloring of an interior in order that the location of lighting 
units and the design of the lighting fixtures may be planned 
with reference to the required illumination of the finished 
interior. Without a knowledge of these conditions, the 
design of the lighting fixtures must be at best a compro- 
mise, and the lighting result must depend upon a " cut and 

try " method. Without the data referred to, the selection 
of globes, shades, and reflectors becomes a matter of guess- 
work rather than of scientific procedure. 

F. Crlare and Intrinsic Brightness. As a general prin- 
ciple of illumination, the specific brightness of the lighting 
sources within the field of view should he kept within cer- 
tain limits. These limits have been variously placed by 
different authorities at from 4 to 5 candle-iiower i)er scjuare 
inch (0.62 to 0.78 candle-power per square centimeter) of 
the lighting sources down to from 0.2 to 0.1 candle-])ower 
per square inch (0.031 to 0.016 candle-power per square 
centimeter) of actual surface. This refers to primary 
lighting sources. The figure for maximum intrinsic 
brightness per square inch of lighting source cannot, how- 
ever, be taken as a criterion, unless the dimensions of the 
source itself be coupled with this figure- The area of the 
lighting sources within the field of view, as well as its 
specific brightness, must be kept within definite limits 
under given conditions to avoid eye-strain. No exact data 
are available as to the safe maximum limits in specific cases, 
and, indeed, such data, even if secured, would be of little 
practical value unless all the conditions of usage of the 
light were stated in connection therewith. For example, 
unless the conditions of contrast in illumination are known, 
the numerical value of the safe limit of intrinsic brightness 
would mean very little. Thus a specific brightness of 5 
candle-power per square inch may not produce material 
eye-strain or visual fatigue if there is not excessive con- 
trast ; whereas, on the other hand, a specific brightness 
of 0.1 candle-power per square inch may produce con- 
siderable eye-strain and visual fatigue if there is excessive 

Referring to the secondary lighting sources, such as the 
ceiling or walls, as the case may be, the specific bright- 
ness, even though numerically very small, becomes a seri- 
ous matter if a large area of the illuminated surface is 
continuously within the field of view, as it often must of 
necessity be. There is need of complete and accurate data 
along these lines. We have been guided in the past 
by experience, but little has been done in this connec- 
tion to formulate a scientific basis for correct illumination 
design. For example, exact knowledge of this phase of 
the subject is needed to give us a better insight into 
the question of the relative merits of direct and indirect 

In connection with lighting installations we must con- 
sider, first, the glare of the jirimary and secondary lighting 
sources, and, second, the glare of the objects illuminated. 
In minimizing glare, the location of the lighting sources 
and their specific brightness and area must be taken into 
account. This involves the consideration of the difl'usion 
and direction of the light, the contrast in illumination, and 
the regular or specular reflection. 

Cr. Regular or Specular Reflection. The general problem 
of arranging the lighting sources with reference to the 
avoidance of regular reflection was considered in discussing 
the location of lighting units. 

When light strikes an object, some of the rays are ab- 
sorbed by the object, some pass through (in the case of a 
transparent or translucent object), some arc reflected 
diffusely, and some are reflected regularly. The regularly 
reflected rays are those we are now considering. 

The regular reflection from calendered paper of a book 



that the minimum intensity of daylight on the working- 
spaces was 29 foot-candles. 

In still another case it was found that with well-diffused 
artificial light approximately 6 foot-candles intensity on 
a vertical plane was required under the conditions that 
obtained for the particular class of work in hand, whereas 
in daylight, on a bright day, the actual intensity of natural 
light on the work was 400 foot-candles.* 

In another case in the postal service it was found that 
an intensity of 1.6 foot-candles daylight illumination 
was sufficient for the work, and that artificial light was 
required when the intensity of daylight fell below this 
value. In this installation an intensity of approximately 
1.5 foot-candles artificial light was sufficient. 

In a public library it was found that an intensity of 
daylight of from 100 foot-candles down to 5 foot-candles 
satisfied the readers, and that 1 foot-candle intensity of 
artificial light satisfied some of the readers, whereas 6 
foot-candles intensity was not suilficient for others. 

Under actual practical conditions in daylight illumina- 
tion we are able to see well throughout a very wide range 
of illumination intensities, provided the conditions under 
which the illumination is carried out are suitable. The 
actual intensity of illumination ^^r i^ really plays a com- 
paratively small part in the problem of securing good 

In artificial lighting a "dim religious light" is often 
sufficient even for reading purposes, though the intensity 
of illumination on the book may fall considerably below 
1 foot-candle. On the other hand, if artificial light is 
properly diffused and directed, the eye readily adapts itself 
to illumination intensities within extremely wide limits, 
and we can read with comfort in an interior in which the 
actual intensity on the pages of a book exceeds 500 foot- 
candles . 

In daylight, under usual conditions, the eye works with 
a comparatively small pupillary aperture, because of the 
enormous flux of light. In artificial lighting, under good 
conditions of dift'usion, direction, and contrast, the eye 
works with a comparatively large pupillary aperture, be- 
cause of the relatively insignificant flux of light. Under 
these conditions we can therefore see well, and without 
visual fatigue, by artificial light at illumination intensities 
that are only a very small fraction of those which ordi- 
narily obtain in daylight. 

In daylight the eye is rarely exposed to the primary 
source of light, whereas in artificial light the primary 
source is often within the ordinary field of view. Hence 
the effect of contrast in intensity of the source and inten- 
sity of light on objects viewed, enters to a far greater 
extent in artificial lighting than in daylight. 

C. System of Illumination. The various systems of 
illumination may be broadly classified as follows : 

(a) General illumination by direct lighting. 

ib) General illumination by indirect or semi-indirect 

(r) Combination of (a) and ib) . 
id) Local illumination. 
(<f) Combinations of {d) with {a), (b), and (c). 

•See "Factory Lighting," h. B. Marks, Transactions Illuminating 
Engineering Society, November, 1909, p. 828. 

Each of the above groups may be subdivided into two 
or more typical arrangements, as, for example, general 
illumination by direct lighting may be accomplished by 
(1) lamps exposed to view or (2) enclosed in globes or 
shades which diffuse and direct the light, or (3) mounted 
behind a transmittin.g screen or septum, such as a diffusing 
skylight or art-glass panel. General illumination by indi- 
rect lighting may be accomplished by (1 j lamps concealed 
in opaque reflectors suspended from, and pointed toward, 
the ceiling, or (2) concealed in coves located on the side 
walls near the ceiling, or (3) concealed in high standards 
placed on the floor, etc. Illustrations of the various sys- 
tems of lighting as carried out in practical lighting instal- 
lations will be given later. 

D. Location of FJghtiug Sources. Man has been accus- 
tomed from time immemorial to daylight illumination 
from side windows. In locating artificial lighting sources 
for the illumination of an interior, it would therefore seem 
logical to reproduce, as nearly as possible, the conditions 
that obtain in daylight illumination, and to locate the 
lighting units at or near the windows. If we could obtain 
a sufficiently large flux of artificial light without undue 
expenditure of power, and could distribute this flux in a 
manner analogous to that of daylight, the problem of 
locating the lighting units would be a comparatively sim- 
ple one. With the restrictions with which we now have 
to contend, and with which we will probably have to con- 
tend for all time in supplying a substitute for the sun, we are 
compelled to so locate our lighting units that the compar- 
atively meager flux of li.ght we are able to obtain from 
them can be utilized to the best advantage to meet the 
special requirements of the interior with which we have 
to deal. 

In artificial lighting the location of the lighting units 
will depend upon 

(a) the use to which the interior is to be put, 

(b) the system of lighting employed, 

(c) the character 6f the illuminant used, 

{d) the ability to diffuse and direct the light, 

(^) the removal of the light from the field of view, 

if) the avoidance of strong contrasts in illumination, 

(.§-) the structural conditions in the building, 

ill) esthetic considerations, 

(O accessibility, 

(/) economy. 

Before deciding on the location of outlets, it is necessary 
to know the character of the illuminant to be used. If the 
vacuum tube, for example, is to be employed for lighting 
a large room, a single outlet on the ceiling or on the wall 
might be sufficient, whereas, if tungsten lamps are to be 
used, several ceiling outlets may be required to suitably 
distribute the light. If gas is to be used, the limitations 
in location due to necessary placement at some distance 
below the ceiling must be taken into consideration. 

To determine the position of the lighting units it is nec- 
essary to decide on the system of illumination that will be 
best employed to meet the conditions of usage of the light. 
If general illumination only is to be used, only ceiling 
outlets need usually be considered. If local illumination 
is to be used, or a combination of local and general, the 
location of outlets for such illumination must be deter- 



In a large room in which a moderate degree of ilht- 
mination meets all the requirements, a lighting- fixture 
centrally located on the ceiling may answer the purpose ; 
whereas, if a very high degree of illumination is needed in 
some parts of the room, the central lighting fixture might 
have to be supplemented by local lamps placed more or 
less close to the objects to be lighted. 

The location of the lighting sources will be governed in 
a material degree by the extent to which it is possible to 
direct or redirect the light of the particular illuminant, by 
reflectors and diffusers. They should be so located also as 
to keep the lamp as far as practicable out of the ordinary 
field of view, and to avoid violent contrasts in illumina- 

Due cognizance must be taken of the structural condi- 
tions of a building in locating lighting sources. Some- 
times the limitations are such that it is impracticable to 
place a lamp in any location other than in the center of a 
bay. Frequently, both from the standpoint of distribu- 
tion of illumination and from the architectural stand- 
point, the location of the lighting uuit in the center of the 
room, or in the center of a bay, works out to best advan- 

In deciding on the location of outlets cognizance must 
be taken of esthetic considerations. The placement of 
the lights must be such that the ensemble will look well. 
In other words, the arrangement of the lighting units 
must be esthetically as well as scientifically good. Where 
it is planned to carry out a certain style of lighting, as 
with fixtures of the Louis XIV period, for instance, the 
location of the outlets for the lighting units must be ar- 
ranged accordingly. Often the need of accessibility for 
replacement or for local lighting or extinguishing of 
lamps is a governing factor in their location. 

The broad question of economy, not only in the cost of 
the lighting installation but also in the cost of its mainte- 
nance, is another frequent deciding factor in the location 
of lighting sources. Although far better results in illumi- 
nation may be obtained with one system of illumination 
than with another, the better system may be proscribed 
because of too great cost of installation and too great cost 
of operation. In such a case, the location of the lighting 
units must conform to the needs of the less expensive 

E. Lighting Fixtures : Globes, Shades, and Rejlectors. It 
is not uncommon for architects to provide a certain num- 
ber of outlets for the lighting of an interior, and to leave 
the matter of design or selection of the lighting fixtures in 
abeyance until the building is so far along in construction 
that the problem of lighting is not one of designing the 
most suitablelightingarrangements for the interior, but one 
of designing the most suitable fixtures to fit the limitations 
which have been imposed in the location of the outlets. 
In other words, the design of the lighting fixtures is left 
for an after-consideration. 

To secure definite predetermined results, it is necessary 
to know in advance the general decorative scheme and wall 
coloring of an interior in order that the location of lighting 
units and the design of the lighting fixtures may be planned 
with reference to the required illumination of the finished 
interior. Without a knowledge of these conditions, the 
design of the lighting fixtures must be at best a compro- 
mise, and the lighting result must depend upon a " cut and 

try " method. Without the data referred to, the selection 
of globes, shades, and reflectors becomes a matter of guess- 
work rather than of scientific procedure. 

F. Cilarc and Intrinsic Brightness. As a general prin- 
ciple of illumination, the specific brightness of the lighting 
sources within the field of view should be kei^t within cer- 
tain limits. These limits have been variously i:)laced by 
different authorities at from 4 to 5 candle-power ])er square 
inch (0.62 to 0.78 candle-power per square centimeter) of 
the lighting sources down to from 0.2 to 0.1 candle-])ower 
per square inch (O.OvSl to 0.016 candle-power per square 
centimeter) of actual surface. This refers to primary 
lighting sources. The figure for maximum intrinsic 
brightness per square inch of lighting source cannot, how- 
ever, be taken as a criterion, unless the dimensions of the 
source itself be coupled with this figure- The area of the 
lighting sources within the field of view, as well as its 
specific brightness, must be kept within definite limits 
under given conditions to avoid eye-strain. No exact data 
are available as to the safe maximum limits in specific cases, 
and, indeed, such data, even if secured, would be of little 
practical value unless all the conditions of usage of the 
light were stated in connection therewith. For example, 
unless the conditions of contrast in illumination are known, 
the numerical value of the safe limit of intrinsic brightness 
would mean very little. Thus a specific brightness of 5 
candle-power per square inch may not lU'otluce material 
eye-strain or visual fatigue if there is not excessive con- 
trast ; whereas, on the other hand, a specific brightness 
of 0.1 candle-power per square inch may produce con- 
siderable eye-strain and visual fatigue if there is excessive 

Referring to the secondary lighting sources, such as the 
ceiling or walls, as the case may be, the specific bright- 
ness, even though numerically very small, becomes a seri- 
ous matter if a large area of the illuminated surface is 
continuously within the field of view, as it often must of 
necessity be. There is need of comi)lete and accurate data 
along these lines. We have been guided in the past 
by experience, but little has been done in this connec- 
tion to formulate a .scientific basis for correct illumination 
design. For example, exact knowledge of this phase of 
the subject is needed to give us a better insight into 
the question of the relative merits of direct and indirect 

In connection with lighting installations we must con- 
sider, first, the glare of the i:)rimary and secondary lighting 
sources, and, second, the glare of the objects illuminated. 
In minimizing glare, the location of the lighting sources 
and their specific brightness and area must be taken into 
account. This involves the consideration of the diffusion 
and direction of the light, the contrast in illumination, and 
the regular or specular reflection. 

Cr. Regular or Specular Reflection. The general problem 
of arranging the lighting sources with reference to the 
avoidance of regular reflection was considered in discussing 
the location of lighting units. 

When light strikes an object, some of the rays are ab- 
sorbed by the object, some pass through (in the case of a 
transparent or translucent object), some arc reflected 
diffusely, and some are reflected regularly. The regularly 
reflected rays are those we are now considering. 

The regular reflection from calendered paper of a book 



that the minimum intensity of daylight on the working- 
spaces was 29 foot-candles. 

In still another case it was found that with well-diffused 
artificial li8:ht approximately 6 foot-candles intensity on 
a vertical plane was required under the conditions that 
obtained for the particular class of work in hand, whereas 
in daylig-ht, on a bright day, the actual intensity of natural 
light on the work was 400 foot-candles.* 

In another case in the postal service it was found that 
an intensity of 1.6 foot-candles daylight illumination 
was sufficient for the work, and that artificial light was 
required when the intensity of daylight fell below this 
value. In this installation an intensity of approximately 
1.5 foot-candles artificial light was sufficient. 

In a public library it was found that an intensity of 
daylight of from 100 foot-candles down to 5 foot-candles 
satisfied the readers, and that 1 foot-candle intensity of 
artificial light satisfied some of the readers, whereas 6 
foot-candles intensity was not sufficient for others. 

Under actual practical conditions in daylight illumina- 
tion we are able to see well throughout a very wide range 
of illumination intensities, provided the conditions under 
which the illumination is carried out are suitable. The 
actual intensity of illumination per se really plays a com- 
paratively small part in the problem of securing good 

In artificial lighting a "dim religious light" is often 
sufficient even for reading purposes, though the intensity 
of illumination on the book may fall considerably below 
1 foot-candle. On the other hand, if artificial light is 
properly diffused and directed, the eye readily adapts itself 
to illumination intensities within extremely wide limits, 
and we can read with comfort in an interior in which the 
actual intensity on the pages of a book exceeds 500 foot- 

In daylight, under usual conditions, the eye works with 
a comparatively small pupillary aperture, because of the 
enormous flux of light. In artificial lighting, under good 
conditions of ditYusion, direction, and contrast, the eye 
works with a comparativaly large pupillary aperture, be- 
cause of the relatively insignificant flux of light. Under 
these conditions we can therefore see well, and without 
visual fatigue, by artificial light at illumination intensities 
that are only a very small fraction of those which ordi- 
narily obtain in daylight. 

In daylight the eye is rarely exposed to the primary 
source of light, whereas in artificial light the primary 
source is often within the ordinary field of view. Hence 
the effect of contrast in intensity of the source and inten- 
sity of light on objects viewed, enters to a far greater 
extent in artificial lighting than in daylight. 

C. System of Illumination. The various systems of 
illumination may be broadly classified as follows : 

(a) General illumination by direct lighting. 

(b) General illumination by indirect or semi-indirect 

(r) Combination of ia) and {b) . 
id) Local illumination. 
ie) Combinations of {d) with (a), (b), and (c). 

•See "Factory Lighting," L. B. Marks, Transactions Illuminating 
Engineering Society, November, 1909, p. 828. 

Each of the above groups may be subdivided into two 
or more typical arrangements, as, for example, general 
illumination by direct lighting may be accomplished by 
(1) lamps exposed to view or (2) enclosed in globes or 
shades which diffuse and direct the light, or (3) mounted 
behind a transmitting screen or septum, such as a diffusing 
skylight or art-glass panel. General illumination by indi- 
rect lighting may be accomplished by ( 1 ) lamps concealed 
in opaque reflectors suspended from, and pointed toward, 
the ceiling, or (2) concealed in coves located on the side 
walls near the ceiling, or (3) concealed in high standards 
placed on the floor, etc. Illustrations of the various sys- 
tems of lighting as carried out in practical lighting instal- 
lations will be given later. 

D. Location of Lighting Sources. Man has been accus- 
tomed from time immemorial to daylight illumination 
from side windows. In locating artificial lighting sources 
for the illumination of an interior, it would therefore seem 
logical to reproduce, as nearly as possible, the conditions 
that obtain in daylight illumination, and to locate the 
lighting units at or near the windows. If we could obtain 
a sufficiently large flux of artificial light without undue 
expenditure of power, and could distribute this flux in a 
manner analogous to that of daylight, the problem of 
locating the lighting units would be a comparatively sim- 
ple one. With the restrictions with which we now have 
to contend, and with which we will i:)robably have to con- 
tend for all time in supplying a substitute for the sun, we are 
compelled to so locate our lighting units that the compar- 
atively meager flux of light we are able to obtain from 
them can be utilized to the best advantage to meet the 
special requirements of the interior with which we have 
to deal. 

In artificial lighting the location of the lighting units 
will depend upon 

(a) the use to which the interior is to be put, 

(b) the system of lighting employed, 
ic) the character 61 the illuminant used, 

(d) the ability to diffuse and direct the light, 

{e) the removal of the light from the field of view, 

(/) the avoidance of strong contrasts in illumination, 

(g) the structural conditions in the building, 

(//) esthetic considerations, 

(/) accessibility, 

(y) economy. 

Before deciding on the location of outlets, it is necessary 
to know the character of the illuminant to be used. If the 
vacuum tube, for example, is to be employed for lighting 
a large room, a single outlet on the ceiling or on the wall 
might be sufficient, whereas, if tungsten lamps are to be 
used, several ceiling outlets maybe required to suitably 
distribute the light. If gas is to be used, the limitations 
in location due to necessary placement at some distance 
below the ceiling must be taken into consideration. 

To determine the position of the lighting units it is nec- 
essary to decide on the system of illumination that will be 
best employed to meet the conditions of usage of the light. 
If general illumination only is to be used, only ceiling 
outlets need usually be considered. If local illumination 
is to be used, or a combination of local and general, the 
location of outlets for such illumination must be deter- 



In a large room in which a moderate degree of ilhi- 
mination meets all the requirements, a lighting fixture 
centrally located on the ceiling may answer the purpose ; 
whereas, if a very high degree of illumination is needed in 
some parts of the room, the central lighting fixture might 
have to be supplemented by local lamps placed more or 
less close to the objects to be lighted. 

The location of the lighting sources will be governed in 
a material degree by the extent to which it is possible to 
direct or redirect the light of the particular illuminant, by 
reflectors and diff users. They should be so located also as 
to keep the lamp as far as practicable out of the ordinary 
field of view, and to avoid violent contrasts in illumina- 

Due cognizance must be taken of the structural condi- 
tions of a building in locating lighting sources. vSome- 
times the limitations are such that it is impracticable to 
place a lamp in any location other than in the center of a 
bay. Frequently, both from the standpoint of distribu- 
tion of illumination and from the architectural stand- 
point, the location of the lighting uijit in the center of the 
room, or in the center of a bay, works out to best advan- 

In deciding on the location of outlets cognizance must 
be taken of esthetic considerations. The placement of 
the lights must be such that the ensemble will look well. 
In other words, the arrangement of the lighting units 
must be esthetically as well as scientifically good. Where 
it is planned to carry out a certain style of lighting, as 
with fixtures of the Louis XIV period, for instance, the 
location of the outlets for the lighting imits must be ar- 
ranged accordingly. Often the need of accessibility for 
replacement or for local lighting or extinguishing of 
lamps is a governing factor in their location. 

The broad question of economy, not only in the cost of 
the lighting installation but also in the cost of its mainte- 
nance, is another frequent deciding factor in the location 
of lighting sources. Although far better results in illumi- 
nation may be obtained with one system of illumination 
than with another, the better system may be proscribed 
because of too great cost of installation and too great cost 
of operation. In such a case, the location of the lighting 
units must conform to the needs of the less expensive 

E. Lighting Fixtures : Globes, Shades, and Rejlectors. It 
is not uncommon for architects to provide a certain num- 
ber of outlets for the lighting of an interior, and to leave 
the matter of design or selection of the lighting fixtures in 
abeyance until the building is so far along in construction 
that the problem of lighting is not one of designing the 
most suitablelighting arrangements for the interior, but one 
of designing the most suitable fixtures to fit the limitations 
which have been imposed in the location of the outlets. 
In other words, the design of the lighting fixtures is left 
for an after-consideration. 

To secure definite predetermined results, it is necessary 
to know in advance the general decorative scheme and wall 
coloring of an interior in order that the location of lighting 
units and the design of the lighting fixtures may be planned 
with reference to the required illumination of the finished 
interior. Without a knowledge of these conditions, the 
design of the lighting fixtures must be at best a compro- 
mise, and the lighting result must depend upon a " cut and 

try " method. Without the data referred to, the selection 
of globes, shades, and reflectors becomes a matter of guess- 
work rather than of scientific procedure. 

F. Glare and Intrinsic Brightness. As a general prin- 
ciple of illumination, the specific brightness of the lighting 
sources within the field of view should be kept within cer- 
tain limits. These limits have been variously placed by 
different authorities at from 4 to 5 candle-power per scjuare 
inch (0.62 to 0.78 candle-power ])er square centimeter) of 
the lighting sources down to from 0.2 to 0.1 candle-power 
per square inch (0.031 to 0.016 candle-power per square 
centimeter) of actual surface. This refers to primary 
lighting sources. The figure for maximum intrinsic 
brightness per square inch of lighting source cannot, how- 
ever, be taken as a criterion, unless the dimensions of the 
source itself be coupled with this figure- The area of the 
lighting sources within the field of view, as well as its 
specific brightness, must be kept within definite limits 
under given conditions to avoid eye-strain. No exact data 
are available as to the safe maximum limits in specific cases, 
and, indeed, such data, even if secured, would be of little 
practical value unless all the conditions of usage of the 
light were stated in connection therewith. For example, 
unless the conditions of contrast in illumination are known, 
the numerical value of the safe limit of intrinsic brightness 
would mean very little. Thus a specific brightness of 5 
candle-power per square inch may not produce material 
eye-strain or visual fatigue if there is not excessive con- 
trast ; whereas, on the other hand, a specific brightness 
of 0.1 candle-power per square inch may produce con- 
siderable eye-strain and visual fatigue if there is excessive 

Referring to the secondary lighting sources, such as the 
ceiling or walls, as the case may be, the specific bright- 
ness, even though numerically very small, becomes a seri- 
ous matter if a large area of the illuminated surface is 
continuously within the field of view, as it often must of 
necessity be. There is need of complete and accurate data 
along these lines. We have been guided in the past 
by experience, but little has been done in this connec- 
tion to formulate a scientific basis for correct illumination 
design. For example, exact knowledge of this phase of 
the subject is needed to give us a better insight into 
the question of the relative merits of direct and indirect 

In connection with lighting installations wc must con- 
sider, first, the glare of the jirimaryand secondary lighting 
sources, and, second, the glare of the objects illuminated. 
In minimizing glare, the location of the lighting sources 
and their specific brightness and area must be taken into 
account. This involves the consideration of the diffusion 
and direction of the light, the contrast in illumination, and 
the regular or specular reflection. 

(r. Regular or Specular Reflection . The general problem 
of arranging the lighting sources with reference to the 
avoidance of regular reflection was considered in discussing 
the location of lighting units. 

When light strikes an object, some of the rays are ab- 
sorbed by the object, some pass through (in the case of a 
transparent or translucent object), some are reflected 
diffusely, and some are reflected regularly. The regularly 
reflected rays are those we are now considering. 

The regular reflection from calendered paper of a book 



that the minimum intensity of daylight on the working- 
spaces was 29 foot-candles. 

In still another case it was found that with well-diffused 
artificial light approximately 6 foot-candles intensity on 
a vertical plane was required under the conditions that 
obtained for the particular class of work in hand, whereas 
in daylight, on a bright day, the actual intensity of natural 
light on the work was 400 foot-candles.* 

In another case in the postal service it was found that 
an intensity of 1.6 foot-candles daylight illumination 
was sufficient for the work, and that artificial light was 
required when the intensity of daylight fell below this 
value. In this installation an intensity of approximately 
1.5 foot-candles artificial light was sufficient. 

In a public library it was found that an intensity of 
daylight of from 100 foot-candles down to 5 foot-candles 
satisfied the readers, and that 1 foot-candle intensity of 
artificial light satisfied some of the readers, whereas 6 
foot-candles intensity was not sufficient for others. 

Under actual practical conditions in daylight illumina- 
tion we are able to see well throughout a very wide range 
of illumination intensities, provided the conditions under 
which the illumination is carried out are suitable. The 
actual intensity of illumination per se really plays a com- 
paratively small part in the problem of securing good 

In artificial lighting a "dim religious light" is often 
sufficient even for reading purposes, though the intensity 
of illumination on the book may fall considerably below 
1 foot-candle. On the other hand, if artificial light is 
properly diffused and directed, the eye readily adapts itself 
to illumination intensities within extremely wide limits, 
and we can read with comfort in an interior in which the 
actual intensity on the pages of a book exceeds 500 foot- 

In daylight, under usual conditions, the eye works with 
a comparatively small pupillary aperture, because of the 
enormous flux of light. In artificial lighting, under good 
conditions of diffusion, direction, and contrast, the eye 
works with a comparativaly large pupillary aperture, be- 
cause of the relatively insignificant flux of light. Under 
these conditions we can therefore see well, and without 
visual fatigue, by artificial light at illumination intensities 
that are only a very small fraction of those which ordi- 
narily obtain in daylight. 

In daylight the eye is rarely exposed to the primary 
source of light, whereas in artificial light the primary 
source is often within the ordinary field of view. Hence 
the effect of contrast in intensity of the source and inten- 
sity of light on objects viewed, enters to a far greater 
extent in artificial lighting than in daylight. 

C. System of Illumination. The various systems of 
illumination may be broadly classified as follows : 

(a) General illumination by direct lighting. 

(b) General illumination by indirect or semi-indirect 


(c) Combination of (.a) and (b). 

(d) Local illumination. 

(e) Combinations of (d) with (a), (b), and (c). 

•See "Factory Lighting," L. B. Marks, Transactions Illuminating 
Engineering Society, November, 1909, p. 828. 

Each of the above groups may be subdivided into two 
or more typical arrangements, as, for example, general 
illumination by direct lighting may be accomplished by 
(1) lamps exposed to view or (2) enclosed in globes or 
shades which diffuse and direct the light, or (3) mounted 
behind a transmitting screen or septum, such as a diffusing 
skylight or art-glass panel. General illumination by indi- 
rect lighting may be accomplished by ( 1 ) lamps concealed 
in opaque reflectors suspended from, and pointed toward, 
the ceiling, or (2) concealed in coves located on the side 
walls near the ceiling, or (3) concealed in high standards 
placed on the floor, etc. Illustrations of the various sys- 
tems of lighting as carried out in practical lighting instal- 
lations will be given later. 

D. Location of Lighting Sources. Man has been accus- 
tomed from time immemorial to daylight illumination 
from side windows. In locating artificial lighting sources 
for the illumination of an interior, it would therefore seem 
logical to reproduce, as nearly as possible, the conditions 
that obtain in daylight illumination, and to locate the 
lighting units at or near the windows. If we could obtain 
a sufficiently large flux of artificial light without undue 
expenditure of power, and could distribute this flux in a 
manner analogous to that of daylight, the problem of 
locating the lighting imits would be a comparatively sim- 
ple one. With the restrictions with which we now have 
to contend, and with which we will probably have to con- 
tend for all time in supplying a substitute for the sun, we are 
compelled to so locate our lighting units that the compar- 
atively meager flux of light we are able to obtain from 
them can be utilized to the best advantage to meet the 
special requirements of the interior with which we have 
to deal. 

In artificial lighting the location of the lighting units 
will depend upon 

ia) the use to which the interior is to be put, 

(b) the system of lighting employed, 

(c) the character 6f the illuminant used, 

id) the ability to diffuse and direct the light, 

(<?) the removal of the light from the field of view, 

(/") the avoidance of strong contrasts in illumination, 

{g) the structural conditions in the building, 

(//) esthetic considerations, 

(/) accessibility, 

(j) economy. 

Before deciding on the location of outlets, it is necessary 
to know the character of the illuminant to be used. If the 
vacuum tube, for example, is to be employed for lighting 
a large rooin, a single outlet on the ceiling or on the wall 
might be sufficient, whereas, if tungsten lamps are to be 
used, several ceiling outlets may be required to suitably 
distribute the light. If gas is to be used, the limitations 
in location due to necessary placement at some distance 
below the ceiling must be taken into consideration. 

To determine the position of the lighting units it is nec- 
essary to decide on the system of illumination that will be 
best employed to meet the conditions of usage of the light. 
If general illumination only is to be used, only ceiling 
outlets need usually be considered. If local illumination 
is to be used, or a combination of local and general, the 
location of outlets for such illumination must be deter- 



In a larg-e room in which a moderate degree of ilhi- 
mination meets all the requirements, a lighting fixture 
centrally located on the ceiling- may answer the purpose ; 
whereas, if a very high degree of illumination is needed in 
some parts of the room, the central lighting fixture might 
have to be supplemented by local lamps placed more or 
less close to the objects to be lighted. 

The location of the lighting sources will be governed in 
a material degree by the extent to which it is possible to 
direct or redirect the light of the particular illuminant, by 
reflectors and diff users. They should be so located also as 
to keep the lamp as far as practicable out of the ordinary 
field of view, and to avoid violent contrasts in illumina- 

Due cognizance must be taken of the structural condi- 
tions of a building in locating lighting sources. Some- 
times the limitations are such that it is impracticable to 
place a lamp in any location other than in the center of a 
bay. Frequently, both from the standpoint of distribu- 
tion of illumination and from the architectural stand- 
point, the location of the lighting uijit in the center of the 
room, or in the center of a bay, works out to best advan- 

In deciding on the location of outlets cognizance must 
be taken of esthetic considerations. The placement of 
the lights must be such that the ensemble will look well. 
In other words, the arrangement of the lighting units 
must be esthetically as well as scientifically good. Where 
it is planned to carry out a certain style of lighting, as 
with fixtures of the Louis XIV period, for instance, the 
location of the outlets for the lighting units must be ar- 
ranged accordingly. Often the need of accessibility for 
replacement or for local lighting or extinguishing of 
lamps is a governing factor in their location. 

The broad question of economy, not only in the cost of 
the lighting installation but also in the cost of its mainte- 
nance, is another frequent deciding factor in the location 
of lighting sources. Although far better results in illumi- 
nation may be obtained with one system of illumination 
than with another, the better system may be proscribed 
because of too great cost of installation and too great cost 
of operation. In such a case, the location of the lighting 
units must conform to the needs of the less expensive 

E. Lighting Fixtures : Globes, Shades, and Rejledors. It 
is not uncommon for architects to provide a certain num- 
ber of outlets for the lighting of an interior, and to leave 
the matter of design or selection of the lighting fixtures in 
abeyance until the building is so far along in construction 
that the problem of lighting is not one of designing the 
most suitablelightingarrangements for the interior, but one 
of designing the most suitable fixtures to fit the limitations 
which have been imposed in the location of the outlets. 
In other words, the design of the lighting fixtures is left 
for an after-consideration. 

To secure definite predetermined results, it is necessary 
to know in advance the general decorative scheme and wall 
coloring of an interior in order that the location of lighting 
units and the design of the lighting fixtures may be planned 
with reference to the required illumination of the finished 
interior. Without a knowledge of these conditions, the 
design of the lighting fixtures must be at best a compro- 
mise, and the lighting result must depend upon a ' ' cut and 

try " method. Without the data referred to, the selection 
of globes, shades, and reflectors becomes a matter of guess- 
work rather than of scientific procedure. 

F. Glare and Intrinsic Brightness. As a general prin- 
ciple of illumination, the specific brightness of the lighting 
sources within the field of view should be kept within cer- 
tain limits. These limits have been variously placed by 
different authorities at from 4 to 5 candle-ixnver i)er seiuare 
inch (0.62 to 0.78 candle-power i)er square centimeter) of 
the lighting sources down to from 0.2 to 0.1 candle-power 
per squai-e inch (0.031 to 0.016 candle-power per square 
centimeter) of actual surface. This refers to primary 
lighting sources. The figure for maximum intrinsic 
brightness per square inch of lighting source cannot, how- 
ever, be taken as a criterion, unless the dimensions of the 
source itself be coupled with this figure- The area of the 
lighting sources within the field of view, as well as its 
specific brightness, must be kept within definite limits 
under given conditions to avoid eye-strain. No exact data 
are available as to the safe maximum limits in specific cases, 
and, indeed, such data, even if secured, would be of little 
practical value unless all the conditions of usage of the 
light were stated in connection therewith. For example, 
unless the conditions of contrast in illumination are known, 
the numerical value of the safe limit of intrinsic brightness 
would mean very little. Thus a specific brightness of 5 
candle-power per square inch may not produce material 
eye-strain or visual fatigue if there is not excessive con- 
trast ; whereas, on the other hand, a specific brightness 
of 0.1 candle-power per square inch may produce con- 
siderable eye-strain and visual fatigue if there is excessive 

Referring to the secondary lighting sources, such as the 
ceiling or walls, as the case may be, the specific bright- 
ness, even though numerically very small, becomes a seri- 
ous matter if a large area of the illuminated surface is 
continiiously within the field of view, as it often must of 
necessity be. There is need of complete and accurate data 
along these lines. We have been guided in the past 
by experience, but little has been done in this connec- 
tion to formulate a scientific basis for correct illumination 
design. For example, exact knowledge of this phase of 
the subject is needed to give us a better insight into 
the question of the relative merits of direct and indirect 

In connection with lighting installations we must con- 
sider, first, the glare of the ])rimaryand secondary lighting 
sources, and, second, the glare of the objects illuminated. 
In minimizing glare, the location of the lighting sources 
and their specific brightness and area must be taken into 
account. This involves the consideration of the difl'usion 
and direction of the light, the contrast in illumination, and 
the regular or specular reflection. 

G. Regular or Specular Reflection . The general problem 
of arranging the lighting sources with reference to the 
avoidance of regular reflection was considered in discussing 
the location of lighting units. 

When light strikes an object, .some of the rays are ab- 
sorbed by the object, some pass through (in the case of a 
transparent or translucent object), some are reflected 
diffusely, and some arc reflected regularly. The regularly 
reflected rays are those we are now considering. 

The regular reflection from calendered paper of a book 



maybe sotryingr as to prevent good vision and cause severe 
eye-strain. Hence, if the position of the eye with respect 
to the lighting source and the object viewed is necessarily 
such that the rays that strike the object are directly reflected 
into the eye, the lighting is defective. If work is done at 
an ordinary polished oak table located in the center of a 
room, illuminated by a lamp directly above at the ceiling, 
the specular reflection from the surface of the table will be 
very trying to the eye unless the observer is seated in such 
a position that the direct reflected rays do not strike the 
eye. Unless the table is a long one, it will be impossible 
to escape a considerable percentage of the regular reflected 
rays. In such a case, under practical conditions, the use of 
an exposed lamp at the ceiling, even if the lamp be frosted 
and backed by a diffusing reflector, is almost prohibitive. 
To reduce the amount of regular reflection to a tolerable 
degree the lamp must be screened by a diffusing globe of 
considerable area and low specific brightness. 

In practice, we find on all sides serious results from the 
direct reflection of light from objects viewed ; be it in the 
library of a palatial residence in which the library table is 
fitted with a polished plate-glass top, or in a factory in 
which the workmen handle highly polished pieces in the 
assembling of apparatus or face highly polished portions 
of machines, the baneful influence of regular reflection 
may be noted. In many cases the excessive regular reflec- 
tion is due to faulty illuminating engineering. 

In one instance in actual practice it was found in a factory 
that the direct reflected light which reached the eyes of an 
operator who was at work on polished material was almost 
forty per cent of the light which reached the object viewed. 
When this direct reflection was cut down by a change in the 
installation, the operator could see the work much better 
and with much less visual fatigue. 

//. Contrast. It has been stated that in planning the 
artificial illumination of an interior, the diffusion and 
direction of light should be such as to avoid jarring con- 
trasts in illumination in different parts of the interior. 
There is, perhaps, no single item that comes up in the 
consideration of a lighting Jicheme that is of more impor- 
tance, from a physiological standpoint, than that of contrast. 
This factor has already been considered in discussing the 
different systems of carrying out illumination and the 
requisite intensity of illumination for specific kinds of 
work. We may consider the subject of contrast under 
two divisions: 

(a) Contrast in intensity or character of illumination in 
different parts of the same room or space. 

ib) Contrast in the illumination of two contiguous rooms 
or spaces. 

If an observer passes directly from one interior in which 
the illumination is of a high order to a contiguous interior 
in which the illumination is of a low order, the intensity 
of illumination in the second interior may strike him as 
being insufficient. Had the order of the illumination in 
the one interior been the same as that in the other, even 
though the illumination in both interiors were less than that 
of the less brightly lighted one, the observer might have 
found this reduced intensity of illumination quite sufficient. 
If, after spending some time in the less brightly lighted 
interior, the observer passes to the more brilliantly lighted 
adjoining room, he may deem the latter over-illuminated. 
These effects are due to contrast in illumination. 

An isolated show window, having a moderate intensity 
of illumination, may admirably set forth the wares dis- 
played therein, but when a neighboring window, having 
eight or ten times the intensity of illumination of the first, 
is lighted, the first will appear but dimly lighted, and the 
owner to give due prominence to his display will be com- 
pelled, because of contrast with the neighboring window, 
to raise the plane of his illumination. 

Actual measurements show that largely because of this 
principle of contrast the plane of illumination in stores, 
public buildings, places of amusement, and even residences, 
has been carried much higher in some cities than in others, 
and abnormally high in some sections of the same city. 
For example, the plane of illumination in the leading 
stores, especially the department stores in New York City, 
has gradually been raised from 1 to 2 foot-candles to 4 to 6 
foot-candles. A part of this riscmay be accounted for by the 
comparatively recent introduction of high efficiency lamps, 
such as the tungsten, gas mantle burner, and other types; 
but the most potent factor underlying this increase in in- 
tensity is undoubtedly the principle of contrast. When 
your neighbors' stores are brightly lighted, you are com- 
pelled in self-defense to light your own place brightly 
because of the contrast. When your streets and public 
spaces are more brightly lighted, you are compelled to 
light your homes more brightly because of the contrast. 

Considering now the question of contrast in different 
parts of the same room, we have an analogous condition 
to that just discussed. If one part of a room is extremely 
bright and another part extremely dark, the bright part 
appears brighter by contrast, and the dark part, darker. 
If these contrasts are extreme, the eye receives a shock 
more or less violent in glancing from one part of the room 
to another ; and if, as may happen when several people in 
conversation are seated around a room illuminated in this 
way, one frequently looks alternately from a dark section 
to a light section of the room, the eye is soon severely taxed. 
If, however, the conditions of contrast are only very 
moderate, the eye may actually be rested by glancing from 
the brighter objects to the darker objects in a room. 

If brightly lighted walls or ceiling be within the ordi- 
nary field of view, the discernment of objects in the room 
or of the printed matter on the page of a book on which 
the illumination intensity is less than that of the walls and 
ceiling, will be far more difficult than if the illumination 
intensity on the objects viewed were greater than that of 
the walls and ceiling within the field of view. 

A common example of lighting, in which the evil effects 
of violent contrast are strikingly exhibited, is the illumi- 
nation of a moderately large dining room in which the 
walls are very dark in color, and the illumination carried 
out exclusively by a central dome fixture, approximately 
2 feet (61 centimeters) above the table, the fixture being 
equipped with two or three 16 candle-power incandescent 
lamps within the dome, which latter is constructed of slightly 
translucent art glass. The table is brilliantly illuminated, 
the intensity on the tablecloth being not infrequently 
from 8 to 10 foot-candles (80 to 100 meter-candles). In 
looking across the table to the person seated opposite, one 
looks through a field of great brightness at the table into 
one of almost dense blackness at the walls. It need hardly 
be stated that this violent contrast is conducive to eye- 


The Business Side of an Architect's Office. 




THE architect who 
is about to estab- 
lish himself in a new 
office may wisely study 
the arrangement worked 
out by Donn Barber in 
the new Architects' 
Building-. It is an ar- 
rang-ement which is a 
model in that it illus- 
trates the virtues of 
many other architects' 
offices. Some time ag"o 
The Brickbuilder 
published a description 
of the suite occupied at 
that time by Mr. Barber, 
but in order to keep up to date we 
must now show the office in which 
he has still further developed his 
ideas as to what an architect's work- 
shop oug-ht to be. Find on the dia- 
gram the " Plan Room " and you will 
see the heart of the old office which 
was moved bodily to the new quarters, 
where, in the geographical center of 
the new office, it is known to the office 
force as the "conning tower." The 
plan clerk in command there looks out 
in every direction over ample counters : 
toward the ' ' boss ' ' and the clerical 
force on one side, toward the head 
draftsman and the specification writer 
on a second , toward the drafting room on 
a third side, and toward the contractors 
or their messengers on a fourth. One 
can picture to himself the orderly and 
systematic way in which drawings and 
specifications slide back and forth over 
those counters and are constantly kept 
track of while they are being developed 
or are on their way to the performance 
of their various functions. At night 
all tables are cleared (except of draw- 
ings tacked down) and covered, and 
the "conning tower," closed with counterweighted glass 
sashes, is locked up tight. The location of the main con- 
trol of everything pertaining to drawings, catalogues, 
supplies, keys, etc., is all under the plan clerk. 

There is a well thought out system applied to the various 
details controlled in this department which makes the 
proper care of drawings and specifications a simple matter. 
All scale drawings are filed away flat, in folios, in a fire- 
proof vault, in drawers 58 inches wide, 38 inches deep, and 
2% inches high. For large works the folios are separated 
in special sections such as plans, elevations and sections, 
details, sketches, plumbing, heating, etc., with headings 



on the right-hand end 
of the folios. All draw- 
ings are stamped on the 
bottom right-hand cor- 
ner with a special stamp, 
similar to that for the 
Hartford National Bank 
job, which is shown 
herewith. When a 
drawing has changes 
made upon it, a stamp 
of revision showing the 
date is stamped near the 
title. On each revision 
a special note is made 
of each change, under 
the date, so that the 
revisions of a drawing can be easily 
found. These notes are placed in the 
lower right-hand corner, above the 
stamps, and sketches are similarly 
marked, but with smaller stamps. All 
full-size details and shop drawings are 
folded to a uniform size, 8 inches by 21 
inches, on one of the counters, which 
is ruled in rectangles, 8 inches by 21 
inches, for this purpose. Prints for 
mailing are of the same size and are 
simply folded in half and mailed in 
envelopes 9 inches by 21 inches. Shop 
drawings, on receipt, are stamped 
" Received — (date) " on the back in 
the right-hand corner by the plan clerk 
and then entered on a shop drawing 
card. They pass in turn to the head 
draftsman and the checker. After 
being checked, both drawing card and 
prints are stamped " Returned for 
Correction" or "Approved," with 
date, as the case may be, and to whom 
issued ; then the clerk makes out a 
receipt, ready for delivery of prints 
by messenger or mail. Full-size de- 
tails and shop drawings are filed in 
steel drawers 23 inches wide, 30 inches 
deep, and '-)% inches high, with sj^ecial guides to separate 
the different works and with a subdivision for classifica- 
tion of trades numbering from 1 to 31. 

Miscellaneous sketches are filed in drawers 24 inches 
wide, 30 inches deep, and 16 inches high in special combi- 
nation guide folios. This is very important as it makes a 
place for all of the little odds and ends and sjiecial notes, 
which are given to the draftsmen by Mr. Barber or other 
heads, as the case may be, and are therefore kept on file 
for verification, instead of being jnit in the usual way on 
hooks for the littering of the drafting room and eventually 
being forgotten and thrown away. 




Specifications are filed vertically in 
drawers 12 inches wide, 30 inches deep, 
and 9/4 inches high, with g-uides sepa- 
rating the different buildings, and with 
metal followers to keep them vertical. 

Samples of all finishes and materials 
for approval of work in hand are kept in 
separate drawers and are all stamped 
the day they are received and approved, 
with the name of the job, and filed in 
drawers 24 inches wide, 30 inches deep, 
and 3 inches high, each drawer being- 
labeled with the name of the building 
to which the material refers. 

All catalogues arc filed verticallx- in 
drawers 15 inches wide, 30 inches deep, 
and 13 inches high, special section 
guides separating the classification of 
all trades, thereby providing a most effi- 
cient method of getting any catalogue 
immediately, and also having the 
advantage of keeping all catalogues on 
one subject together. 

The numbering of drawings, plans, 
elevations, and sections is as follows : 

00. — Location Plan. 
02. — Sub-Basement. 

01. — Basement. 

1. — 1st Floor. 

2. — 2d Floor. 

Scale details start from 25 or 50, as 
may be determined by the size of. the 
building ; full size details are from 500 
on ; steel plans from 100 ; plumbing 
from 200 ; heating from 300 ; electric 
from 400. 

The illustrations shown on page 200 
with explanatory notes reproduce vari- 
ous printed forms. Mr. Barber believes 
in a generous use of rubber stamps as 
labor-savers, and the examples shown 
forestall any facetious remarks about 
rubber stamp designing. 

Specifications are written on sheets 
8}4 inches by 11 inches, with 1 inch 


binding margin on the left side of the page and l}4 inch 
margin on the right side for paragraph headings. This 
is an unusual but excellent arrangement. Specifications 
are bound in cloth-lined white paper covers with the 
architect's name printed and the title rubber-stamped 
on the outside. 

The patient reader, impatient though he be with details 
of "blanks" and "system," will be interested to see 
other features of this office. The drafting room is a well 
lighted, rectangular room free and clear of alcoves and 
capable of one hundred per cent enlargement by inclusion 
of space now sublet to others. The ceiling is white and 
the walls, finished in "oatmeal" texture, are chrome- 
cream in strength of color. Semi-indirect artificial light- 
ing, in the form of suspended hemispheres of white glass, 
was tried as an experiment with fair results, but indi- 
vidual drop cord lights (see illustration) 
have been installed recently. The con- 
crete floor is covered with linoleum cut 
into tiles, about 9 inches square. This 
kind of flooring, by the way, is used in a 
number of architects' offices — some- 
times successfully cemented down, and 
sometimes not. In his private office 
Mr. Barber has used cork tiling — a 
most satisfactory flooring surface. 

The visitor will note the presence of 
a convenient row of porcelain lavatories 
and a sink in the drafting room, the 
sink being a long one just right for 
washing off a color drawing ; also a 
drawing board case holding several 
boards glue-mounted with drafting 
paper ready for use, each board on edge 
in its own compartment. He will see, 
too, a bulletin board on which is posted, 
among other items intended for general 
information to the office force, a list of 

stenographers' room. 



employees with the dates of vacations. This brings 
to mind the fact that Saturday is an all-day holiday, 
the time being- made up by fixing regular office hours 
on other days at 9 to 6 o'clock. It is arranged, how- 
ever, in alternation that at least some one responsible 
member of the office shall be on duty ^Saturday to take 
care of pressing business. 

A glance at the plan reveals the workably convenient 
relation of the different parts of this office : the easily 
maintained privacy of Mr. Barber's personal desk and 
drafting table, which is yet equally accessible to 
the draftsmen, to the clients, and to the executive end 
of the office. Note the facility with which an usher 
on guard in the entrance hall can put a caller in touch 
with the plan room, the business office, the inner 
sanctum, or the reception room, as the case may require, 
without needless interruption of those 
who are not concerned. 

The reception room is furnished quite 
elaborately, yet not in the manner of a 
drawing room or monumental library. 
It contains some very fine furniture, 
tapestries, and rugs which the owner 
has collected, and which, in their fine 
grouping, supply visible examples to 
illustrate points in discussion with 
clients. The ceiling is a distinguished 
example of monumental treatment in 
plaster — a feature which characterizes 
many of the interiors designed by 
Mr. Barber. Such furnishing of the 
parts of the office in which clients are 
received as will exemplify the charac- 
teristic note of an architect's work has a 
great missionary value, for it enables 
one easily to impress a client with the 
force of his convictions or the merits ^ou 

of the scheme he advocates. mr. barber's 





( Editor's Note. ) — The time expended 
in studying the problem of arranging 
the various parts of this office has been 
well invested, for it has resulted in 
an efficiency in the working force 
which could not be had by mere accident 
or by any implicit faith in the interests 
of the individual members of the organi- 
zation toward the general work of the 

The business world in the last decade 
was greatly occupied in the pursuit of 
system, and now that its value has been 
conclusively demonstrated, it has turned 
to the cultivation of efficiency. This 
is, of course, the logical outcome of 
systematizing work, office methods, etc. 

In many architects' offices, however, 
business methods have not kept pace 
with the growth of their genei'al prac- 
tice, and therefore much valuable time 
is lost and the running expenses are 
greatly increased because of this fact. 
This situation reacts on the various 
heads and employees to the detriment 
of their personal efficiency, whereas in 
the office where each individual knows 
his work and is surrounded by the 
proper means for carrying out this work 
no such loss of time and money is ex- 

This brings up the old contention 
that creative art and business system do 
not travel together in harmonious rela- 
tion, but it takes only a hasty considera- 
tion oi the architects of this country, 
whose efforts have brought them suc- 
cess, not only in a business sense, but 
also ill the creation of beautiful build- 
ings, to entirely refute this long nur- 
tured opinion. 

Architecture for tlie average person 
is not as remunerative a profession as 
many others where less special training 
and intellect are required, so it behooves 
an architect to look to his business 



methods to check the ex- 
travagances of time and 
money which will surely 
eat into his profits. 

Even with a most compe- 
tent and efficient working; 
orffanixation, success in 
architectural practice is de- 
pendent to a great extent 
upon the intimate relation 
of the architect himself to 
the work going on in his 
office, and the experience of 
many offices clearly indi- 
cates that serious mistakes 
can be avoided if the details 
of office practice are so ar- 
ranged that the architect 
can keep constantly in 
touch with all stages of the 

AUG 4 -1913 



Stamp used on shop drawings. 


i'lM I;, k Lixin(ite kn. 

FULL SIZE DETAIL scale detail 

AUG 4 ma 

Stamp for sketches. 





Hartwrd, Conn, 












Tjpical title for use on scale and full size detail drawings. 


Stamp for all working drawings. 



10I Park Avenue. New York City 


so. OF 










^.^ ^r 

♦ *•/>• 




,a<it^ <5 

^)^(3 ^0 • 






^4^.^^'^ ^ 



. / 













It is comparatively easy to 
bring: about this result in 
the small office, where the 
architect is his own specifi- 
cation writer, where he him- 
self visits buildingfs during 
their construction, etc., but 
in the large office it becomes 
a serious tax on his energy to 
constantly keep these mat- 
ters in mind, so that a sys- 
tem of written reports from 
superintendents and others 
having" exectitive powers 
becomes necessary'. This 
furnishes accurate data, 
which the head of the office 
can at any time refer to and 
thereby ascertain the prog- 
ress of any .given phase of 
the work. 





AUG 4 1913 

Receipts for drawings printed on mailing cards, 4x6 inches. 
This samjile lists several drawings and specifications issued on one 
building at one time. 

Stamp used on shop drawings. 





Miscellaneous office stamps. 














., ," 




i-t> ■: --"^ 


\ '• I 

''^^ o 



.v:v "-^ 



A fding card, 4 .\ 6 inches, is m. .■ .-acli draw!-,., ;. L_j <iliicc, 

including each shop drawing. This card has eleven spaces, front and 
back, in which to record eleven phases of the history of one drawing. 









.,P«. •"••» 




. .'. ■.;■-■ 



"-> Ati^yjC 


J ■ ■, 

^ <r/-^ i' 

' XJt\\\^J 



. ■■ 

e>>.^/^ 2 


■■ ■ ' 1 V 


A similar filing card is made for all sam|>les of material for work 
in hand. This card gives the history of samples of floor finish, sub- 
mitted foj- approval on one building. 


THE B R I C K R U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 129. 




> U] 

U I- 


ki < 


•^ o 

UJ « 

D « 

Z z 

lil < 

> 2 
< S 


VOL. 22, NO. 9, 

PLATE 130. 




VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 131. 



-J U) 

uj y- 

> " 

[j 'ii 

_i - 


UJ 5 


VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 132. 



VOL. 22, NO. 9. 

PLATE 133. 

■J^nntJfmii: -td 





VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 134. 






VOL. 22, NO. 9. 

PLATE 135. 





VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 136. 




VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 137. 

,^^^^m-43: AND RLAR^ABLLS- 






VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 138. 

— I- 

1 u 


VOL. 22. NO. 9. PLATE 139. 


RICHARDS. Mccarty a bulford. architects 


VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 140. 





VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 141. 








VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 142. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 143. 







VOL. 22, NO. 9. PLATE 144. 




O w 

o >- 

O I 

OQ < 

U '^ 

z ^ 





Lattice-Its Use as an Architectural Embellishment.-Part II, 



A NATURAL subdivision of 
that part of the field of de- 
sign which the user of lattice 
has made his own is formed by- 
detached structures such as 
arbors, summer-houses, well- 
coverings, etc., which decorate 
our g:ardens, both old and new, 
and by the more utilitarian and 
modern contrivances by which 
the architect of to-day masks 
the presence of the laundry- 
yard, service-court, or i^lain old 
fashioned "back-yard." It is, 
perhaps, in this department that 
the happiest results have been 


ing- spikiness. There are beau- 
tiful g-ateposts, too, but very few 
with lattice treatment — at least 
so it would seem to me, and I 
have looked long and patiently 
for them. The arched trellis, 
double, iK-rhaps, with shallow 
seats on either side, the gate 
itself with the contrast of upper 
and lower panel, the treatment 
of the abutting fence — these 
are the elements in one of the 
smaller problems of architecture 
which should inspire and receive 
more attention than it has been 

accorded as yet. In our .South- 
attained. In direct connection with the, as in the ern cities, notably Charleston, .S. C, we find more .serious 
case of porches or vine supports applied directly on the attempts to make gateways attractive, but unfortunately 

walls of a building, the designer is restricted both as to 
space he may occupy and style he may employ. In the 
case of these detached structures, how^ever, there is an 
almost unlimited freedom for the play of fancy. The 
influence of surrounding wall surfaces or strictly architec- 
tural detail is hardly a factor, granted, of course, that a 
general propriety of treatment be observed. 

The architect, or more commonly the carpenter, of 
Colonial days, felt the freedom which the playful pursuits 
of the garden offered him, but with his ingrained chastity 
of artistic impulse stopped short of the fantastic or freak- 
ish. He did not thoroughly cover the field into which he 
might have strayed, probably because he was too busy 
with the realities of wringing a living from the stern fields 
of his adoption. In the matter of entrance gateways, for 
instance, there is a singular jiaucity of material. Here 

the entire development of Southern Colonial architecture 
was opposed to anything as simj^le and nai've as lattice 
work. In its lowest and most natural state the early 
Southern architecture found its expression in the shacks 
of the negro — straightforward, simjile buildings without 
ornament. These were habitations built by one race for 
another, homes without the informing instinct which 
shows itself so clearly in the work of men building for 
themselves, for their own jiersonal wants. It is a selfisJT 
law, but as fundamental as human nature, tliat man will 
not, because he cannot, i)Ut his deepest, strongest efforts 
into aught but what is to be his own. At the other end 
of the scale in the SoiUh stood the wealthy slave-owner. 
What an interesting comparison it is between the stately 
homes of the well-to-do merchants of Salem and Ports- 
mouth and the e<|ually stately but far less per.sonal dwell- 

was a problem which should hav^e given rise to many ings of the corres])onding class along our Southern shore. 

lovely solutions. The actually executed results are few 
and far between. One may travel a day's journey through 
the coast towns of Massachusetts or under the elm-shaded 
streets of Connecticut river villages without finding more 
than a handful of instances where the builder has at- 
tempted anything more than a pair of severely sim]:)le 
gateposts flanked by a fence of the most uncompromis- 

Something in the warmer climate, in the enervating, lazy 
atmosphere of a life where the master had a hundred 
hands tf) serve him, seems to have sapped the vitality of 
even the most successful of the "big" houses of the 
South. They arc dignified, they have style and " the 
grand air," but it is a borrowed dignity, a lifeless style, a 
languid beauty. In the severe adaptations of Bulfinch 



and Latrobe, there is not the 
slightest trace of playfulness or 
amusement. We find practically 
no examples of lattice work; 
there is no place for it in an 
architecture of wood pompously 
proclaimintr to all the world that 
it is stone. The nearest approach 
to a lattice treatment which one 
finds is in this very matter of 
g-ateways, which has suffered 
from Northern neglect. The 
Southern entrance was more 
an affair, the old gardens were 
more closely walled, and in- 
gress and egress, particularly 
of "carriage folk," were 
masked with a certain splendor 
reflected in the high-posted 
gateways of old Charleston. 
But even here the architectural 
forms are but a borrowed 
application of the familiar 
English iron work, which went 
with the stone forms of the great manor house itself. 

We have again to turn to the master-builders of New 
England to find the flower of our garden art expressed 
with raciness and native originality. It is in the old 
gardens of Salem, Portsmouth, and Dan vers that we find 
the most charming conceptions, — quaint, logical, personal, 
unaffected — all that a real garden adjunct should be. 
Take, for example, the fine tree " lookout " suggested in 
the drawing herewith. What a charming idea it is to 
build up a human nest into the embracing branches of some 
friendly tree — what possibilities it suggests! Hardly a 
country place of any size but boasts some accommodating 


growth about which, at a ridic- 
ulously small expense, can be 
built a veritable palace of de- 
light, — a wandering maze of 
substantial open-tread stairs 
leading to specially designed 
landings, where the girl may 
have her dolls, the boy his secret 
treasures, and the pater famil- 
ias his book and pipe among 
the apple blossoms of May. 
Should a tree of fairly large 
spread — an oak, a low-growing 
elm, or even a big apple tree — 
be available, it is certainly to be 
hoped that a common meeting- 
ground will be included in the 
arborial architecture. I remem- 
ber no luncheon to compare in 
its environment to that enjoyed 
years ago in the top of an old 
tree in Concord, Mass. While 
the memories of Paillard's and 
Durand's have paled or merged 
in the common remembrance of good things gone by, the 
memory of that hour among the branches remains clear and 
distinct. Try it, you epicures, who happen also to be lovers 
of nature. It is worth while ! It seems hardly necessary 
to suggest that of course any woodwork used in this way 
should be either painted a neutral tone or allowed to weather 
to the silver gray of the tree-trunk itself. From the tree- 
house to the more formal summer-house we descend from 
the heights of the highly poetic to the plane of middling 
sentimentality so cherished by our elders : a plane of sub- 
stantial firmness, upon which could be founded with perfect 
safety the light structures of their imagination. These 

Bigclnw ..V- Wadsworth, Arcliitects. 



were to be the theatre of that 
safe and sane romanticism by 
which our grandmothers were 
won — victories usually preceded 
by a serious hour with the fair 
one's stern father and severe 
mother, where at divers practi- 
cal matters of dower and main- 
tenance were, likely enoug-h, 
shrewdly discussed in the old 
g-entleman's study, whence the 
keen old eyes, later peering- 
througfh drawn blinds, watched 
the duly certified suitor crunch- 
ing- amorously down the garden 
path. Was it for this, I wonder, 
that the old-time shelters were 
so often set at intersections of 
main axes, or on the main line of 
observation, as in the example 
shown from the Robinson Gar- 
den in .Salem. Personally, from 
both logical and sentimental 
considerations, at least from the 
younger man's point of view, I conceive an ideal location 
for the summer-house to be not at "the focal point of a 
congested civic center ' ' — phrase dear to our professors of 
theory — but in the isolated bosquet at the end of a winding 
walk — the further away the better, a terminal, not a way 
station. In this phase of garden architecture, too, it seems 
as if we had stood still, if not actually retrograded. There 
is little or no movement in the summer-house market at 
present. Perhaps now that most of our millionaires really 
live in the country, there will be a renaissance of the little 
Chalet-de-Bois, which gives the cool, after-tennis drink so 
delicious a flavor. But the summer-house has onlv been 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 

developed as far as the simj^le 
rendezvous. Beyond lie visions 
of delightful possibilities, — 
game rooms, lattice mazes, and 
the like. It is one of the dreams 
of my life to find a client who 
will commission me to build a 
tiny open-air ball room with a 
stage and the dependencies of 
capsule drama. 

Try as I will, I cannot avoid 
saying a word about the per- 
gola — a name which has been 
made to stand for so many 
crimes that it has become to me 
a hissing and a reproach. So 
terrible, indeed, did this ])est 
become that one of my archi- 
tectural confreres exclaimed that 
he had actually taken out per- 
gola insurance against it ; and 
surely we nmst admit that the 
gravity of the situation condones 
the cr}' of distress. There was 
a time, happily past, when no home was complete without 
a pergola. Every age has its architectural hall-mark. 
We have passed through the successive periods of wooden 
battlements, curved mansards, neo-grec columns (so near 
and, yet, alas, so far!) baronial towers — who of us now 
in our middle age does not recall yearning for a home 
with a tower ? — down to the yesterday of the Italian per- 
gola. The carved beam-ends and the fat columns of this 
delightful shade and shelter were applied with unsparing 
hand to houses and gardens of the most diverse character, 
regardless of appropriateness and beauty. The details 
of its construction have crept insidiously into the very 

Bigelow & Wadsworth, Architects. 



architecture of the house itself, 
and it is no uncommon thinjj to 
see these same projecting- beam- 
ends used with a solid roof to 
form the cover of a piazza, or 
even hoisted hundreds of feet in 
the air, on the roof of a club or 
restaurant, to carry a thrilling- 
burden of artificial wistaria or 
dusty, city-bred ivy. It is with 
such deceptions as these that arch- 
itects fool themselves and be- 
fuddle the public, creating a taste 
for a meretricious and imitative 
art which is fundamentally wron.y. 
If we look once more to the older 
models, we will find in the arbors 
of our New Ens:land .i^ardens the 
jierfect simplicity and apiH-o])riate- 
ness which shine like white H.yht 
through the years, cominii;' lon.t;- 
after the over-educated and fruit- 
less attempts of the French court 

gardeners to introduce the world of play-gardens into that 
of real architecture and ec|ually long before this later 
attempt to graft the simple exi)ression of a vineyard neces- 
sity upon an entirely foreign architectural life. It is diffi- 
cult at close range to say just what the predominate feature 
of a period is — just what distinguishes us or will distin- 
guish us from the periods just before or after us. If one 
may hazard a guess, however, I should say that whatever 

DLn c ii.i iMAi- gardI';n imrsi;. 

the particular detail may prove to 
be, it will be found to be closely 
related to the general return to 
the older and simpler forms of 
architectural expression which is 
undoubtedly at present in full 
swing. And of the details of this 
return to simplicity I can think of 
no more uniting link, no factor 
more common to all the subdivi- 
sions of the subject, than the use 
of lattice, which finds its applica- 
tion not alone in connection with 
the severe wooden houses, but 
also with brick, stone, stucco, or 
what you will, so long as it is 
honest and straightforward and 
intimately connected with the out- 
of-doors. I have no patience with 
the modern and very smart at- 
tempts to use lattice for interior 
purposes, to make it do things for 
which it was never intended. No 
matter how successful the result may appear to be — and 
we can all call to mind instances where it would seem to 
be the last word in chic — I cannot help feeling that the 
same, no, not the same, a better, result could have been 
secured in another way and by more legitimate means. 
If these slight considerations of the subject will make 
for its honest use, they will have a real excuse for 




The Masonic Temple, Camden, N. J 


THE symi^athetic use of architectural terra cotta and 
brick used in happy combination is again demon- 
strated in the recently erected Masonic Temple, Camden, 
N. J. Here the architects have frankly used terra cotta in 
place of other materials because it seemed to them best to 
express the needs of this particular problem. 

Temples should bedig-nified and imposing structures, no 
matter how small, and examples of good, sound construc- 
tion, no matter how inexpensively they must be built. 
There is no type of building whose traditions hold for it a 
better right to the employment of the Classic styles, or 
even seem to demand it, than 
the Masonic Temple, and this 
is even further encouraged by 
the extent to which we are to- 
day using Greek and Roman 
precedents generally in archi- 
tecture. There should also be 
a certain air of exclusiveness, 
massiveness, and strength with- 
out sacrificing refinement and 
beauty. The Greek temple is 
the one type of building which 
embodies all these characteris- 
tics. However, in using it as 
the best expression of what we 
desire in our Masonic Temples, 
it is necessary to make a ]ilan 
which satisfies the demanc|s of 
modern requirements and to use 
the structural material which 
will bring the total cost of the 
building within the amount ap- 
propriated for its erection. The 
selection of architectural terra 
cotta and brick was the logical 
choice. These materials were 
economical in cost and filled all 
the requirements of architec- 


tural character and structural stability. With the plastic 
quality of architectural terra cotta it is possible to get a 
great richness and beauty of detail, which, except in very 
few instances, would be quite prohibitive even if stone 
could be used. While architectural terra cotta has a dis- 
tinctly individual character, it can be made to express, in 
its own way, the dignity and simplicity we so desire in 
buildings of this character. The fact that architectural 
terra cotta is so much more fireproof than stone is again 
no small factor in determining its employment. It maj- 
also be well to say here that in this special instance the 

building committee objected 
very strongly to the use of stone 
on account of the darkening 
effect the atmosphere has upon 
it in that vicinity, this objection 
being caused by the appearance 
of stone buildings in the neigh- 
borhood of the proposed site for 
the new temple. By the use of 
architectural terra cotta and an 
impervious brick it was satis- 
factorily proved to the members 
of the committee that they could 
have a material which would be 
impervious and which could be 
easily cleaned. 

In the case of the new Camden 
Masonic Temple a light buff un- 
glazed terra cotta with surface 
tooling was used. It was found 
that with the tooled surface a 
certain texture was obtained, 
which brought it more in har- 
mon>- with the brickwork and 
wliich i)revented the appear- 
ance of any unevenness in the 
flat surfaces. While in most in- 
stances this is not objectionable, 



here, where the effect of streng-th was desired, the tooHng: 
was resorted to with success. 

One feature in handHng the architectural terra cotta was 
the elimination of visible vertical joints in the columns. 
The size of the columns required that the drum be built 
up in eight pieces, but, by making: a double break in the 
fillets and placing- the joint in the internal angle of one of 
these breaks, each drum has the appearance of being a 
single piece, so that the horizontal joints only are visible. 
The columns, which are thirty-four feet high, rest upon a 
granite base nine feet 
in height. This high 
base gives a desired 
feeling of privacy and 
seclusion, and with the -^ 
spacing of the columns 
and the fenestration 
completely obviates the "n 
danger of its having a 
bank character. The in- _ 
tercolumniation is quite 
successful, the columns 
being placed close to- -^ 
gether, with the central 
bay made wider to ac- 
commodate the wide en- * 
trance demanded. Set 
close to the curtain wall 
in back, they give a "^ 
most satisfying feeling 
of strength and repose. -^, 
The wide flanking piers 
contrast well with the 
light and shade of the ^ 
colonnade and add to 
the simplicity and mas- 
si veness of the whole. 

Besides the fluting of 
the columns and the 
Ionic caps, the architec- 
tural terra cotta is en- 
riched with decorated 
mouldings in the cor- 
nice and architrave and 
wreaths encircling Ma- 
sonic emblems in the 

frieze. The latter, with the symbol over the main entrance, 
are the only external evidences of the purpose of the build- 
ing. The cornice is extremely simple and effective and is 
carried around the sides of the building past the first bay. 
The high parapet receiving the roof in back gives the right 
proportion of wall surface above the columns. A sense of 
protection is given to the entrance by the break in the high 
granite base, while the wide architectural terra cotta trim 
gives it importance in the composition. Small windows 
above the entrance light the committee rooms in the 
second story mezzanine, while the screened windows 
directly under the entablature, lighting the second story 
hall, add richness and character to the building. 

The brick selected for the body of the building was 
a light impervious brick to match the terra cotta and 
laid up with thin joints to give an evenness of surface 
and tone, thereby gaining in massiveness and solidity. 


-CAHDEri - -JIEVv'' JER5&Y- 


-consTRvcTion- op-the- 



coNntLrtp WITH Ttie 



The same brick is used throughout the exterior of the 

In plan, the building consists of a high basement, two 
main or lodge room floors, and two mezzanines for com- 
mittee rooms, armory, lantern rooms, etc. The entrance 
hall is placed three and one-half feet below the level of the 
first floor, to make fewer steps on the exterior and to give 
a higher ceiling. The large room in the basement, meas- 
uring approximately 60 x 100 feet, will be used for ban- 
queting and drilling purposes. Two wings made possible 

by the shape of the lot 
take care of the kitchen 
and heating plant. 

The first floor is to 
be used by the higher 
Masonic bodies, both be- 
cause it is more conven- 
ient to the basement for 
drilling, and because it 
recjuired more floor area ■ 
than the second floor. 
This additional area was 
obtained by building the 
platform of the large 
lodge room out over the 
kitchen wnng. In the 
mezzanine of the first 
story are two committee 
rooms reached by the 
main staircase, a large 
armory, galleries, and 
lantern room. The 
second floor is given up 
entirely to one large 
Blue Lodge Room and 
its accessories. The 
lobby on this floor is 
especially fortunate in 
its size and proportions. 
At present the interior 
walls are left in white 
plaster finish with very 
simple plaster cornices 
and bands, the wood- 
work being alight brown 
fumed oak except in the 
upper part of the lodge rooms, where it is painted white. 
vSet well back from the curb, and somewhat further back 
than the adjoining buildings, one comes upon the Temple 
quite suddenly. The first impression is one of massiveness 
and strength, a much larger scale being obtained than it 
is possible to realize from the accompanying illustrations. 
This building, although simple in design and appoint- 
ments, possesses that character which we naturally asso- 
ciate with a building intended for the home of any mystic 
order. It is also a visible proof that a structure with a 
feeling of dignity and reserve can be obtained by the use 
of less pretentious materials than those which have long 
been associated with buildings of monumental design, and 
it augurs well for the future of design in this country that 
imposing architectural effects can be obtained at less 
expense and with materials which are more capable of 
expressing the ideals of modern American life. 



iJ^«ra1— II ■! I • I ' 



M. ^ A ■ TILERS ■ — 

J_LI 1 1 



F1R.ST • f LOOR. • PLAN- 

I. f T r , f . r — 2_^-r 






Onlv by attempting- new things is progress to be had 
and the saying, " Nothing ventured, nothing gamed, 
is as true in architecture as in other 

If we are to preserve the beauty of 
classic forms to future generations it is 
evident that much thought must be 
given to the use of new materials, 
which will retain faithfully all the pris- 
tine glory of the early examples, for m 
this age of excessive building costs, the 
opportunities for constructing monu- 
mental buildings with the materials m 
which they were first conceived arc be- 
coming less and less numerous. 

It is equally certain, with our present 
architectural limitations in design, that 
'the classic building must continue to furnish msp.nitu.n 
for the design of our more important buildmgs, tor an 
architectural style has yet to be developed which can more 

completelv express the functions of a public buildmg. 

T HE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 


There are many instances where classic forms have 
been expressed in materials other than stone or marble, 
and the progressive architect seeing the 
need of new forms and materials is not 
entering a barren field nor attempting an 
impossible task, for the many illustrious 
examples which can be readily called to 
mind should provide ample precedent. 

The successful buildings point clearly 
to terra cotta as the promising material 
and one in which are latent possibilities 
that are only waiting further develop- 
ment. The great possibilities in the use 
of color, which is only one of the many 
striking advantages of the material, 
should provide a fascinating enough 
reward to stimulate large efforts. 
If the examples already in existence will be taken for 
models to- be further developed, and if each successful 
design will encourage further endeavor, then architecture 
will indeed be a living art. 






Architectural Jurisprudence.— Part V. 



IT IS natural that municipal work should have a charm 
and fascination for the ambitious architect. There fame 
and fortune .seem to be combined. For what more could 
one ask ? Yet those attracted by such work must not for- 
g-et that the larger the rewards the greater the dangers. 
With that fact admitted, let us ascertain and know the 
dangfers of this class of employment and if possible ascer- 
tain how best to cope with them. Our considerations will 
not, of course, be applicable to those salaried architects 
who are usually protected by civil service. 

Although, strictly defined, municipal work would not in- 
clude g-overnment or state work or their boards or com- 
missions, yet we will briefly consider such employments. 
However, let us first take up the strict municipal work for 
cities, counties, boroughs, villages, school districts, etc. 

Before Contracting. A municipal corporation is a 
legal body created by an act of legislature and as such its 
powers and actions are governed by the United States 
and state constitutions and by its charter or the act creat- 
ing it. For example, where a city is authorized to act 
only by ordinance, and where an architect was employed 
pursuant ta a resolution, it was decided that the architect 
could not recover from the city even after the services 
were performed. From this we can formulate our first 
rule for procedure : Knozv that the niityiicipal corporation is 
acting pursuant to the laiv creating it. 

Probably every state constitution, or at least every act 
creating a municipal corporation, fixes a limit for its in- 
debtedness. Such limits are strictly adhered to, and 
attempts to evade them are not ordinarily successful. In 
a late case a city tried to contract for a public improve- 
ment by providing for payment in yearly instalments 
after yearly levies. It was held that once the contract 
was signed that created an indebtedness, and if the con- 
tract price added to other indebtednesses exceeded the con- 
stitutional limit, such contract was null and void, and no 
recovery could be had even for work done or services ren- 
dered beyond the limit. Hence our second rule reads : 
Knoii' that your contract docs not cause the i)idehted)iess of the 
nnmicipa/ity to exceed its co)tstittitional or statutory limit. 

Some states and most municipalities have statutes re- 
quiring that all public work above certain small amounts 
shall be contracted for with the lowest bidder, etc., after 
due advertisement. Generally speaking, such reciuire- 
ments are not considered applicable to contracts for archi- 
tects' services, but such is not a universal rule as is shown 
by the fact that a county used this defense a few years agro 
to prevent an architect from collecting his compen.sation 
for services rendered and accepted. How can any munici- 
pality expect to get satisfactory and first class architectural 
services by advertising and awarding to the lowest bidder? 
Undoubtedly the trend of opinion is against such a method 
of employing professional services. Past exi^crience, at 
least, then gives us the third rule: Know that your con- 
tract does not e.xceed a limit above ivhich advertisement and 
acceptance of the lowest bidder is required. 

Many of the acts incorporating municipal bodies and 
many of the statutes governing their actions provide that 
as a part of the expense of the " construction " of a public 
improvement must be considered compensation for archi- 
tects, engineers, inspectors, etc. There arc some cases 
holding that as a matter of law such comi)ensation is a 
part of the cost of a public improvement which must be 
considered to determine the amount of money to be appro- 
priated. This fact causes the architect at times to be 
interested in matters of taxation, assessments, etc., since 
if the tax or assessment is invalid, then there is no money 
to pay him. A school board has been held not to have 
power to contract for the remodeling of a schoolhouse on 
money voted and taxed to provide for an addition. Where 
public work is to be paid for by assessments which require 
the previous assent of the voters, there can be no recovery 
upon any contracts for such public work or for services in 
connection therewith if there has been no voting on the 
subject. Our fourth rule to prevent losses is : k'noiv that 
assessments or taxes to pay for public improvement work zvhich 
include your compensation are valid. 

A municipal corporation must act through its properly 
constituted boards or officials. Everyone is supposed to 
know their powers and govern themselv^es accordingly. 
Officials often act when the}' have no authority, and espe- 
cially is this true in the employment of professional men' 
such as architects, engineers, and experts. Boards must 
act formally at proper meetings to bind the municipality. 
Let us see what has happened by failures to consider this 
danger. In the city of New York the Board of Health is 
composed of three persons — the Commissioner of Health, 
the Police Commissioner, and the Health Officer of the 
Port. The Commissioner of Health is always planning 
new hospitals, new buildings of all kinds for his work, and 
additions, etc., to present buildings. As each of these 
men is very busy with his separate work, it has been 
found, at least in the past, that little attention has been 
paid to having resolutions passed by them at a board 
meeting authorizing the employment of architects for the 
Commissioner of Health's work. That particular Commis- 
sioner would order an architect to present sketch plans, etc. 
While the architect was in favor he usually got his pay, 
since the employment would later be ratified by the board ; 
but if his work did not suit or if he fell from grace, there 
was no way for him to recover from the city. Instances of 
such losses by architects are numerous. 

In another instance a professional man employed by a 
mayor of a city where the charter recjuired employment by 
ordinance of the common council, was held not to be en- 
titled to any recovery of compensation against the city. 
In this connection it might be pertinent to suggest that 
a city council or lioard cannot create an office for a profes- 
sional man where the charter makes no such ])rovision. 

In the smaller communities the one man who usually 
dominates the board, council, or governing body, and acts 
as the spokesman, often neglects the proper steps to a 



legal employment, especially of a professional man. These 
considerations g-ive us one of our most important rules : 
Know that the board or official employiiiff you does so in the 
proper legal method required by the act incorporating the body 
or by the charter or by the local rules governing such body. 

Most of the statute laws controlling- municipal corpora- 
tions contain provisions that no contract shall be valid and 
binding: unless there are funds at hand or an appropria- 
tion specifically made to pay for the contract work. It is 
the general rule of law that the architect who performs 
services under a contract, there being no funds or appro- 
priation, cannot recover his compensation therefor. This 
rule in some instances has been somewhat tempered in 
cases of insufficient funds, and a recovery allowed to the 
extent of the money on hand. Therefore : k'now that funds 
are available or a specific appropriation made by the proper 
atithorities to pay you before proceeding with your contract work. 

Contracts and Performance. Municipal contracts 
are usually reciuired to be in writing and signed by certain 
officials. There are many decisions under the New York 
City charter holding that a writing is not necessary for the 
employment of an architect. However, no architect should 
take such employment without confirming the important 
terms in writing, even though no formal contract is signed. 
Municipal contracts are very strictly construed and usually 
against the architect. While there are times when the 
architect must sign the regular city form of contract, yet 
the architect can often control or at least regulate the 
wording of his contract. Just lately an architect had a 
contract for court-house plans where he was to receive 
$1,000 if the building did not go ahead, but if it did then 
the $1,000 was to be applied as a part payment. The 
architect received the $1,000 for his plans. Other plans 
were then ordered and accepted from another party and 
the court house built. Action was brought by the archi- 
tect against the county for breach of contract, but the 
court decided that since the building was not constructed 
according to his plans, the $1,000 he had received was all 
he was entitled to. A little care in the wording of the 
contract would have avoided such a result. Our seventh 
rule then becomes : Have your contract in writing and know 
that it is worded properly. 

The architect who has never done municipal work can 
hardly appreciate the restrictions and barriers which bind 
him in his performance as differentiated from private 
work. In one case the court said that an architect em- 
ployed to design a court house was required to exercise a 
high degree of skill and care, or in other words that ordi- 
nary average skill and care was not sufficient for such 
employment. In the preparation of his drawings and 
specifications the architect should act upon the theory that 
he cannot be paid for his work unless the lowest bid plus 
his compensation are eciual to or less than the appropria- 
tion for the building. Those who comply with this theory 
can be assured of their pay ; those who do not may or may 
not receive compensation for their work. This creates a 
serious situation because the architect must follow the 
directions and suggestions of the official having the work 
in charge. He also usually has no definite knowledge as 
to how soon the work will be advertised, and yet he is 
bound to anticipate contractor's bids. In one case, speak- 
ing of this determining of performance or non-perform- 
ance of the architect by contractor's bids, the court spoke 

of the " moral impossibility of an architect being able to 
fix precisely the cost of any building if the cost is to be 
measured in any such capricious way as by the bids of 
contractors." How much more is that statement true on 
municipal buildings when the bids may vary several hun- 
dred thousand dollars. However, this is a condition which 
the architect must reckon with and its solution must neces- 
sarily rest with him. 

Where there is no appropriation for the proposed build- 
ing, but a cost limit is given the architect, then he does 
not have to exercise the same care, since a substantial 
performance on his part will entitle him to compensation. 
However, the limit of a substantial performance in this re- 
gard in municipal work is not as high as for i^rivate work. 
In one New York City case $52,500 estimated cost was held 
good where $50,000 was the limit. Another decision in that 
state which gives the general rule holds that if the bids are 
largely in excess of the cost limit, the municipality may 
abandon the work with no obligation to pay the architect. 

Many municipalities have appointed a board to pass upon 
and decide as to whether plans and specifications for public 
improvements are proper and suitable for the city or for the 
character of improvement. In New York City this board is 
called the Art Commission and consists of the Mayor, the 
President of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Presi- 
dent of Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, one 
painter, one sculptor, and one architect, residents of New 
York City, to be nominees of the Fine Arts Federation, 
and three other non-professional residents of the city. 
They serve without compensation. The approval of the 
Commission is required for all structures to cost more 
than $1,000,000. By request they act regarding all 
other structures such as buildings, bridges, approaches, 
gates, fences, lamps, etc., and as a matter of fact they are 
usually so requested. Hence the architect who gets a con- 
tract from the city of New York must count on satisfying 
the Art Commission, although nothing is said in his con- 
tract in tliat regard. In the large cities this practice is 
now common and as a check on the purely political archi- 
tect it is certainly a good idea. Also it makes for uni- 
formity and should bring about serious planning for the 
future of the city, which has been sadly neglected in this 
country. There is a danger of course that politics or cer- 
tain art cliques may control such a board, and that is one 
of the matters for the architect's consideration when he 
contemplates taking a municipal contract. There would 
seem to be no question but what an architect who could 
not satisfy such a board and thus make his plans available 
for use, could not recover for the services rendered in 
preparing rejected plans. 

In most cities all structures must be passed upon by a 
Building Department, which is another body that must be 
satisfied by an architect before his plans and specifications 
become available for use. This is also another require- 
ment that is not mentioned in the contract of employment. 

In his superintendence of municipal work the architect 
must know and recognize the limitations placed upon him. 
He should always read the builder's contract with the 
municipality, for therein are set forth his powers and 
authority, not only as agent for the municipality, but as 
arbitrator between the parties. Any order or direction to 
the contractor should be put in writing. Alterations must 
be made and additional or extra work must be ordered in 



the specific way provided in the contract, otherwise the 
contractor may not be able to recover for such work. 
Never act in a manner which is not clearly specified. For 
example, the fact that work is to be done nnder your direc- 
tion does not give you power to order extra work. The 
rig^ht to make such changes as may appear necessary or 
desirable only gives power to make changes in detail which 
do not alter or destroy the essential identity of the thing 
contracted for, and it has been also held that this right does 
not give him the power to increase the financial obligation 
of the municipality. 

As an arbitrator in making estimates and issuing certifi- 
cates, the architect in municipal work should be especially 
conscientious, honest, and capable, since his decisions 
usually bind the contractor absolutely and yet do not bind 
the municipality. That the law should permit such a con- 
dition is unusual and often unfortunate, but the architect 
should never take advantage of this to bulldoze a contractor. 
In municipal work where the amount of work is large 
between estimates, and where the payment of certificates 
is a long-drawn-out matter of red tape, the architect should 
make his estimates and issue his certificates promptly. 
Remember, though you have unprecedented powers as 
arbitrator, you cannot interpret the contract and conclu- 
sively decide that certain work is or is not contract work. 
Just a few instances where architects or engineers have 
caused the municipality large expense by their actions : 

(a) Mistakes in lines, grades, elevations, plans or speci- 
fications or directions, whereby the contractor had either 
to do additional work or do over work already done. 

(d) Requirement that the contractor do the work in a 
way not called for by the contract, entailing more expensive 
work than would customarily or otherwise be entailed. 

(c) Requirement that the contractor do over work already 
done properly or repair or maintain the same. 

(d) Requirement that the contractor do work not within 
his contract as contract work. 

The time wasted by and the financial losses of the archi- 
tect, contractor, and municipality in such cases should 
cause the architect to endeavor to be thoroughly posted as 
to the legal phases of these situations. These considera- 
tions recommend the rule : Have and pul everything in wri- 
iing and act only upon the strict zvording of all documents. 

Let us now consider briefly some of the cases wherein 
the architect has had to sue municipalities for his compen- 
sation. The usual rule of law regarding breached con- 
tracts permitting a recovery on the quantum meruit or 
reasonable value for work done and prospective profits for 
the work not done, does not seem to prevail generally in 
municipal cases, the tendency being to restrict the recovery 
solely to the reasonable value of work done. 

While ordinarily an architect cannot recover on a 
municipal contract which is void on account of there being 
no appropriation, no funds, no power to contract, etc., yet 
there are instances where certain recovery has been al- 
lowed. A recent decision of this sort permitted the recov- 
ery of actual cost of services and of material furnished 
with interest at the legal rate, but excluded profits. Other 
cases make a distinction where there are mere irregulari- 
ties in the employment of professional men and recovery 
of the contract value is permitted. 

There are also other decisions holding that where the 
refusal of a municipality to pay is due to its failure to take 

proceedings for an assessment or to collect the same, and 
where the city has the benefit of performance, then the 
city should be liable for the contract price. 

These actions against municipalities are fought bitterly 
and every technical defense that can be thought of is used. 
A common and difficult plea is that the contract is con- 
ditional ; that is, since the compensation is a percentage 
of the cost of a building, when the building is not con- 
structed then there is no liability for any work done. A 
contract requirement for partial payments is the best 
means of preventing that danger. 

State work is even more dangerous than municipal, be- 
cause of the fact that you have no redress should the con- 
tracting official break the contract or act as he pleases. 
In a very few states, boards or courts of claims have been 
established, wherein a claimant against the state or any of 
its departments may present his wrongs and get a legal 
hearing and decision. All of the difficulties and dangers 
just suggested in regard to municipal work are pertinent 
in this class of work. Those imacquainted with such 
work are warned that experience has proven the value 
of our rule following : Ascertain first if there is a state board 
or court of claims ; if not, you must depend on the official 
honesty and integrity of the official with ivhom you deal. 
Remember personal honesty and official honesty are contradic- 
tions in some officials. 

Government work is surrounded by many of the restric- 
tions and red tape of municipal work, but the United 
States Court of Claims is open to those who feel them- 
selves aggrieved. Its decisions as a rule are tempered 
with more equity than the decisions of most state courts. 
The government contracts, however, are models of what 
a contract ought not to be, with their many unfair, un- 
reasonable, and one-sided clauses. Of course this criti- 
cism is not as applicable to the contracts for professional 
services as to the construction contracts. But the ex- 
istence of such construction contracts, with the increased 
authority of the architect or engineer, often give them ab- 
solute power to make or break the contractor. These are 
the cases which test the ability and integrity of the archi- 
tect as in almost no other situation, and conscientious, hon- 
est, and common sense actions and decisions prove the 
real architect. 

Summary. The architect who for the first time contem- 
plates taking on municipal, state, or government work must 
realize that the liberties which he took either in his archi- 
tectural or superintending work in private practice cannot 
be permitted in this public work. He is rigidly bound by 
state statutes, charters, or local regulations, his contract of 
employment, and the construction contract. Everything 
must be formal and must be governed by the strict word- 
ing pertaining thereto. Statutes, charters, local regula- 
tions, and the laws governing contracts are changing 
daily ; they may differ not only in adjoining states, but in 
adjacent counties and cities. What you knew of such 
matters five years or even six months ago may cause you 
serious trouble and loss. The present and its require- 
ments are all that count. You must be up-to-date. Our 
rules which we have formulated as we went along may 
be summed up in a motto which should be a reminder and 
warning of the many dangers suggested: ''Never con- 
sider or do any public ivork 7vithout first consulting competent 
legal advice. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

AN D^N O T E S ^ # 

A HOUSING problem may be said to exist wherever 
any portion of a population dwells under conditions 
dangerous to health, safety, or morality." The problem 
of housing- in Newark, N. J., has been made the subject 
of a most instructive report by E. P. Goodrich and George 
B. Ford, who continue the definition of their subject by 
saying : ' ' The problem is present to some degree in every 
American city. It is usually occasioned primarily by the 
lack of guidance in urban growth, by poor planning of 
buildings, faulty construction, and defective sanitation ; 
it is aggravated by the greed of some landlords, the care- 
lessness of some tenants, and ignorance of the laws of 
hygiene on the part of both. The result of bad housing is 
ill health, both physical and moral, and thereby industrial 
inefficiency, unemj^loyment, and a long chain (;f prevent- 
able social maladies, which are very costly to the com- 
munity, and which ]:)lace a heavy handicap upon individual 
and social achievement. 

"Man's dwelling exerts a marked influence upon his 
life and character. From one-third to one-half his time, 
and much more than half of the time of women and chil- 
dren, is spent in the home. Bad housing condition? affect 
health insidiously by slowly undermining the vitajlity and 
thus rendering the individual susce])tible to disease." 

In a chapter devoted to the best type of housing for new 
areas the authors ask and answer the question : ' ' What is 
the most desirable dwelling place, the tenement or the 
cottage? In the cities of the Northeastern states. we have 
become accustomed to the tenement house and do not 
ordinarily question its social utility. There is scarcely a 
city in the country that is arttempting in any well-consid- 
ered way to eliminate the tenement house, yet there can 
be no question but that it is an undesirable place of resi- 
dence for families with children. Even for the childless 
family the most expensive apartment house as well as the 
cheapest tenement may constitute an undesirable environ- 
ment because of the facility with which diseases may pass 
from one apartment to its neighbor through the common 
hall and through the mediation of vermin, which pass 
easily from one suite to another. Where people live in 
apartments also, there is concentration of population and 
thus much traffic in the neighboring streets, which keeps 
the air full of dust and noise and thus renders apartment 
living unhealthful and unpleasant. The sounds from 
neighboring apartments frequently make rest and quiet 
impossible. True privacy and solitude, though very im- 
portant to the growth of the moral individual, are difficult 
to obtain. For the family with children, the apartment is 
still less desirable. It becomes impossible for the mother 
of a family to choose her children's associates, to prevent 
her child from coming in contact with children or adults 
of unwholesome character who may reside within the 
same building. The mother cannot supervise the play of 
her child when outside of the apartment, and in general 

the atmosphere of the tenement or apartment house is one 
destined to create a race of adults that are unhealthful, 
puny, and, socially, highly artificialized. 

" In the cottage, however, it is possible to obtain all 
necessary privacy for true home life and i)ersonal develo])- 
raent. The reduced dust of suburban communities and 
the larger penetration of sunlight make cottage homes 
healthier living places for infants and growing children. 
The mother of the family can supervise the play and the 
associates of her child in the garden. The adults of the 
family, if so inclined, can profit in health at least and 
sometimes in economy by cultivating a garden outside of 
working hours. The children gain the advantage and 
education that comes from daily contact with the things 
of nature, especially through the garden. It is probable, 
therefore, that at least for families with children, the 
suburban home is i)referable to the tenement." 

in his paper on " Present Unfortunate Conditions 
of Practice and the Remedy " (Journal of Americati Insti- 
tute of Architects) that the task of the architect is two- 
fold. "As architects and as artists our duty is to 
formalize and to express in material form the activities 
and thought of our day. This we do quite unconsciously 
in our offices, and our achievements there are an exact 
measure of our individual ability and the limitation set by 
the people in their laws and ordinances. No amount of 
inspiration, no degree of talent, will carry us beyond a 
simple expression of the demands and desires of the people, 
and the limits set by them in the laws and ordinances 
which stand as the principal factors in our progress. 

"As citizens, our duty is to provide the conditions for 
a better architecture. Our knowledge of the arts, the 
logical nature of our training, and our attitude of mind 
towards such problems entitle us to the position of direct- 
ing the forces which are at hand. We know the nature, 
the importance, and the necessity of the laws needed. 
We also know better than the people why these laws can- 
not be passed, for we have tried and failed. 

"Our task, therefore, if we are to spend our time and 
effort in other than a useless endeavor, is to explain to the 
people by every honorable means within our power, and in 
terms of logic and common sense, the simple nature of 
our ideals, to the end that all shall come to understand 
and realize that idealism of the architect and the desires 
of the people for a habitable city are but the same thing-" 

THE Forty-Seventh Annual Convention of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects will be held in New 
Orleans on December 2, 3, and 4. There are now thirty- 
five chapters of the Institute, all of which will be repre- 
sented at the forthcoming convention. 






Euclid Avenue Temple, Cleveland, Ohio. Plates 
129, 130, 131, 132. The architecture of this Jewish house of 
worship is based on a modified form of the Byzantine style. 
It has many characteristics, however, of the type of brick 
architecture familiar to Lombardy, which is sug-gested 
particularly by the entrance detail and the gfable of the 
principal fagade. 

The desig-n is full of strength and vig^or and composes 
well in mass, but it must be confessed that there are a 
great many elements making' up the composition which 
with the varying' heigfhts of cornices and subordinate pro- 
jections tend to g-ive a somewhat restless effect. It is 
nevertheless expressive synagfogfue architecture and of 
particular merit when considered in relation to the mate- 
rials employed in its construction. The brickwork is very 
effective and in combination with the red tile of the roofs 
and the ornamented terra cotta it conveys a feeling- of 
Oriental richness, particularly apparent in our illustra- 
tion of the principal facade. The double entrance, which 
is the main feature of this elevation, is frequently an 
awkward element to handle, but in this instance it is en- 
tirely satisfying- and harmonizes well in scale and form 
with the main gable. The small columns disposed in the 
window opening's are pink marble, and the various light 
spots relieving: the brick walls are of Tennessee marble. 
The brick is of various tones, running from a bright red 
to nearly blue, and is laid in gray mortar with wide flush 

The btiilding is composed of two separate parts, the 
auditorium proper and the vestry with its .Sunday-school 
rootns, connected by a corridor running transversely across 
the building. The auditorium is surmounted by a Byzan- 
tine dome admitting a flood of light from lantern windows. 
The floor is pitched toward the pulpit, and the seats which 
are arranged in semi-circitlar form are of the individual 
opera chair type with pew backs and ends, so as to pro- 
vide the advantages of the individual chair and yet give 
the auditorium the appearance of a church. 

The auditorium is entered through a large vestibule, at 
either end of which are toilet rooms and the stairs leading 
to the gallery. The woodwork of the interior throughout 
is quarter sawed oak finished in a silver gray tone. The 
carpets are red and the dominant tone of the windows is 
amber. The effect upon the eye is extremely soft and 
pleasant, and imparts to the worshiper a feeling that he is 
in a house of worship. 

Auditorium, University of Illinois. Plates 133, 
134. The auditorium was built to serve as a gathering 
place for congregations and meetings of the undergraduate 
body and for the commencement exercises. At the ex- 
treme southerly portion of the college grounds as at pres- 
ent laid out it occupies the central point of the prospective 
development of the university which is to ultimately ex- 
tend far to the south, east, and west. The auditorium 
faces on the campus, which will ultimately be entirely de- 
voted to buildings of the colleges for Natural Sciences and 
Liberal Arts, and is upon a slight rise dominating the 
so-called south campus. 

The exterior is of brick and Indiana limestone with 
inlaid panels of marble mosaic. The dome is covered with 
tin and painted with aluminum bronze. In plan the build- 

ing includes a circular auditorium preceded by a broad 
memorial vestibule and enclosed by a corridor running 
around on each side with entrances and exits at each of 
the four corners. Tliere is a single balcony and the audi- 
torium is ecpiipped with a shallow stage intended only for 
public speaking. The auditorium seats about twenty-five 
hundred people. The construction includes a fireproof 
floor in the first story and balcony, the roof and the dome 
being of second-class construction. The dome is really a 
frained roof consisting of coupled columns at each corner 
with connecting trusses springing across to give the 

The funds available for this building were extremely 
limited, and the interior has practically no elaboration 
whatever. It was built at a total cost of $121,631 . 

Ridge School, Newark, N. J. Pl.\tes 135, 136, 137. 
The Ridge School is an interesting design for a grade 
school located on a residential street. Its chief architect- 
ural features are derived from the brick architecture of 
Holland and carried out in a pleasing combination of red 
brick, stone, and light-colored terra cotta, which imparts 
to it a peculiarly domestic feeling — something to be desired 
in a building in which young children are to begin their 
education. There is a singular charm about the central 
pavilicm with its arcaded entrance and large, elliptical 
headed windows above. The columns of the lower story 
are limestone, while the walls of the loggia are cement 
plaster marked off in courses similar to stone. 

The building contains fourteen class rooms, to accommo- 
date about forty pupils each, a generally accepted and con- 
venient number for securing etiual advantages for every 
impil. The arrangement of the class rooms follows the 
precedent of modern (ierman schools in regard to lighting. 
Windows are placed on only one side of the room and the 
jnipils are seated so that all the light comes from their left 
side. Wardrobes are provided for each class room with 
access to them from the rooms. The main floor contains a 
large assembly hall, two stories high, with a balcony at the 
rear. It is approached from the main entrance, so that if 
occasion demands it can be used for jjuriioses other than 
those .strictly connected with the school . The princiixal cor- 
ridor and the locati(m of the stairs in relation to it show a 
very'efficient point in planning. The corridor runs j^iarallel 
with the main frontage of the building with enclosed stairs 
occu])ying either end. Windows on these stairs provide 
cross ventilation, and access to the outside is arranged 
at a landing of the stairs on the grade level, making the 
dismissal of the pupils in case of emergency possible with- 
out any confusion and in a few minutes' time. 

House at Cleveland. Ohio. Plate 138. The plan of 
this small subtirban house shows some unusual features. 
The most uncommon, perhaps, is the intimate connection 
of the garage with the house iiroper, together with the 
])osition of the main stairs which are eqtuilly accessible 
from the garage or the main part of the house. While 
this may be a very cf)nvenient arrangement for an owner 
not employing a chauffeur, it does not seem an ideal one. 
and in some communities it may not be possible owing to 
building laws or insurance regulations. It is, however, 
handled successfully in the elevation and i)rovides sjiacc 
for a large sleeping porch on the second floor. The ma- 
terials emi)loyed in its construction are red brick of a soft 
texture with cream colored stucco and brown stained wood 



beams. The total cost was about $7,500, or about 24 cents 
per cubic foot. 

House at Columbus, Ohio. Plate 139. This house in 
desig-n is a version of Colonial forms with a modern treat- 
ment. Its chief interest centers in the entrance doorway, 
which is an example of careful detailing and is entirely 
pleasing-, with the possible exception of the cornice, which 
appears somewhat heavy in contrast' with the columns and 
treatment of the door itself. 

The exterior walls are of a rough textured red brick laid 
in gray mortar. The roof is shingled, stained a soft green, 
and the exterior woodwork is painted cream white. 

The interior is well finished, several rooms being in oak 
with high wainscots and ornamental plaster ceilings. The 
total cost of the house was $26, 250, or 25 cents per cubic foot. 

House at Hartford, Conn. Plates 140, 141, 142. 
This type of house, as to size and general requirements, is 
fairly representative of what can be accomplished in cities 
which are not so large as to make a reasonable property 
area prohibitive in cost. The lot is about 250 feet front, 
facing east on a quiet residential street and extending 
westerly some 500 feet, sloping gradually to a small river 
with heavily wooded banks, which forms the irregular 
western boundary. The house is placed, broadly speaking, 
in the northeast corner of the property, leaving the maxi- 
mum area unobstructed on the south and west. The serv- 
ice road is built along the northerly line, giving turn 
around and access to the garage, which is placed in a 
secluded position on low ground near the river and further 
concealed by planting. 

The small formal garden was sympathetically carried 
out by Arthur A. Shurtleff with the co-operation of Miss 
Virginia Brown. Architectural details of the house were 
used as a basis of form and motif in the structural work 
of the garden entourage. The formal garden itself is 
small but quite charming, with the old apple tree pru- 
dently retained as the old friend about which the garden 
is established and ever reflected in the central pool. The 
stone hut with thatched roof and Persian tiles inserted in 
the walls sounds descriptiveh' incongruous, but owing to 
its clever treatment is quite the reverse, giving just the 
unexpected element of spice that is the joy of a witty con- 

The house is of wine-colored brick, laid in Flemish bond 
with wide gray joints to carry through the wall surfaces 
the gray of the limestone and woodwork. Convenience of 
plan and sound construction (steel beams and reinforced 
concrete floor slabs) were the primary requirements of 
the owner, whose sympathetic attitude in matters of de- 
sign placed all responsibility, therefore, where it belongs — 
on the architects. 

The stair hall and office are in dull gray brown oak, the 
remainder of the principal ground floor rooms and bed- 
rooms are conservatively treated in painted trim of quiet 
and conventional design. No stunts appear, though care 
and discretion were not forgotten in the combination of ma- 
terials where decoration could be combined with structure. 

The south porch (enclosed in winter), except for the 
balustrade, is practically all of clay products. The floor is 
of 6x9 inch roofing tile, laid so as to form squares with 
hollow centers, in which are set decorative tiles- The 
walls on the house side are of brick with a small stone 
foundation, while the ceiling is a tile vault. 

A reinforced concrete mattress under the concentrated 
load of the largest of the chimneys allowed later free use in 
the garden of a magnificent peat bog that was found there 
when the excavations were nearing completion and the 
footings had been elsewhere so far advanced as to make a 
shift in location too expensive to be considered. 

The unusually robust character of the planting for so 
new a place is somewhat due to a water supply limited 
only by the activities of an electric pump, drawing from 
the river and free from the oversight of the city fathers 
who are concerned only with the house supply. 

Dental Office Building, Hartford, Conn. Plates 
143, 144. This building presents a solution of a somewhat 
new problem. We are familiar with co-operative offices 
for lawyers and other professional men, but a building 
intended to provide operating rooms for a group of den- 
tists calls for a new solution and requires obviously differ- 
ent treatment. 

The main requirement of such a building is light, and 
therein lies the chief difficulty in securing a satisfactory 
design. The problem becomes at the outset the adoption 
of some scheme to combine sufficient window area with a 
good external effect. That the light should reach as far 
as possible into the room, lintel windows placed well 
toward the ceiling are also required. These conditions 
imposed by the uses of the building have been recognized 
in this design and have resulted, as they should, in the 
architectural form that gives expression to the structure. 

The plan was influenced to a large extent by the pecul- 
iar shape of the lot. It provides four operating rooms 
with a large working laboratory on the second floor, each 
of which is an independent unit and equipped with a 
lavatory, compressed air, gas and electric outlets, and an 
inter-phone. The walls are plaster, tinted a blue gray, 
with the door and window trim enameled white. 

The first floor is taken up mostly by a reception room 
and entrance hall with a dignified staircase to the second 
floor, the treads and risers of which are Tennessee marble 
with an iron hand rail. The entire first floor with the 
exception of the garage is paved with red quarry tiles. 

The exterior follows Colonial motives in its detail. The 
porches and cornices are wood and are examples of 
exceedingly delicate detail. The walls are of red brick 
with a rough texture, laid with black mortar with a 
wide raked joint and are relieved by white marble trim 
and iron balconies at the windows. The total cost of the 
building, not including the dental apparatus, was $20,500. 


WE have in our possession many drawings which have 
been submitted in The Brickbuilder competi- 
tions. In every instance these drawings are being held 
because the return postage has not been sent us, although 
we have advised every owner of the drawings of this fact 
two or more times. 

We hereby give notice that unless postage ($.25 in 
stamps) is sent to us between now and October 1, 1913, all 
these drawings will be destroyed. Upon receipt of postage 
the drawings will be immediately returned. 

Rogers and Man.son Company, 

85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. 


mm^'m'^^^^m'^m^^^ffmv ■ n^mmvmft^imimm^tmmimmmmmtm^mmmir^rmfrvmm 






Architect Plate 

APARTMENT, THE LATROBE, BALTIMORE, MD. E. H. Glidden & C. A'. Friz 152, 153 

HOUSE, LAKE FOREST, ILL. Howard Shaw 154-156 



l^/ HOUSE, EVANSTON, ILL. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge 159-160 

OFFICE BUILDING, GARDEN CITV, L. I. -. Ford, Butler & Oliver 149-151 

TOWN HALL, BRAINTREE, MASS. _ I ngraham & Hopkins 147-148 

F. E. Norris, Associate 

Y. W. C. A. BUILDLXG, .ST. LOUIS, MO ....Mariner & La Beaume 145-146 





SYSTEM, AN Sullivan W.Jones 215 


Illustrations from photographs. 

The Effect of a Speaker'.s Voice in Different Direction.s. 

Illustrations from photographs and drawings. 
GIDEA PARK, The Newest Garden Suburb ..A". Randal Phillips 229 

Illustrations from photographs and plans. 

The Orpheus, Chicago, III., Aroner & Somers, Architects. 

Illustrations from photographs and drawings. 






Slot TkRY »NI> IA»N»CINC CDiroa. 





For the United States, its insular possessions and Cuba. $5.00 per year 

For Canada, $3.30 per year For Foreign Countries in the Postal Union, $6.00 per year 

All copies mailed flat 
Trade supplied by the American News Company and its branches 



issian Photometric Institute. 


Exterior walls of stone and common brick in alternate 
courses, with inset plaques of polychrome terra 
cotta. Twelfth century. 


OCTOBER, 1913 



An Appeal to the Architect for the Adoption of the 

Quantity System. 

(Pahjier, Horiibostel <1~ Jones ^ Archih-cis, New York.) 

ARCHITECTURAL temperament" seems to render 
its possessor immune from the effects of practical 
criticism of his conduct of the technical and executive ends 
of his profession. However, such criticism is sometimes 
necessary and pertinent, and in this case justified by the 
effort to penetrate the architect's " temperamental " shell 
of self-assurance and omniscience, for the purpose of 
directing; his attention to the compelling- need of radical 
reform in the present method of securing competitive 
tenders for building: contracts. 

Possibly such a statement is not a prudent introduction 
to an appeal to the architect. But if we seek to produce 
the spark of interest, we must strike with the cold bare 
steel of truth, even at the risk of creating a feeling of 
resentment. The truth is not always agreeable. 

None of the observations here set down should be con- 
sidered as suggesting, or even implying, that any of the 
architect's material or practical qualifications, desirable 
though they may be, are of sufficient importance to war- 
rant a sacrifice of that one essential characteristic — ihe 
inherent ability to create architecture which gratifies the 
esthetic sense. 

There is little or no evidence that the architect in his 
individual capacity has devoted any constructive thought 
to the active relationship existing between himself, the 
contractor, and the owner. Contracts, drawings, and 
specifications which continue to emanate from the archi- 
tect's oflfice would seem to indicate either a blissful uncon- 
sciousness or a total disregard on his part of a very critical 
and unwholesome situation in the field of building activity. 
It is hard to believe that the architect lacks the courage of his 
convictions, and yet in the light of discussions before con- 
tractors' organizations all over the country, many of which 
have found their way into the columns of architectural 
periodicals, it is strange that there is no reflex or recipro- 
cal action on his part. The reform movement should be 
initiated by the architect — and promptly — otherwise the 
hitherto passive demand by the better element in the con- 
tracting fraternity for a scjuare deal will become aggres- 
sive, resulting in a situation reflecting discredit on 
architectural practice. 

The fundamental element in the building contract is 
the drawings and specifications, since their expressed ]nir- 
pose is to define and limit the amount of work to be per- 
formed. The contract, as an instrument, is of secondary 

importance. The first essential, therefore, of the draw- 
ings and specifications is that they should define the work 
with such clearness and precision that there can be no 
doubt in the minds of the bidders as to the exact amoimt 
and character of the work called for ; and, consequently, 
that all bidders may compute their estimates on precisely 
the same basis. It is a fact that drawings and specifica- 
tions issued by the vast majority of architects fail wofully 
in this essential requirement. The drawings in many cases 
are obscure, impractical, and lacking in detail ; and it is not 
an exaggeration to say that the specifications are seldom 
properly explicit. The failure of the drawings and speci- 
fications to perform their essential function is due largely 
to a want of intelligent preliminary investigation, a lack of 
accurate technical knowledge, and, in specification writing, 
an absence of practical experience and the power of expres- 
sion. vSpecification writing, it must be remembered, how- 
ever, is a task of great difficulty requiring no little literary 
acumen. In the production of these important documents, 
the architect's present-day methods are wholly ob.solete 
and totally inadequate to the tremendous complex con- 
tracting operations of to-day, involving as they do large 
amounts of capital . 

The use of blanket clauses in the contract, vesting the 
architect with arbitrary and sweeping powers, constituting 
him 'a court of last resort on all questions arising as to the 
performance on the part of the contractor, indicates that 
the architect is conscious of his failure to fully perform 
his obligations to the owner and the contractor. Such 
conditions are subversive of all good business principles, 
and provoke nearly all, if not all, of the evils and 
mild forms of corrupt and ethically dishonest practices in 
the contracting business. The combination of deficient 
drawings and specifications with a stringent contract, 
placing unlimited discretion in the hands of the maker of 
those drawings and specifications, results in a situation 
where the architect holds the solvency of the contractor in 
his palm. Such a situation is unjust alike to the con- 
tractor, the architect, and the owner, and one from which 
the fair-minded architect seeks escape. 

Two very obvious alternative conclusions arc adduced 
from this arraignment of facts : first, that the form of con- 
tract generally in use should be modified to afi"ord the 
bidders protection in bidding upon the basis of a reason- 
able interpretation of the reciuirements of the obscure and 



deficient drawings and specifications. Or second, that the 
present form of contract be adhered to generally, and the 
method of describing the work to be performed be altered 
so that the basis of the contract — the description of the 
work covered — shall be precise and shall not be capable 
of more than one clear and definite interpretation by the 
bidders. It is recognized, however, that the interpretation 
of words is an extremely complex and difficult subject in a 
country so large, where the same word means different 
things in different parts of the country. There are many 
good and sufficient reasons for retaining, at least for the 
present, the stringent contract. But that is a large and 
engrossing subject, which is not pertinent to this discus- 
sion. We therefore turn to a consideration of the second 
conclusion : that the description of the work to be per- 
formed must take the clearer and more precise form. 

It is patent to the architect, at least, that under the 
present system of producing drawings and specifications 
for estimates, it will be well-nigh impossible to effect any 
material uplift in the standard. We must therefore work 
a change in the system of production — a change which 
will have the desired effect in spite of the indifferent atti- 
tude on the part of the average architect. 

Let us here pause a moment to examine the conditions 
obtaining to the computation and submission of competi- 
tive estimates under the present system. The architect 
issues the drawings and specifications illustrating and de- 
scribing the work to be performed. These drawings and 
specifications are usually prepared under high pressure, 
which invariably finds expression in inconsistencies be- 
tween the drawings and specifications and between the 
several drawings, ambiguity, and omissions. The draw- 
ings and specifications are placed in the estimating de- 
partments of the various contractors' offices and bills 
of quantities are prepared. The quantity taking is carried 
on with more or less difficulty and uncertainty according 
to the degree of clearness and precision of the drawings 
and specifications, and the scope and complexity of the 
work ; and generally also under high pressure, because 
the time allowed for bidding is far too short. Under such 
unfavorable conditions the chances for errors in the ciuan- 
tities are enormous. The bills of quantities are prepared 
and the whole bid is subjected to careful scrutiny, in con- 
nection with which consideration is given to the character 
of the other contractors bidding, the probability of profit- 
able extras resulting from the deficiencies in the drawings 
and specifications, the chances for success in decreasing 
the cost through substitutions and evasions, and the strin- 
gency of the supervision. The contractor is not to be 
blamed for adopting such a course. It is, with him, a 
matter of necessity. He must first secure the work and 
then exert himself to the utmost to find a profit. The final 
result is that the contract is awarded to the unfortunate 
bidder who has made the most serious error. Contractors 
have fallen into the habit of calling these deplorable con- 
ditions "keen competition." They are deceiving them- 
selves. There is no real competition — only reckless 
gambling on the precision with which quantities can be 
taken and on the shrewdness of the bidders in surveying 
their chances for recouping their probable losses in the 

The ' ' cost plus a percentage ' ' contract and a contract 
based upon a bill of quantities are similar in their funda- 

mentals. In both there is no preliminary gamble on the 
quantities and character of the materials required for the 
execution of the work. In both, the contractor's compen- 
sation bears a fixed relation to the amount of work per- 
formed. And in both, sheer efficiency, not shrewdness, 
means success. The contract based upon definite quanti- 
ties, however, eliminates all of the questionable features 
of the "cost plus a percentage" contract, operating 
against its general adoption. 

The striking contrast between the esprit de corps on work 
executed by a competent contractor on the cost basis, and 
the spirit of evasion and vindictiveness which pervades 
the work executed under a lump sum contract, awarded 
through competitive bidding, lends the weight of convic- 
tion to an argument for the establishing of any system of 
estimating, removing from the situation the factors of 
doubt, and producing a spirit of co-operation and fair 

Believing that a solution of the problem lies in the 
establishment of the quantity system of estimating, now 
generally in vogue throughout Europe, the Association of 
United States Quantity Surveyors has been organized by 
a few architects and engineers, and a number of contract- 
ors and estimators representing many of the trades. The 
system proposed, contemplates estimating on bills of quan- 
tities, and not on drawings and specifications. The archi- 
tect in this country has been putting " the cart before the 
horse." Questions as to the true intent and meaning of 
the drawings and specifications, and as to the exact quanti- 
ties of work required under them, now arise after, instead 
of before, the contract is let. The same questions will 
arise in the mind of the quantity surveyor, in the prepa- 
ration of his bills, as now arise in the minds of the 
bidders. The preparation of the bills of quantities will 
therefore constitute a check in the interest of the owner, 
and will, in effect, be a guarantee on the sufficiency of the 
drawings and specifications. With the inauguration of the 
quantity system, the skilled estimator will step out of 
the contractor's office into a field of his own with a recog- 
nized professional standing. He will be called in by the 
architect to prepare bills of quantities, just as the various 
experts are now called upon to perform their professional 
functions in connection with the preparation of information 
for bids. 

There is nothing revolutionary about the quantity sys- 
tem of estimating. It has been practised in this country 
in modified and more or less ineffective forms for a number 
of years, chiefly by engineers. There is a statute in the 
state of Pennsylvania requiring the publication of bills of 
quantities with the drawings and specifications on all pub- 
lic works. The Bridge Department of the city of New 
York has made a practice of issuing bills of quantities with 
the drawings and specifications for work under the depart- 
ment's jurisdiction. But in both of these cases the ends 
sought are completely defeated because no responsibility 
is assumed for the accuracy of the bills. The bidders, 
therefore, disregard them and take their own quantities. 
The system is firmly established in most of the countries 
of Europe. The English system is probably the best 
known and most frequently referred to. In 1909, at a 
conference between the National Federation of Building 
Trades Employers, the Institute of Builders, and the Lon- 
don Master Builders' Association, all of Great Britain, a 



resolution was adopted recommendinti- that the members 
of these powerful org-anizations decline to bid in competi- 
tion with one another unless bills of quantities were sup- 
plied for their use at the owners' expense. It would be 
well if some such concerted action were taken b\- the many 
contractors' organizations in this country. 

Any American system must be formulated upon the 
basis of present American practice in estimating-, and 
adapted to the peculiar requirements of American methods. 
A brief review of the English system will, however, prove 
illuminating: and will plant the red flag over the pitfalls 
to be avoided in any constructive work done in this 
country . 

The quantity surveyor in England receives a fee based 
upon a fixed percentage of the cost of the work. The fee 
is placed at the bottom of the money column in the bill of 
quantities and is added to the total amount of the estimate. 
The successful bidder pays the surveyor's fee. If no con- 
tract is let, custom has established the right of the ciuan- 
tity surveyor to collect his fee from the owner. In the one 
case the owner pays the fee indirectly, and in the other, 
he pays it directly. Is there any logical reason why the 
fee should not in all cases be paid directly by the owner ? 
The conditions of payment under the English system 
inject into the situation an element of uncertainty as to 
who does actually employ the quantity surveyor. The 
courts have held that the architect employs him with the 
implied authorization of the owner. Nevertheless, in 
many cases where the bill of quantities has proved defi- 
cient, the contractor has believed tliat he had the right of 
recovery against the quantity surveyor since he was pay- 
ing for his service. The question will immediately arise 
in the mind of the reader : ' ' Why should there be any 
dispute as to the sufficiency or deficiency of the bill of 
quantities ? " The answer is : that the bill does not con- 
stitute the basis of the contract. Here is the most glaring 
inconsistency in the English system, precipitating innu- 
merable disputes and litigations. English practice is to 
compute the estimates solely upon the bill of quantity. 
The drawings and specifications are not issued to the bid- 
ders, but are on exhibition at the quantity surveyor's office. 
The estimate and contract, however, place upon the con- 
tractor the obligation to complete the building in accord- 
ance with the plans and specifications for the amount of 
the estimate. It is obvious that if the estimate is com- 
puted upon the basis of the bill of quantities, the bill of 
quantities should also constitute the basis of the contract. 
The lump sum tender should be done away with. 

As stated before, the quantity surveyor in England is 
employed by the architect and paid by the contractor. 
Payment generally signifies employment ; but the English 
courts have, in only a very few cases, held the quantity 
surveyor responsible to the person paying him for his serv- 
ices, and in these cases only because he has been guilty 
of flagrant negligence or gross incompetence. Such a con- 
dition will always have the tendency to induce irresponsi- 
bility in the quantity surveyor. 

As a tentative basis for working out an American ([uan- 
tity system, the following code of rules is proposed to govern 
the employment of the quantity surveyor and the adoption 
of the quantity system of estimating : 

(1) That the ciuantity surveyor receive a stipulated 
fee to be paid in all cases by the owner. 

(2) That the bill of quantities constitute the basis of 
the contract — a definite amount of work for a definite 
amount of money. 

(3) That the drawings, specifications, and bill of quan- 
tities be issued for the purpose of bidding. The drawings 
and specifications are essential to the intelligent pricing 
u\) of the bill of cjuantities, since they .serve to illustrate 
the manner in wliieh the materials are to be worked and 
their character. 

(4) That the owner assume resiionsibility to the con- 
tractor for the accuracy of the bill of quantities. 

(5) That the quantity surveyor be obliged to pass a 
state examination and receive a certificate, as does the 
certified public accountant, before he be permitted to 
practise, thus establishing his competency. 

Let us now consider the various aspects of the operation 
of the ciuantity system under the ]:)roposed code. 

The owner may be expected to object to being put to 
the supposed additional expense of the quantity surveyor's 
fee. This objection is quickly disposed of by studying the 
economies of the present system. Sufficient statistics 
have been collected to indicate that in this country there 
is an average of ten bidders for each job put out for esti- 
mate. Following the law of averages, each bidder secures 
one of the ten jobs on which he submits estimates. The 
cost of preparing all estimates is charged to "overhead" 
and distributed pro rata over all of the work actually 
secured. Therefore, the cost of estimating the nine jobs lost 
is charged against the one job secured. No matter what 
obscure method of bookkeeping is followed, in the last 
analysis the fact remains that the owner of the tenth job 
pays the cost of estimating the other nine in which he has 
not the slightest interest. Through the adoption of the 
quantity system the bidders are relieved of the cost of 
preparing estimates, and the owner pays the cost of the 
estimate for his own job only. 

One of the most certain, far-reaching, and beneficial 
effects of the quantity system will be the production by 
the architect of more accurate and intelligible drawings 
and specifications. The improvement must result from 
the full and frank co-operation between the architect and 
the quantity surveyor, in the preparation of drawings and 
specifications, and from them of the bill of quantities. 
As already shown, accurate cjuantities cannot be taken 
from deficient drawings and specifications. The quantity 
surveyor will apply to the architect for information on all 
points not made clear by the drawings and specifications. 
Is it i)ossible to conceive of a more thorough check for 
accuracy and clearness ? Conversely, with such co-oi)era- 
tion, it must follow that the bill of quantities can be pre- 
pared with a far greater degree of accuracy than is now 

Each contract should include a clause providing that — 
the work comprehended in the agreement consists of the 
((uantities of the various materials comiirising the bill 
upon which the bid is based, worked in accordance with 
the requirements of the accompanying drawings and 

Each contract should also include a clause providing for 
increased or decreased comi)cnsati()n to the contractor re- 
sulting from additions to, or deductions from, the original 
bill of ([Uantities due to any cause or by reason of subse- 
quent changes in the work, at the rate of the unit prices 



set forth or dcduciblc from the bid, plus ten per cent for 
additions, and at the rate of the iinit prices set forth or 
deducible from the bid, less ten per cent for deductions ; 
also for priced bills of quantities on extra work involving: 
the use of materials differing- in character from any of 
those originally billed. 

In other words, the basis of the ccjntract should be so 
flexible that it may be extended to cover deficiencies or 
contracted to cover excesses in the original bill of quan- 
tities, and so that it may automatically adjust itself to 
provide for changes in the work, always upon a fair and 
equitable basis. 

If the quantities constitute the basis of the contract, 
and the contract prices for the various classes of ma- 
terials automatically adjust themselves to the changes 
in the quantity and the changes in the work, there 
can be no dispute between the architect and the con- 
tractor over extras and deductions — and there should be 

Nevertheless, since extra work carries with it a pro rata 
increase in profit, it is reasonably certain that a great 
number of contractors will endeavor to establish claims 
for extra c(>mi:)ensation on the basis of alleged deficiencies 
in the original bill of quantities. If all such allegations 
can be reduced to questions of fact, through the establish- 
ment of standard rules and units for the measurement of 
executed work, there will be little chance, vmless the archi- 
tect is extremely negligent, for the contractor to prove a 
claim for excess quantities if they do not exist. The 
establishment of such standards as a preliminary step to 
the adoption of the quantity system is essential to the sys- 
tem's successful operation. Every thousand common 
brick billed must mean the same nimiber of cubic feet of 
wall to each and every bidder, to the quantity surveyor, 
and to the architect. The work of establishing such stand- 
ards will be taken up by the Association of United States 
Quantity vSurveyors through committees in each trade. 
The standards so established will be based upon the best 
and most equitable practice in each trade, with due regard 
for the distinctions now made between the various classes 
of work. A bill of quantities drawn upon the basis of 

such standard rules for measurement and classification 
will be entirely intelligible to the bidders, because it will 
reco.gnize the same distinctions and classifications in the 
work that now govern them in pricing the various depart- 
ments of work. 

Estimating on bills of ciuantities will reduce comi)etition 
between bidders to the sound basis of efficiency. In such 
competition the factors that would count would be the 
contractor's ability to buy at the lowest cost, his credit, 
rating, and capital, and the efficiency of his organization 
and methods in construction. The material man, who 
stands back of the contractor, would be fully justified in 
selling at minimum rates where there was no financial 
risk involved. The "wild-cat" contractor, the contractor 
without financial standing, and the inexperienced con- 
tractor would soon be eliminated. Under such competi- 
tion they could no longer exist, for the work secured 
through taking a chance would net a loss. 

The quantity system will impose upon the architect the 
necessity of following more precise and fairer methods in 
the matter of making estimates for payments. All pay- 
ments will be computed upon the basis of units of mate- 
rials worked, times the unit price fixed by the contract or 
deduced from the bid. The contractor will receive the 
exact amount of money to which he is entitled for the 
amount of work performed — no more, no less. The pres- 
ent method of making estimates for payments upon the 
basis of shrewd but ' ' safe ' ' guessing as to the value of 
the work performed, would necessarily be relegated to 
the past. 

All those to whom the proposition has been made of 
establishing the quantity system have hailed it as being 
the solution of the one great problem in the field of build- 
ing in this country, but they have also been pessimistic 
as to the ultimate success of the movement. However, 
if the architects of the country will get together and 
decide upon some method of procedure providing for the 
cooperation of the intelligent contractor, all obstacles will 
be overcome and there will be a greater measure of con- 
tentment in the lives of all ; and that alone is well worth 
the effort. 


T /' has long been a matter of wonder to those familiar ivith the xcork oj 
-i the Quantity Surveyor abroad that the -waste, duptication of labor, and 
liability to serious mistakes, incident to our haphazard methods of estima- 
ting, should be allowed to continue. It is certainly time that the babel of 
methods now in practice and the resultant guesswork bidding should be 
replaced by accurate methods generally accepted. It is our belief that a 
frank di.<:cussion of the general scheme proposed by Mr. fones should 
result in much benefit to the entire architectural profession. Certainly it 
should bring to light a record of opinion on a subject which is of more 
than passing importance. It -would appear that the advantages of the 
suggested system are many to all conco ned, but there -will be no doubt a 
diveisity of opinion upon the subject of this appeal and we only hope that 
it may he our privilege of presenting in following i.swues of Thic Brick- 
liUiLUER a number of contributions from other authorities which -will 
develop a consensus of opinion to the end that somethinsr may be accom- 
plished -which -will be of benefit to the profession as a -whole. — Editors. 


The Lighting of Public and Semi-PubHc Buildings. 


ConsnUini; Illumiualiiis^ Ens:ineer, Xnc York Cilv. 

I. Shado'u's. We are so 
accustomed to the natural 
shadows that occur in day- 
light that we rarely notice 
them, yet these shadows are 
absolutely necessary to bring- 
out the form and perspective 
of objects viewed. When we 
attempt, however, to imitate 
in artificial lighting the con- 
ditions that obtain in daylight illumination, we find that 
unless the character of the artificial lighting is such as to 
produce effects of light and shade somewhat similar to 
those that obtain in daylight, we are apt to fall far short 
of the realization of good illumination. 

vSteinmetz* has discussed the importance of the subject 
of shadow in illuminating engineering substantially as 
follows : 

Objects are seen by differences in color and in inten- 
sity or brig-htness ; for producing differences in intensity 
shadow is of grreat assistance, and, indeed, the differences 
of intensity by which objects are seen are to a large 
extent, those due to shadows. If the illumination were 
perfectly diffused and no shadows produced, then, even 
if the intensity of illumination were sufficient, the illumi- 
nation would be unsatisfactory in most cases of lighting:, 
because of the loss of the assistance of the shadows in dis- 
tinguishing objects. vSeeing under such conditions would 
become more difficult, and the effect of the illumination 
would be uncomfortable. 

The use of shadows for illumination requires directed 
lig'ht, that is, ligfht coming from one or a number of 
sources, and not merely diffused illumination coming from 
all directions. However, it is not sufficient to provide 
directed lighting- only. 

For satisfactory illumination it is necessary to have 
sufficient directed light to mark the edg-e of the objects by 
their shadow and thereby improve the distinction, but at 
the same time there must be sufficient diffused lig-ht to see 
clearly in the shadows ; 'that is to say, a proper proportion 
of directed and diffused light is necessary. 

In cases in which all the objects assume practically the 
same color, such as in flour mills or foundries, a diffused 
illumination without shadows would make the illumina- 
tion so bad as to be practically useless. In a drafting 
room, on the other hand, where all of the objects requir- 
ing- distinction are in one plane, and the distinction is 
exclusively by differences of color and intensity, but not 
by shadows, a perfectly diffused illumination is rc(iuired 
and noticeable shadows would be objectionable. 

The purpose of the shadow in illumination is to mark 
the edge of the object, and to show its height by the length 
of the shadow. The shadow, therefore, should not extend 
too far from the object to which it is related, otherwise it 
loses its close relation to it and becomes misleading, and 

Ti\' this fia/ier I^Fr. JMarks resumes the discussion of the basic 
■'- principles underlying i>ood lightiuj^, the following points of 
'which Tvere considered in our preceding issue : A. Selection of 
Illuininant ; B. Intensity of Illumination ; C. System of Illu- 
mination ; D. Location of lighting Sources; K. Types of 
Lighting Fixtures; F. (Hare and Intrinsic Brightness ; G. 
Regular or Specular Reflection ; H. Contrast. In the present 
issue this is concluded with a discussion of I. Shadows ; J. 
Esthetic Consideration ; A'. Economy and Efficiency. The 
first of the series of illustrations of specific installations, cover- 
ing Court Houses, Post Offices, and City Halls, and accom- 
panied by explanatory /totes and data appears in this issue. 

*C. P. Steinmetz, "Illumination 
Transactions, I. E. S., January, 1910. 

and Illuminating Engineering," 

therefore interferes with good 
illumination. Hence the di- 
rected light should come from 
above in a direction making 
a considerable angle with the 
horizontal, so as to limit the 
length of the shadow ; but 
the light should not, however, 
come vertically downwards, 
as this direction would largely 
obliterate shadows and defeat their purpose. 

In the use of shadows in illuminating engineering it is 
necessary for the outer edge of the shadow to blur or 
g:radually to fade, and this result requires that the source 
of directed light should not be small, but should be suffi- 
ciently large to scatter the ligfht at the outer edge of the 
shadow. This requirement necessitates the use of a diffus- 
ing: g-lobe or its equivalent so as to have the light issue 
from a fairly large luminous area. 

/. Esthetic Considerations. Some one has stated that 
no design of illumination is physiologically correct unless 
it is esthetically g-ood. However this may be, there is 
no question as to the importance of esthetic considera- 
tions in planning the artificial ligfhting of an interior. 

The mere delivery of a definite number of foot-candles 
on a working plane is only a small part of the performance 
which the illuminating engineer must exact of his tools ; 
indeed, this feature of the illuminating design may often 
be releg-ated to an entirely subordinate place. In purely 
utilitarian lighting, as in factories, the esthetic feature 
of the design naturally does not play as important a part 
in the design as in the home, the library, the theater, etc.; 
but even in the factory, where up to the present, esthetic 
considerations have been to a large extent ignored, there 
is reason to expect that it will actually pay to devote more 
attention to this phase of the subject. The eye craves the 
beautiful, whether it be in the salon or in the workshop. 

A lighting fixture that is noi in harmony with its 
surroundings is a fi.Kture out of place even if it gives 
adequate illumination. Illumination that does not g-ive 
suitable color, and suitable light and shade effects, is 
esthetically wrong, and therefore defective. 

A'. I']co)io)ny and Efficiency. In itlanning a system of illu- 
mination, the ([uestion of economy in first cost and econ- 
omy of upkeep may be a governing- consideration. In 
fact the initial cost of the lighting eciuipment is commonly 
a limitation that is placed upon the dcsig-n of the illumina- 
tion. The practical problem usually is not, " What system 
of lighting will give the best illumination ? " Init " What 
is the best system of lighting that can be installed within 
the specified limit of cost ? " 

A mass of data has been imblished on the cost of illumi- 
nating interiors by different classes and types of illumi- 
nants and by different systems of illumination, but these 
data arc very incomplete in that they do not fully set forth 
all of the conditions that obtain in the lighting in each 
case. Usually the criterion in these data is the " effect- 



ive " lumens per watt of electric power expended or per 
cubic foot of gas consumed. 

As has been previously stated, this value is not neces- 
sarily a criterion, and, indeed, is often far from being- a 
criterion of the real, that is, the ultimate economy of 
lighting. No matter what the " effective " lumens on an 
assumed working plane may be, or whether these lumens 
are produced by illuminants, the first cost of which and 
the cost of the upkeep of which is less than that of any 
other, the lighting, broadly speaking, is uneconomical if 
the result of the illumination is physiologically bad. 

The switching arrangements constitute an important 
feature in the economy of use of light. Economy is fur- 
thered («) by the facility with which lamps may be lighted 
or extingui.shed, and {b) by the separate control of indi- 
vidual lamps or groups of lamps. Thus, for example, if 
the control of a lamp or lamps is conveniently located, the 
user will be more apt to extinguish the lamp that is peri- 
odically used during the day than he would be if the con- 
trol were remote. Again, if the natural light at the 
further end of a room is insufficient in waning daylight, 
while the light near the windows is sufficient, the user 
may economize in lighting if the lamps at the windows 
are grouped under separate control, thus permitting the 
lighting of lamps in the darker portions independently. 
Similarly, in large interiors, the separate control of a 
pilot-lighting circuit that is intended to .give only a very 
moderate illumination after hours of regular use, for 
cleaning purposes and the like, often results in consider- 
able economy of lighting. Even in the dining room of 
the residence the separate control of a lamp of small 
candle-power, giving just sufficient light for setting the 
table, is a factor in the economy of lighting. 


In illuminating work, starting with the illuminant, we 
have three technical efficiencies to consider : 

(a) The efficiency of the lamp, that is, the lumens gen- 
erated by the lamp per watt of electric power expended in 
the lamp or per cubic foot of gas consumed. 

(b) The gross efficiency of the illuminating installation, 
that is, the lumens effective on a reference plane per 
watt of electric power exi)ended or per cubic foot of gas 

(r) The ?/(?/ efficiency of the illuminating installation, 
that is, the lumens effective on a reference plane per 
lumen generated. The net efficiency may be stated to be 
the efficiency of utilization of the light. 

While the ratio of lumens delivered on the reference 
plane, to lumens generated, is a measure of the efficiency 
of utilization, this ratio is, of course, not to be taken as a 
complete measure of the illuminating result. The illumi- 
nating result will be affected by the specific brightness and 
area of the primary and secondary lighting sources within 
the field of view, the contrast in intensity of illumination 
on walls, ceiling, floor, and objects in the room, etc. As 
an illustration of this point it may be stated that if an in- 
direct lighting unit, designed to throw all the light to the 
ceiling, were converted into a direct lighting unit by 
simply turning the unit upside down, the lumens delivered 
on the working plane might, in a specific case, be one 
hundred per cent greater than when the lamp and reflector 
are turned toward the ceiling. The efficiency of utilization 

in the former case may be twice that of the indirect lighting 
unit, but the illuminating result, if it could be expressed in 
terms of ability to see on the reference plane, might never- 
theless be decidedly in favor of the indirect lighting unit. 

In practice it is found that we may have the very worst 
lighting in cases in which the largest percentage of the 
total flux of light generated by the lamps is delivered to 
the working plane. Take, for example, a living room 20 
feet (6 m.) long by 15 feet (4.5 m.) wide, and 10 feet (3 
m.) high, with dark-colored walls, the lighting of which 
is carried out by a single lamp in the center of the ceiling, 
the lamp being housed in a deep opaque-mirrored reflector 
of such design as to throw the maximum light on the 
working plane, 2 feet 6 inches (91 cm.) above the floor. 
In this case no light goes directly to the ceiling or upper 
portions of the walls. Such a lighting design would be 
atrocious from the standpoint of desirable illumination, 
even though an extremely large percentage of the total 
flux of li.ght from the lamp were delivered on the working 
plane. The contrast effect in illumination would be so 
great that under normal conditions of usage of the room 
the eye would quickly become fatigued. 


The greatly increased efficiency of lighting made pos- 
sible by the introduction of improved electric and gas 
illuminants has led to the further development of indirect 
systems of illumination, both electric and gas, and has 
brought to the foreground the discussion of the merits and 
shortcomings of this method of lighting. 

In the system of illumination known as " indirect light- 
ing," the primary lighting source is concealed from view, 
and the illumination from it derived wholly from reflected 
light from the ceiling and walls, which become the second- 
ary lighting sources. Indirect lighting may be carried out 
by lighting sources disposed in coves located near the 
ceiling, at the sides or in the central portion of a room. 

Another method of indirect lighting which has come 
into more or less prominence within the past few years is 
cai-ried out by lighting units hung from the ceiling, the 
lamps being concealed from view by an opaque backing. 
This is the system to which the following discussion, for 
the most part, relates. In carrying out this system the 
lamjis are backed by powerful reflectors pointed toward 
the ceiling. Usually the lamp and its reflector are con- 
tained in an opaque basket or bowl. The lighting imit 
may consist of a single lamp and reflector or of a number 
of lamps and reflectors all mounted in the same housing. 

The intent of the design of this system of lighting is to 
totally conceal the primary lighting source from view, and 
to throw as large a percentage of the total flux of light as 
possible directly to the ceiling. To make the system effect- 
ive from the standpoint of illumination delivered on the 
working plane, light-colored ceilings are required. 

Where it is desired to confine the flux of light within a 
small area of the ceiling, a concentrating reflector is used, 
and where a wider distribution is desired, a distributing 
reflector is used. It has been found in practice that the 
distance of the lighting unit from the ceiling and the dis- 
tribution of flux of light may be varied within compara- 
tively wide limits without materially altering the numerical 
value of the illumination intensity on the working plane. 

It will be seen that the efficiency of utilization of light 




/^ T the time this installation zvas made tungsten lamps 7vere tip shade, and i double brackets -<('ith tTtice the lamp equip- 

-^^ not available. The court room is equipped as follo'ws* : ment mentioned. '1 he resultant illumination from the lamps 

Above the skylight 60 16 candle-power carbon filament lamps, above the skylight, studded lamps on ceiling beams and from 

each provided zvith a prismatic reflector, are evenly dis- the brackets is both adequate and satisfactory. The reflection 

tributed, giving a ivell diffused dozvmvard light through the value is high, the finish being in ivhite viarble and plaster, 

ground-glass skylight ; 22 16 candle-power frosted lamps are The lighting equipment is typical of that in four similar 

located on t-wo main transverse ceiling beams and fitted 'with court I'ooms on the same floor, 

prismatic reflectors ; 36 S candle-pozver frosted lamps are Data : 

located on ceiling beams under the skylight, without reflectors ; P'toor Area 3,320 sq. ft. 

71 S candle-power bare lamps are installed in the cove about Ceiling Height ^^. 25 ft. 

mid-way between the floor and the ceiling. These lamps are Watts per square foot (Carbon Filament f.amps) 3.25 

used without reflectors and illuminate the -wall space above Total Candle-Poiver of Tamps. 

far from uniformly. The ex-posed lights belo~w the skylight {Horizontal Rating) 3,192 

beams and the coi'C lights are not necessary in the ilium ina- (Noti:. — If carbon lamps are replaced by turiKsten lamps of sanu- 

tion of the room and are rarely used. The retnaining illumi- candle-power, tlie watts per sciuare foot will be reduced to about one 

nation is .'secured by S brackets, each -with I S cafidle-power third the va lue above gu-en.) 

frosted lamps and 1 32 candle-pozver lamp in opalescent flame- 'See Paper by J. E. Woodwell. Trans. Ilium. Kng. Soc, Vol. 1. I'«».. 


METHOD of lighting by suspended clusters oj lamps 
backed by prismatic reflectors. 


7"*///^' illumination is carried out by lamps mounted in the 
rosettes of the ceiling arches. 



is greater when the illumination is carried out by this 
method of indirect ligfhting- than would be the case 
in ordinary indirect lighting- by coves, because with 
ordinary cove lighting the bulk of light from the lamps 
suffers at least two reflections, one from the ceiling and 
one from the walls, before it reaches the working plane ; 
whereas, with the method under discussion the bulk of the 
light reaches the working plane after only one reflection, 
— from the ceiling. With a single reflection from the ceil- 
ing, the loss is estimated in the case of light ceilings not 
to exceed about forty per cent of the light reaching the ceil- 
ing. In the case of an additional reflection from the walls 
(assuming the walls to have the same coefficient of reflec- 
tion as the ceiling) the light reflected from the ceiling to 
the walls would suffer another loss of about forty per cent. 
If the walls are dark in color this second loss might easily 
amount to eighty-five or even ninety per cent. 

While it is true that in the earlier forms of cove lighting 
the design was such that a large part of the light from the 
lamps in the cove suffered multiple reflections before 
reaching the working plane, coves may be so designed 
that the bulk of the light will be directed to the ceiling at 
such an angle as to suffer only one reflection. Moreover, 
any desired angle of reflection of light from the ceiling 
may be secured by suitably designing the cove. A cove 
of this character was designed and installed in 1907, in the 
library and assembly room of the Edison Electric Illu- 
minating Company, Boston, Mass. The description and 
performance of this lighting installation are recorded in 
the Transactions of the Illuminating Engineering Society.* 

The most important point to consider in evaluating the 
claims of any system of lighting is, in the last analysis, 
the physiological effect of the lighting. 

With resj^ect to the relative brightness of ceiling, walls, 
and floor, we have, with the indirect lighting system, a 
partial inversion of the conditions that obtain in daylight 
illumination. With the indirect system, the ceiling is the 
brightest portion of the room ; whereas, in daylight illum- 
ination, the floor receives the maximum flux of light. 

In general, we have a directive side illumination in day- 
light ; the light entering the interior through windows 
at the sides is diffused throughout the room. This diffu- 
sion does not mean that the illumination is shadowless. 
On the contrary, owing to the direction of the light, the 
objects in the room cast more or less shadow. This 
shadow is of great importance in distinguishing objects 
clearly and in giving proper perspective. 

In the system of indirect lighting by suspended lighting 
units backed by opaque reflectors, the ceiling becomes the 
secondary lighting source from which the entire illumina- 
tion of the room must be derived. The natural result of 
illumination by this character is, that the side-shadow is 
either absent or very faint. This condition is in striking 
contrast with that which obtains ordinarily in the day- 
light illumination of interiors. 

In considering the physiological effect of lighting by 
indirect illumination, the proportions of the interior, as 
well as the use to which the interior is to be put, must be 
taken into consideration. For example, in a room with a 
very high ceiling, where the ceiling is not within the ordi- 

*" Lighting of the Edison Building," by Louis Bell, L. B. Marks, and 
W. D'A. Ryan. Transactions I. E. S., October, 1907. 

nary field of vision, a relatively high specific brightness 
of the ceiling may not be objectionable ; while, on the 
other hand, in an interior in which the ceiling is either 
always, or for a large part of the time, within the ordinary 
field of vision of those occupying the rootn, the brightness 
of the ceiling and side walls have an important bearing on 
the ability to see well. 

The visibility of objects depends upon a number of con- 
ditions which have already been discussed. Fundamen- 
tally, one of the most important conditions is to have a 
greater intensity of light on the object viewed than on the 
ceiling or other portions of the interior that do not require 
fine discernment. 

A very high intensity of illumination on the ceiling and 
walls, when these are within the ordinary field of view, 
operates to decrease the visual sensibility for two reasons : 

( 1 ) Because a large surface of relatively great bright- 
ness within. the field of view per se reduces the ability of 
the eye to discern darker objects on the working plane. 

(2) Because the strong contrast in brightness of the 
ceiling and walls, and that of objects in the room, renders 
it more difficult to distinguish details of the objects viewed. 
Dark-colored objects in a room appear all the darker when 
the ceiling and upper portions of the room are brighter. 

As an illustration of the points above raised, let us take 
the case of a library in the home. In daylight, in the 
average library, the intensity of illumination on the ceil- 
ing is small compared with the intensity of illumination 
on the pages of a book in the hands of a reader. In order 
that the walls may not constitute a secondary lighting 
source of relatively high brightness, they are usually fin- 
ished in green or other moderately dark color which will 
absorb a large percentage of the light incident thereon. 
The reader is, therefore, not subjected to the visual strain 
which is incident to having a relatively bright secondary 
lighting source within the field of view, and his ability to 
read with comfort is not reduced by the contrast effect 
produced by a condition in which the ceiling and walls 
are brighter than the pages of the book. 

In reading, it is desirable to rest the eyes occasionally. 
If, in glancing away from the book, the eye cannot escape 
the relatively bright ceiling or walls, fatigue of the eye sets 
in much sooner than when the specific brightness of the 
ceiling and walls is of a low order. In conversing with 
people seated on the opposite side of the room, the same 
holds true. If the general direction of the light is directly 
downward, as is the tendency in the indirect lighting sys- 
tem under discussion, the absence of shadow, or the 
unnatural position of the shadow, is trying to the eye. 

In the case of a very large room with high ceiling 
illuminated by indirect lighting, the effect of the down- 
ward light is very noticeable. In such a case the directive 
value of the light reflected from the side walls is mini- 
mized. The eyebrow of a person standing in the center 
of such a room casts a comparatively strong shadow down- 
ward on the face, with the result that the features of a 
person may not be clearly distinguishable except at rather 
short range. This condition is in striking contrast to that 
which obtains in the same room in daylight, when the 
lighting of the room is carried out by side windows. To 
partially offset the downward shadows, the floor of the 
room might be finished in a light tint for the purpose of 
redirecting the .light upward by reflection. Obviously, 




7 ~^ H E principal iltuiiiination is here secured from 16 brackets mural decoration. The resultant effect is satisfactory and 

of special design, supporting 1 6-inch and 1 lO-inch ground- agreeable to the eye. 
glass ball globes, the former with 16 and the latter 'a'iih .iJ 

candle-power carbon filament lamps. The brackets are 11 feet Data: 

aboi'e the floor, but on account of the size of the room are Tloor Area 2,340 .'tq. ft. 

withift the line of vision, [''or this reason it iuas necessary to Ceiling Height __ — .^30 ft. 

use dijf using globes, by means of -which the intrinsic brilliancy '' '"^'-'^ /"''' square fool {Carbon Filament Lamps) . A. 3 

is reduced to about one-seventh of 1 candle-power per square '^'^^"^ <^ audle-I'ower of Lamps. 

inch. There are 66 frosted lamps of 16 candle-po-wcr located {Horizontal Rating) f,/C/ 

under a skylight in the center of the ceiling for decorative (NoTE.-For tunssten lamps the watts per sqtiare fo„t will be ab.n.t 

ejfect, which aid niaterially in bringing out the details of the one-third the value above given.) 


'T^FIE illumination is carried out by pendant fixtures, each 
1 havim; 1 13-inch ground-glass ball globe mid I 9-inch 
globes, cut on tlie hnver portion for decorative effect. The 
'lamps' in the 13-inch globes are equipped -with prismatic reflec- 
tors to secure an effcient doivinvard distribution of the light. 
The lowest point of the pendant is about 12 feet above thefioor, 
but as the intrinsic brightness of the light .sources is only 
about Ml of a candle-po-wer per square inch, there is no harm- 
ful glare. The bracket lights are principally decorative. 


Data : 

P'loor .lira '.09/ sq. ft. 

Ceiling //eight. IS ft. I ins. 

Watts per square foot (Carbon Filament /^mps) .-2.9 
(NoTK. — For tunKSten lamps the watts per square foot will be about 
one-third the value above Riven.) 

T7/('. I'/, shores an entrance lobby lighted by lamps 
-* housed in diffusing glass spheies, suspended by chains 
from the ceiling, and by groups of lamps mounted in enclos- 
ing globes on ornamental standards. 



however, such a procedure, even if otherwise practicable, 
would introduce an even more serious difficulty, as the 
lig-ht reflected from the floor, coming- from an unnatural 
direction, would produce visual fatigue. 

In considering the effect of light upon the eye, cogni- 
zance must be taken not only of the specific brightness of 
the primary or secondary lighting sources within the field 
of view, but also of the area of these sources. It has been 
demonstrated that of two lighting sources having the same 
specific brightness, that source which has the greater area 
exposed to the eye will produce the greater glare. 

Absolute uniformity of illumination is desirable only in 
a few instances in practice. With rare exceptions, a varia- 
tion in the intensity of illumination in different parts of a 
room is desirable. Take, as an example, an extreme case 
in which an object is illuminated equally in all directions ; 
it loses form and detail when viewed. 

Mr. J. R. Cravath, in a report of tests of indirect light- 
ing,* calls attention to some essential points to be borne in 
mind in the application of indirect lighting from suspended 
chandeliers. He states that the efficiency of such a system 
will depend largely on the proportion of the light which is 
reflected directly from the ceiling to the working plane. 
He advocates the system of indirect lighting by central 
chandeliers, in which system the lamps are backed by 
opaque-mirrored reflectors, and the bulk of the illumina- 
tion obtained by reflection from comparatively limited 
areas of the ceiling. Comparing the effectiveness of direct 
and of indirect lighting he comments as follows : 

"We all recognize that illumination is more a physio- 
logical problem than a physical one. Foot-candle values 
are worthless unless the lighting equipment is .so arranged 
as to enable us to see objects with the greatest comfort 
consistent with the wattage used. Many arguments both 
for and against indirect illumination hav^e been advanced 
which have been based largch' on opinions or i:)rejudices 
not justified by investigation, experience, or scientific 
research. All will probably agree that a sufficiency of 
diffused daylight is likely to be more satisfactory than any 
artificial lighting system that we are likely to devise for 
many years to come. Where this is not true, it is usually 
because of the insufficiency of the daylight. The first 
question to be asked regarding any system of lighting is, 
therefore, as to how nearly it approaches daylight in its 
effects. The illumination produced by a system of indi- 
rect lighting like that upon which these tests were made 
may be compared to that received by daylight from a 
rather dense skylight. It differs from such daylight 
mainly in intensity and color. The general diffusion and 
shadow effects are much the same. It differs from day- 
light received through windows mainly in the angle at 
which light is received and in its intensity and color. In 
our so-called direct lighting systems we really have a com- 
bination of direct lighting and indirect lighting, part of 
the light being received direct from the source and part 
by reflection from ceilings and walls. Direct lighting- 
differs from the indirect lighting scheme under discussion 
in that the shadows produced by the direct are much 
sharper. In this way the direct is somewhat like direct 
sunlight, but it certainly is not like diffused daylight as 
received through a window or skylight. Roth diffused 

*Some Notes and Tests on Indirect Illumination. J. R. Cravath 
Trans. I. E. S., April, 1909, p. 290. 

daylight and the indirect system under discussion produce 
shadows, but they are not marked." 

Mr. Cravath reports that the specific consumption of 
electric power in the above tests of indirect lighting- was : 

Watts per effective lumen 

Light-colored ceiling and walls 0.35 

Light-colored ceiling and dark walls .- 0.45 

CoMPAR.'VTivR Data for Dirijct, Indirect, and Semi- 
Indirect Lighting. 

From the data of the tests it appears that the net effi- 
ciency, that is, the ratio of the lumens effective, to the 
total lumens g-enerated was approximately thirty-six per 
cent for light-colored walls and twenty-eight per cent for 
dark-colored walls. Compared with comtnercial systems 
of direct lighting employing efficient reflectors, the above 
values indicate that for the same type and candle-power 
of lamp the indirect system requires, in general, at least 
fifty to seventy-five per cent more power for equivalent 
effective illumination than the direct system. The effect- 
ive illumination referred to above is taken as the mean 
illumination on a horizontal plane 2 feet 6 inches (91 cm.) 
above the floor. The figures given refer to new lighting 
installations, with clean lamps and reflectors. As the 
lamps and reflectors of the indirect lig-hting- system point 
toward the ceiling, the more rapid deterioration due to dust 
must be considered in comparing the "working" effi- 
ciency with that of the direct system. 

Practically all systems of general illumination by direct 
lighting may be looked upon as a combination of direct 
and indirect lighting, as part of the light comes directly 
from the primary lighting source, without any reflection, 
and part from the secondary lighting source, namely, the 
ceiling and walls, after reflection. 

The distinguishing difference between the direct and the 
so-called indirect system of lighting is, that in the indirect 
system none of the light from the primary source reaches the 
floor until after reflection from the ceiling or walls or both. 

The so-called semi-indirect system of lighting- is a com- 
promise between the indirect system and the extreme 
forms of direct lighting. In the semi-indirect system the 
lamps are placed in bowls of diffusing glass, which reflect 
upward part of the light as in indirect lighting and let 
through part as in direct lighting. Usually the glass is 
made dense enough to let through not more than twenty 
per cent to forty per cent of the light, the intent being to 
send the major portion of the light rays to the ceiling. In 
this way the intrinsic brightness of the lighting source 
may be kept within safe limits without reducing the net 
efficiency of the system to that of the indirect system. 
The net efficiency of some of the semi-indirect lighting- 
installations recently installed lies about midway between 
that of strictly direct lighting and totally indirect lighting. 

To overcome some of the objections that have been 
raised, on the score of appearance, against the system of 
totally indirect lighting by suspended chandeliers, the 
manufacturers of these fixtures have placed on the market 
luminous bowl indirect lighting units. These units are 
identical in design with the standard indirect lighting 
fixtures, except that provision is made for lighting the 
bowl of the fixture either by transmitted light from the 
main lighting unit or by light from an auxiliary lamp in 
the bowl. 


VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 145. 




VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 146. 





TOViei^ nOD^fl^H 

rr^ TLOPT. }IAK 

^UM/ib ruM^ HA" 

V^j^;.! riy-A 

nft^ nooi^vu^ 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 147. 




JDLZ„._ pn 

'P , iOffS)' fnv/.'. 

JljlfJl 5 

• • • • 

r/mmoo/? flU/V 

\5TOf^oc ,:;(.w*; 


17 LJ 

• • • •U.CO/^UrUJURPLM 




VOL. 22. NO. 10. PLATE 148. 

U) t- o 

< O J^ 

^- t E 

^ q: < 

Z ^ < 

m o iJi 

. I < 

-J <a 

-1 * ^ 

< 5 a: 

Z < z 

$ O u 




r III-: li R I C K BU I L D K \l. 

VOL 22^ NO. 10 PLATE 149. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 10. PLATE 150. 





1^ H E B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 151. 

>^..i,,c-.^-.ri:j^, , . ^ 

z $ 

Q a 

ir ^ 


Z °^ 


-J m 

U u. 





VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 152. 

-b ■— — ■ ■ • — • 

« I 

6 -p . 




/VA'.sr /7,Doy? pz./!/v 





VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 153. 


t/i N 



T HE B R I C K H U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 10. PLATE 154. 


I-' '-' 

\f> ;^ 

UJ - 


h. < 

< I 

_1 in 

I- Q 

< % 
hi 5 
D I 




VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 155. 




VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE U6. 


THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 10. PLATE 157. 


H I 
I/) O 



VOL. 22, NO. 10. PLATE 158. 



•rWS^^ . 





/7y?c57- /ZOOP /=ZW// 




THE B R I C K B U I L I) E R . 

VOL. 22. NO. 10. PLATE 1.S9. 




VOL. 22. NO. 10. PLATE 160. 



1 1:1 





Architectural Acoustics. 



ANY layman would probably admit that at a given dis- 
tance the effect of a speaker's voice is much louder 
in front of him than behind him. Any baseball fan 
would undoubtedly assert that the shouts from the oppo- 
site bleachers always seem more vociferous than those 
from his own side of the field, and there is a rumor that a 
Harvard enthusiast was once guilty of the remark, "I 
always sit in the Yale stands so as to hear the Harvard 
cheering." Yet the average text-book on "Physics" 
does not even hint that the effect of speaking or music 
may vary with the dinrtioyi as well as with 
the distance from which it is heard, and 
even such advanced treatises as Lord Ray- 
leigh's "Theory of vSound " are scarcely 
more explicit."* 

Variation with direction — as it may be 
called to distinguish it from variation with 
distance — is nevertheless a matter of prac- 
tical as well as theoretic interest. It has 
long been recognized by nautical author- 
ities in connection with the sound of whistles, 
sirens, bells, and other means of communication 
and warning. It also has much to do with the 
proper relative position of the members of an 
orchestra or a chorus. In architectural acous- 
tics, in particular, it has an important bearing 
upon the grouping of an audience, the arrange- 
ment of sound-reflecting surfaces, and the neces- 
sary precautions against indistinctness and echo. 
A complete discussion of these various phases 
of the subject would, however, far transcend the 
limits of the present essay, which will merely 
try to explain why and how the effect of a speaker's voice 
is apt to vary in different directions. 

Broadly speaking, the effect of a sound-wave depends 
upon four considerations : namely, the surrounding con- 
ditions ; the distance from the source of the wave ; the 
shape of the wave ; and the relative intensity at different 
points on the wave. The present inquiry is not concerned 
with either the surroundings or the distance from the 
source, and therefore narrows itself down to a question of 
shape and relative intensity. With regard to the shape 
of the waves which constitute the human voice, no definite 
information or authentic statement is at present on record 
— at least so far as the writer is aware. Numerous diagrams 
and photographs of analogous waves have, however, been 
published by Prof. Robert W. Wood,! Prof. Arthur H. 
Foley, t Mr. William H. vSouder, and others. With regard 

^Qg'" of Sound 


V J 

riG. I. 

r ofSo^^^ 

to the relative intensity at different points on a voice- 
wave, recent calculations by Prof. (i. W. .Stewart § fur- 
nish accurate information concerning theoretic conditions 
closely approximating those of ordinary speech. The 
above data, together with certain inferences drawn from 
practical observation, will form the basis of the following 

While, as has just been mentioned, the shape of 
voice-waves has yet to be determined, a plausible inference 
may be drawn from the existing photographic records. 
Without attempting to describe the way 
^A in which these wonderful negatives are 

obtained, it may be mentioned that, as 
sound-waves are merely irregular com- 
pressions of the air, they deflect the light 
passing through them and would, there- 
fore, be visible (like hot air rising from a 
chimney or radiator) if they did not move 
too fast to be caught by the eye under 
ordinary conditions. They may, however, 
be seen imder special laboratory conditions, 
and may readily be photographed. The waves 
found convenient for this purpose are produced 
by an electric apparatus which gives them the 
shape of a cylinder with rounded ends. Seen 
from the side, they appear as in Fig. I. From 
the end they appear as in Fig. II. 

Four actual photographs'of such sound-waves 
— for which the writer is indebted to Professor 
Wood ^ are reproduced in Fig. III. They 
KiG. II. illustrate the successive positions and shapes 

assumed by a sound-wave in moving down- 
wards against a small, black obstacle, which will be seen 
in the center of each picture. The special i)oint to be 
noticed is that, after the wave has passed the obstacle, 
its torn edges extend sideways, by the process known as 
diffraction, until they not only close the gap but actually 
overlap one another. This extension and overlapping will 
be clearly shown in the picture marked " D "; which, for 
convenience, has been redrawn in the form of a diagram, 
in Fig. IV. Here the source of the sound is indicated at 
S and the obstacle at A B. The main portion of the wave 
is represented by the curved lines C I) and F G, which, as 
might be expected, are arcs of a circle with vS as a center. 
But the extension D E is in the form of an arc rcith A as a 
center and the extension (i // is in the form of an arc 7i'ith /? 
as a center. 

This law of the extension or diffraction of sound-waves 

»A theoretic discussion of the effect of a speaking trumpet in dilTcrent direc- 
tions is contained in Chapter XIV, Section 291, of " The Theory of .Sound." 
The conclusions have been practically verified by Professor F. R. Watson. 

t A full description of the apparatus and method by which he obtained 
his records is given by Professor Wood in his article on " Tlie Photography 
of Sound and the Demonstration of the Evolution of Renected Wave- 
Fronts with the Cinematograph," published in the Annual Report of the 
Smithsonian Institution for 1900, pages 359 to 369. 

J Thirty wonderful photographs and a description of the apparatus by 
which they were obtained are given by Professor Foley and Mr. Souder in 
their article on " A New Method of Photographing .Sound -Waves," pub- 
lished in the Physical Rei'inc for November, 1900. 

§ These calculations are given by Professor Stewart in his article on 
" The Acoustic Shadow of a Rigid Sphere with Certain Applications in 
Architectural Acoustics and Audition," publislied in the I'liyiical Rn'irw 
for December, 1911. 



is of particular interest in 
the present connection be- 
cause it suggests how a 
sound-wave would move 
on leaving the lips of a 
speaker. Let us imagine, 
first of all, what would 
happen in the case of a 
sound issuing from a small 
opening in the center of a 
flat surface. These condi- 
tions are supposed to be 
represented by Fig. V. 
Here B C is the flat sur- 
face and S the small open- 
ing. The sound-wave 
would naturally expand in 
the form of a hemisphere 
which is represented by 
the semicircle V W X. In 
the course of time, however, the wave 
will expand beyond the limits of the flat 
surface, as shown in Fig. VI, and the 
loose edges of the wave will extend by 
diflfraction in the form of the arcs U V 
(of which B is the center) and X Y (of 
which C is the center) . In course of 
time the diffraction might even extend 
so far as to cause the wave to overlap 
itself as shown in Fig. VII, so that a 
person stationed directly behind the 
surface at such a point as P might be 
able to hear the sound, although a 
person at the point Q, nearer the sur- 
face, would probably hear nothing. 

Let us now imagine that the surface 
flat, had been bent as shown in Fig. VIII. The sound- 
wave would then have assumed the shai)e represented by 
the curve T U V W X Y Z, of which T U is an arc with A 
as a center, U V an arc with' B as a center, V W X a semi- 
circle with S as a center, and so on. If the surface had 
been bent still further as in Fig. IX the sound-wave would 
have again corresponded, as shown, and in the case of a 
cylinder, Fig. X, woidd have been of very similar form. 
Finally, if we suppose that the circle in Fig. X represents 
not a cylinder but a sphere, or, better yet, the contour 
of a man's head, and that the small opening represents 
the man's mouth, we shall have arrived at conditions 
approximating those of ordinary speech. 

Under these conditions it is evident that the sound- 
wave would be symmetrical with reference to the line 
U S W. In other words, it would be the surface obtained 
by spinning the curve T U V W X U Z about U S W, and 
would be shaped very much like an apple — round in 
front, flattened behind, with a dent in the center corre- 
sponding to the point where the stem of the apple would 
have been attached. Assuming this to be approximately 
the form developed by the wave of a speaker's voice, we 
can draw some very interesting conclusions with regard to 
the effect which such a wave might produce upon hearers 
in different directions. 

In the first place it is obvious that the sideways exten- 
sion or diffraction of the wave must diminish the intensitv 

A reproduction of four souiid-uavei actually caught by camera 

KIG. I\ 

instead of being 

in the adjacent portions of 
the wave. We may, there- 
fore, infer that the inten- 
sity of the sojcnd would be 
greatest directly in front of 
the speaker, at the point 
\W and would diminish 
continuously from W to X, 
U, and Z on one side ; and 
from W to V, U, and T on 
the other. The loudness 
of the e^ect might, how- 
ever, vary in a very differ- 
ent way. While it would 
necessarily diminish from 
W to X and N, it might 
actually increase from N 
to U because between these 
points the ears of the hearer 
are struck by ,two wave- 
fronts, N LT and T U ; and the com- 
bined effect of these two might be 
greater than the effect produced by 
the single wave-front X N. There 
are accordingly three possibilities. If 
the intensity decreases at the same 
rate from N to U that it does from U 
to T, the effect between N and U will 
be imiform ; that is, it will be just as 
loud directly behind the speaker as a 
little to either side. If the intensity 
decreases faster from N to U than 
from U to T the effect will be fainter 
at U than at X. If, on the contrary, 
the intensity more slowly 
from N to LT than from U to T (and this would seem the 
most probable contingency) the effect will actually be 
louder directly behind the speaker than for a short distance 
on either side, and the direction of minimum intensity will 
be M N and not M L' . 

These generalities, while interesting, are, however, of 
little practical value. What the architect requires is spe- 
cific facts and figures. These are provided by the series 
of calculations which have already been mentioned. 
Through the courtesy of Professor .Stewart the results of 
these calculations are given in tabulated form in Figs. 
XI and Xll.t In these tables the vertical distance repre- 
sents the intensity, which is assumed to be 100 at the point 
directly in front of the speaker. The horizontal distances 
represent the angle at which the hearer is supposed to 
stand with reference to the direction in which the speaker 
is facing. An angle of 90 degrees would thus correspond 
to a position on the right or left of the speaker, while an 
angle of 180 degrees would correspond to a position 
directly behind him. 

Fig. XI shows the variation in intensity of a sound of 
the pitch of middle C at three different distances from 
the speaker. The bottom curve represents the variation 
at a distance of 7 or 8 inches ; the middle curve at a dis- 
tance of about 15 feet ; and the top curve at a distance of 

* See the article "On Acoustics as Applied to Public Buildings," by 
Professor Joseph Henry, published in the Annual Report of the Regents ot 
the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1H56. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 




FIG. V. 



about 60 feet. All of these ciirve.s in- 
dicate a slijfhtly smaller intensity to 
rig-ht and left of the speaker than behind 
him. They also show that while the 
reduction in intensity from front to rear B 
is very grreat in the immediate vicinity 
of the speaker, amounting- to over 
ninety per cent at a dis- 
tance of a few inches, 
it is only about twenty 
per cent for distances 
of 15 feet and upwards. 

It is, however, im- 
portant to know how 
tones of different pitch 
may vary at a gfiven 
distance. For this 
purpose Fig-. XII 
shows the variation of 
four musical tones at a 
distance of 15 feet. 

The bottom curv^e represents the variation at the pitch of 
hig-h C, the next above the variation at treble C, the third 
the variation at middle C, and the fourth the variation 
at bass C. The diagram, therefore, indicates that the 
diminution in intensity behind a speaker becomes more 
accentuated the higher the pitch of the 
tone in question. 

While these results are of extreme in- 
terest and value, they nevertheless cannot 
be considered as applying strictly to any 
other than the geometrical conditions upon 
which they are based. That is, they apply 
only to a sound issuing from a small open- 
ing- in the side of a rig'id sphere some 7 or 
8 inches in diameter. In the case of a 

speaker they would be modified by the fact fig. viii. 

that his head would not be exactly spheri- 
cal ; that it would have protuberances such as nose, ears, 
and, usually, hair ; and that it would be supported upon a 
neck and shoulders. These incidental obstructions might 
naturally be expected to interfere with the free diffraction 
of the sound-wave, and in this way occasion a still greater 
diminution in the intensity behind the speaker. It would, 
therefore, be desirable to compare and check the theoretic 
calculations with practical experiments. 

The most authoritative record of actual observation 
with which the writer is familiar is given in an article 
written half a century ago by the then famous acoustic 
authority. Professor 
Joseph Henry.* The 
statement is short and 
may, therefore, be 
quoted verbatim. 

" A person speaking- 
is heard much more 
distinctly directly in 
front than at an equal 
distance behind. 



tAs already mentioned, 
these results were published 
in The Physical Review for 
December, 1911. 


Many experiments have been made on 

this point, and I may mention those 

repeated in the open space in front of 

the Smithsonian Institution. In a circle 

100 feet in diameter, the si)eaker in the 

center, and the hearer in succession 

at different points of the circumference 

the voice was heard 

most distinctly directly 

in front, gradually less 

on either side until in 

the rear it was scarcely 

audible. The ratio of 

distance for distinct 

hearing- directly in 

front, on the sides, and 

in the rear was about 

100, 75, and 30." 

Assuming that — as 
stated in any standard 
"Physics" — the in- 
tensity of sound v^aries inversely as the sc|uare of the 
distance from its source, the intensity of a speaker's 
voice, according to Professor Henry's observations, would 
be about half as great on either side of him as in front, 
and only one-fourth as great behind him. This is a very 
much larger reduction than the theoretic 
calculations would sug-gest, even allowing 
for the interference of the speaker's body. 
It will also be noticed that only "the 
ratio of distance for distinct hearing:" is 
given. The actual distance would nat- 
urally vary with tlie strength of the speak- 
er's lungs. As a matter of fact, two 
persons of average vocal capacity can 
easily call to one another across a quiet 
lawn up to a distance of 180 feet. Satis- 
factory expression or modulation is, how- 
ever, impossible beyond 100 or 120 feet. Of course under 
special conditions, and in particular, in tlie mountains, 
the radius of communication is much greater. The writer 
has often made himself understood across a valley over 
half a mile in width. In such cases, however, we have to 
deal with sound-reflection, and also with the tendency of 
sound to adhere to concave surfaces, which Lord Ray- 
leigh believes is responsible for the peculiar effects in the 
dome of vSt. Paul's Cathedral- Indoors, however, owing 
to the confusion and rustle of the audience, the direct 
sound of a speaker's voice will rarely carry more than 

50 or 60 feet in front 
of him. and, if Pro- 
fessor Henry is cor- 
rect, should carry only 
35 or 40 feet on either 
side of him, and only 
15 or 18 feet behind 
him. This last figure 
certainly seems ultra- 

These considerations 
have an (jbvioiis bear- 
ing upon the calcula- 
FIG. X. tions for loudness in a 



larg-e auditorium. If a speaker's voice is so faint behind 
him, its reflections from the surfaces behind him must 
be correspondingly faint. In the case of sounding: boards, 
such as are often placed immediately back of a pulpit, 
the reduction in intensity reciuircs special attention. For 
wall and ceiling surfaces a 
convenient assumption is that 
the intensity at the side of the 
speaker is three-quarters as 
great as in front, and behind 
him half as great. For ordi- 
nary purposes this seems to 
give sufficient accuracy. 

Another point retiuiring at- 
tention is the fact that the 
reduction in intensity is very 
much greater for tones of 
high pitch than for those of 
low pitch. As every one 
knows, a sound of the human 
voice is made up of a number 
of pure tones, of which the 
lowest, or fundamental, gives 
the pitch, while the others de- 
termine the timbre in the case 
of music, and the character of 
the vowel sounds in the case 
of speech. An irregular re- 
duction in the intensity of the 
higher or overtones must nat- 
urally interfere with both the 
quality of singing and the dis- 
tinctness of speaking. With 
regard to the former, only a trained musician is qualified 
to decide. With regard to the latter, however, it may be 
stated that there is a noticeable tendency to indistinctness 
in the seats to right and left of a speaker. For this 
reason, as well as man_\- others, it is desirable to plan a 
large auditorium as far as possible in the shape of a fan. 

0* ^0" 60" 90** i?jf ioo" m^ 









""^ 1 











FIG. .\II. 

In this way the undesirable seats are eliminated, and 
moreover the speaker is not likely to turn so much toward 
one side to the detriment of the other. 

Still another point is the interval of time which may 
be permitted to elapse between the arrival of the direct 

soimd and the arrival of the 
first reflected sound. When 
the speaker faces the audi- 
ence the effect of the direct 
sound is usually much louder 
than that of any reflected 
sound, and consequently has 
a tendency to continue for a 
brief moment, just as the 
effect of a bright light will 
continue for a very percepti- 
ble length of time after the 
light itself has been shut off. 
This after-sensation fills in 
the interval between the di- 
rect and the first reflected 
sound and causes them to 
appear as a continuous effect. 
But should the speaker happen 
to turn his back to the audi- 
ence, conditions are reversed. 
The direct sound becomes the 
fainter, the after sensation is 
shortened, and the interval 
between the direct and the 
first reflected sound may be- 
come distinctly perceptible, 
with the result that the re- 
flected sound is heard as an echo. Where' this contin- 
gency is likely to arise, as in connection with religious 
services, the interval between the direct and the reflected 
sounds should be made much less than the sixteenth 
of a second which may be permitted under ordinary cir- 


Gidea Park. 




THE garden suburb movement, 
after much preliminary dis- 
cussion and many pioneer efforts, 
has taken a firm hold in England, 
and the Town Planning and Hous- 
ing- Act bids fair to extend it in a 
most astonishing fashion. With- 
out going into the history of the 
movement in any detail, we may 
briefly recall its underlying princi- 
ples. These, so far as the writer 
is able to perceive them, are em- 
bodied in the opinion that unre- 
lieved streets of brick and stone 
houses in the midst of a town are 
the very antithesis of home life 
as it should and might be. Such 
streets were characteristic of Eng- 
lish cities during the prosperous 
course of the nineteenth century, 
when agricultural employment was 
being increasingly supplanted by 
mechanical industry — a process 
which continues at the present 
day. Thus, more and more people 
became drawn into the city, and, housing accommodation 
being required for them, the speci;lating builder seized 
every available spot within the civic boundary and there 
erected as many houses as it is possible to set upon a 
given area. In this way has suburbandom been created 
— a place laid out in a haphazard manner, unrelated to its 
own parts and equally unrelated to the older civic area on 
the fringe of which it has sprung into being. Settling 
down on such an area, the custom of the speculating 
builder has been first to make a clean sweep of every tree 
and shrub which he found on the space, and thereafter to 
create a wilderness of bricks and mortar. The results 
thus achieved, however, soon began to give rise to a 



Strong aversion on the i^art of the 
town dweller, and as time went 
on the latter sought relief by 
going outside the city boundary 
and there housing himself as 
comfortably as his means per- 
mitted. Whatever may be the 
tendency in other countries, the 
worker in England has an in- 
grained longing for a house amidst 
rural surroundings ; hence, every 
evening thousands of city workers 
in London go out by tram, train, 
or omnibus to some suburban or 
rural area — as far away from the 
metropolis as the limits of their 
time and their income will allow 
— where they can escape from the 
rush and roar of a great city and 
can spend their leisure in follow- 
ing the pursuits or enjoying the 
delights of the semi-countryside. 
The same process has, of course, 
been going on for the past cen- 
tury. Time was when Islington 
and Chelsea were country places whither the townspeople 
liked to jaunt, but it is long years ago since these districts, 
and others far beyond them, were made part and parcel of 
an engulfing city, and as the area of London spreads 
farther and ever farther, so the workers extend their 
journeys outward to reach the country beyond. 

It was under such conditions as these that tiie first 
garden city in England — Letchworth, in Hertfordshire, 
about thirty-five miles from London — was started about 
ten years ago, and the successful results there achieved 
were soon emulated in other districts. The idea of a 
garden city embraces more, however, than is contem- 
plated in a garden suburb, for it means the creation of a 





THE brickbuild?:r 

Reginald T. Longden, Architect. 

place where work .<roe.s on side by side with residence ; 
whereas the garden suburb is essentially a jilace of resi- 
dence and recreation alone. 

On the frinfje of Hampstead Heath, on the hijih jjround 
to the northwest of London, there has been built a most 
interestinji' suburb* where people of all classes are accom- 
modated, and it was perhaps the success of this and similar 
undertakin.trs that led to the develoi^ment of (iidea Park, 
the latest of English garden suburbs. 

In seeking country areas around the metropolis one is 
accustomed to go anywhere but to the east side, where 
great districts of squalid property, interspersed with fac- 
tories and an unknown area of doc